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1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e21, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509645

RESUMEN

Objective: To estimate the point prevalence and likely ranges of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight and preterm delivery in Latin America and the Caribbean, and evaluate the heterogeneity of the estimates. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting the prevalence of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes in populations in Latin American and the Caribbean published between 2000 and 2019 in English, Spanish, or Portuguese. We searched PubMed, Embase, and LILACS. We estimated the point prevalence and evaluated overall heterogeneity and, in sub-group analyses, heterogeneity by study design and level of bias. Results: Of 1087 records retrieved, 50 articles were included in the review: two on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, 14 on pre-eclampsia, six on gestational diabetes, nine on low birth weight and 19 on preterm birth. No meta-analysis for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy could be done because of the small number of studies. Point prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight, and preterm birth were: 6.6% (95% CI: 4.9%, 8.6%), 8.5% (95% CI: 3.9%, 14.7%), 8.5% (95% CI: 7.2%, 9.8%), and 10.0% (95% CI: 8.0%, 12.0%), respectively. We observed substantial heterogeneity overall and by study design. No major differences in estimates were observed by level of bias. Conclusions: The results of this study provide updated estimates of some of the most prevalent adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean. They highlight that important heterogeneity exists in prevalence estimates, which may reflect the diversity of populations in the region.

2.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt B): 113277, 2022 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461850

RESUMEN

Road traffic constitutes a major source of air pollutants in urban Beijing, which are responsible for substantial premature mortality. A series of policies and regulations has led to appreciable traffic emission reductions in recent decades. To shed light on long-term (2014-2020) roadside air pollution and assess the efficacy of traffic control measures and their effects on public health, this study quantitatively evaluated changes in the concentrations of six key air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO and O3) measured at 5 roadside and 12 urban background monitoring stations in Beijing. We found that the annual mean concentrations of these air pollutants were remarkably reduced by 47%-71% from 2014 to 2020, while the concurrent ozone concentration increased by 17.4%. In addition, we observed reductions in the roadside increments in PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and CO of 54.8%, 29.8%, 20.6%, and 59.1%, respectively, indicating the high effectiveness of new vehicle standard (China V and VI) implementation in Beijing. The premature deaths due to traffic emissions were estimated to be 8379 and 1908 cases in 2014 and 2020, respectively. The impact of NO2 from road traffic relative to PM2.5 on premature mortality was comparable to that of traffic-related PM2.5 emissions. The public health effect of SO2 originating from traffic was markedly lower than that of PM2.5. The results indicated that a reduction in traffic-related NO2 could likely yield the greatest benefits for public health.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 835: 155368, 2022 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460767

RESUMEN

Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in urban air pollution. However, sources of urban pollution are difficult to distinguish. This study utilises a mobile particle concentrator platform and statistical tools to investigate factors affecting roadway ambient coarse particle (PM10-2.5) and fine particle (PM2.5-0.2) concentrations in greater Boston, USA. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified six PM10-2.5 sources (exhaust, road salt, brake wear, regional pollution, road dust resuspension and tyre-road abrasion) and seven fine particle sources. The seven PM2.5-0.2 sources include the six PM10-2.5 sources and a source rich in Cr and Ni. Non- exhaust traffic-related sources together accounted for 65.6% and 29.1% of the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5-0.2 mass, respectively. While the respective contributions of exhaust sources were 10.4% and 20.7%. The biggest non-exhaust contributor in the PM10-2.5 was road dust resuspension, accounting for 29.6%, while for the PM2.5-0.2, the biggest non-exhaust source was road-tyre abrasion, accounting for 12.3%. We used stepwise general additive models (sGAMs) and found statistically significant (p < 0.05) effects of temperature, number of vehicles and rush hour periods on exhaust, brake wear, road dust resuspension and road-tyre abrasion with relative importance between 19.1 and 62.2%, 12.5-42.1% and 4.4-42.2% of the sGAM model's explained variability. Speed limit and road type were also important factors for exhaust, road-tyre and brake wear sources. Meteorological variables of wind speed and relative humidity were significantly associated with both coarse and fine road dust resuspension and had a combined relative importance of 38% and 48%. The quantifying results of the factors that influence traffic-related sources can offer key insights to policies aiming to improve near-road air quality.

4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(1): e00288920, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35081207

RESUMEN

Automatic geocoding methods have become popular in recent years, facilitating the study of the association between health outcomes and the place of living. However, rather few studies have evaluated geocoding quality, with most of them being performed in the US and Europe. This article aims to compare the quality of three automatic online geocoding tools against a reference method. A subsample of 300 handwritten addresses from hospital records was geocoded using Bing, Google Earth, and Google Maps. Match rates were higher (> 80%) for Google Maps and Google Earth compared with Bing. However, the accuracy of the addresses was better for Bing with a larger proportion (> 70%) of addresses with positional errors below 20m. Generally, performance did not vary for each method for different socioeconomic status. Overall, the methods showed an acceptable, but heterogeneous performance, which may be a warning against the use of automatic methods without assessing quality in other municipalities, particularly in Chile and Latin America.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Geográfico , Registros de Hospitales , Brasil , Chile , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos
5.
Environ Int ; 158: 106992, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991253

RESUMEN

The most important tobacco-specific nitrosamine found in cigarette smoke and formed in ageing smoke after cigarettes are extinguished is 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). It is formed from nitrosation of nicotine, under particular conditions both in indoor and outdoor environments. NNK has been classified as a potent lung carcinogen which is expected to be found primarily in the particle-phase and to be stable in particulate matter. In this study tests have been carried out to show that a bisulfate-treated filter is more efficient than an untreated filter to collect both nicotine and NNK, and that the latter is stable in outdoor particulate matter. To characterize NNK in the outdoor environment, airborne samples were collected from 11 cities in USA, UK, Hong Kong and Malta with characteristics varying from low to high population densities and from urban to suburban to rural, and with desert characteristics and distinct climates. It has been shown that airborne particle + gas phase nicotine and particle-phase NNK behave in a linearly correlated manner. A seasonal analysis was carried out on a subset of data available from five sites in California, where the load of NNK in PM10 is driven by long range transport of the air masses passing over densely populated cities. In the winter season, the load of NNK in PM is higher than in summer in a statistically significant manner. The contamination of PM with NNK shows variability, but is observed at all sites. This paper highlights the potential risk of chronic exposure to NNK in particulate matter by the inhalation pathway.


Asunto(s)
Nitrosaminas , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Carcinógenos/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Humo , Tabaco , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/análisis
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00288920, 2022. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355970

RESUMEN

Abstract: Automatic geocoding methods have become popular in recent years, facilitating the study of the association between health outcomes and the place of living. However, rather few studies have evaluated geocoding quality, with most of them being performed in the US and Europe. This article aims to compare the quality of three automatic online geocoding tools against a reference method. A subsample of 300 handwritten addresses from hospital records was geocoded using Bing, Google Earth, and Google Maps. Match rates were higher (> 80%) for Google Maps and Google Earth compared with Bing. However, the accuracy of the addresses was better for Bing with a larger proportion (> 70%) of addresses with positional errors below 20m. Generally, performance did not vary for each method for different socioeconomic status. Overall, the methods showed an acceptable, but heterogeneous performance, which may be a warning against the use of automatic methods without assessing quality in other municipalities, particularly in Chile and Latin America.


Resumen: Los métodos automáticos de geocodificación se han convertido en algo popular durante los últimos años para facilitar el estudio de la asociación entre resultados de salud y lugar para vivir. No obstante, más bien pocos estudios han evaluado la calidad de la geocodificación, siendo realizados la mayoría de ellos en EE.UU. y Europa. El objetivo de este artículo es comparar la calidad de tres herramientas automáticas de geocodificación en línea frente a un método de referencia. La submuestra de 300 direcciones escritas a mano, procedentes del registro hospitalario, se geocodificaron usando Bing, Google Earth y Google Maps. Los porcentajes de coincidencia fueron mayores (> 80%) en el caso de Google Maps y Google Earth comparados con Bing. Sin embargo, la precisión de las direcciones fue mejor con Bing, en una proporción más grande (> 70%) de direcciones que tenían errores de posición por debajo de 20m. En general, el rendimiento no varió en cada método para diferentes niveles estatus socioeconómico. En general, los métodos mostraron un rendimiento aceptable, pero heterogéneo. Esto previene contra el uso de métodos automáticos sin evaluar la calidad en otras ciudades, particularmente en Chile y Latinoamérica.


Resumo: Os métodos de geocodificação automática se tornaram populares nos últimos anos para facilitar o estudo da associação entre desfechos de saúde e lugar de residência. Entretanto, poucos estudos avaliaram a qualidade da geocodificação, e a maioria dos estudos existentes foi realizada nos Estados Unidos e Europa. O estudo teve como objetivo comparar a qualidade de três ferramentas de geocodificação eletrônica automática em relação a um método de referência. Foi geocodificada uma subamostra de 300 endereços anotados à mão em prontuários hospitalares, usando Bing, Google Earth e Google Maps. As taxas de correspondência dos registros foram mais altas (> 80%) com Google Maps e Google Earth, comparado com Bing. Entretanto, a acurácia dos endereços foi melhor com Bing, com uma proporção maior (> 70%) de endereços com erros de localização menores que 20 metros. Em geral, o desempeno não variou para cada método de acordo com condição socioeconômica. Os métodos apresentaram desempenho geral aceitável, porém heterogêneo. Os resultados servem de alerta contra o uso de métodos automáticos sem avaliar a qualidade em outras cidades, particularmente no Chile e no resto da América Latina.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Registros de Hospitales , Mapeo Geográfico , Brasil , Chile , Sistemas de Información Geográfica
7.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132377, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600012

RESUMEN

Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) have been widely used in personal care products and industrial applications, and are an important component of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) indoors. They have sufficiently long lifetimes to undergo long-range transport and to form secondary aerosols through atmospheric oxidation. To investigate these silicon-containing secondary organic aerosols (Si-SOA), we collected PM2.5 samples during 8th-21st August 2018 (summer) and 3rd-23rd January 2019 (winter) at an urban site of Beijing. As the oxidation of VMS mainly results in hydrophilic polar semi-volatile and non-volatile oxidation products, the differences between total water-soluble Si and total water-soluble inorganic Si were used to estimate water-soluble organic Si, considered to be secondary organic Si (SO-Si). The average concentrations of SO-Si during the summer and winter campaigns were 4.6 ± 3.7 and 13.2 ± 8.6 ng m-3, accounting for approximately 80.1 ± 10.1% and 80.2 ± 8.7% of the total water-soluble Si, and 1.2 ± 1.2% and 5.0 ± 6.9% of total Si in PM2.5, respectively. The estimated Si-SOA concentrations were 12.7 ± 10.2 ng m-3 and 36.6 ± 23.9 ng m-3 on average in summer and winter, which accounted for 0.06 ± 0.07% and 0.16 ± 0.22% of PM2.5 mass, but increased to 0.26% and 0.92% on certain days. We found that net solar radiation is positively correlated with SO-Si levels in the summer but not in winter, suggesting seasonally different formation mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Beijing , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Silicio , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
8.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118105, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523530

RESUMEN

Road transport is the main anthropogenic source of NOx in Europe, affecting human health and ecosystems. Thus, mitigation policies have been implemented to reduce on-road vehicle emissions, particularly through the Euro standard limits. To evaluate the effectiveness of these policies, we calculated NO2 and NOx concentration trends using air quality and meteorological measurements conducted in three European cities over 26 years. These data were also employed to estimate the trends in NOx emission factors (EFNOx, based on inverse dispersion modeling) and NO2:NOx emission ratios for the vehicle fleets under real-world driving conditions. In the period 1998-2017, Copenhagen and Stockholm showed large reductions in both the urban background NOx concentrations (-2.1 and -2.6% yr-1, respectively) and EFNOx at curbside sites (68 and 43%, respectively), proving the success of the Euro standards in diminishing NOx emissions. London presented a modest decrease in urban background NOx concentrations (-1.3% yr-1), while EFNOx remained rather constant at the curbside site (Marylebone Road) due to the increase in public bus traffic. NO2 primary emissions -that are not regulated- increased until 2008-2010, which also reflected in the ambient concentrations. This increase was associated with a strong dieselization process and the introduction of new after-treatment technologies that targeted the emission reduction of other species (e.g., greenhouse gases or particulate matter). Thus, while regulations on ambient concentrations of specific species have positive effects on human health, the overall outcomes should be considered before widely adopting them. Emission inventories for the on-road transportation sector should include EFNOx derived from real-world measurements, particularly in urban settings.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Londres , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
9.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117932, 2021 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426203

RESUMEN

This research apportioned size-resolved particulate matter (PM) contributions in a megacity in northern China based on a full year of measurements of both inorganic and organic markers. Ions, elements, carbon fractions, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes and steranes in 9 p.m. size fractions were analyzed. High molecular weight PAHs concentrated in fine PM, while most other organic compounds showed two peaks. Both two-way and three-way receptor models were used for source apportionment of PM in different size ranges. The three-way receptor model gave a clearer separation of factors than the two-way model, because it uses a combination of chemical composition and size distributions, so that factors with similar composition but distinct size distributions (like more mature and less mature coal combustion) can be resolved. The three-way model resolved six primary and three secondary factors. Gasoline vehicles and coal and biomass combustion, nitrate and high relative humidity related secondary aerosol, and resuspended dust and diesel vehicles (exhaust and non-exhaust) are the top two contributors to pseudo-ultrafine (<0.43 µm), fine (0.43-2.1 µm) and coarse mode (>2.1 µm) PM, respectively. Mass concentration of PM from coal and biomass combustion, industrial emissions, and diesel vehicle sources showed a bimodal size distribution, but gasoline vehicles and resuspended dust exhibited a peak in the fine and coarse mode, separately. Mass concentration of sulphate, nitrate and secondary organic aerosol exhibited a bimodal distribution and were correlated with temperature, indicating strong photochemical processing and repartitioning. High relative humidity related secondary aerosol was strongly associated with size shifts of PM, NO3- and SO42- from the usual 0.43-0.65 µm to 1.1-2.1 µm. Our results demonstrated the dominance of primary combustion sources in the <0.43 µm particle mass, in contrast to that of secondary aerosol in fine particle mass, and dust in coarse particle mass in the Northern China megacity.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
10.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 21(7): 5549-5573, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462630

RESUMEN

Epidemiological studies have consistently linked exposure to PM2.5 with adverse health effects. The oxidative potential (OP) of aerosol particles has been widely suggested as a measure of their potential toxicity. Several acellular chemical assays are now readily employed to measure OP; however, uncertainty remains regarding the atmospheric conditions and specific chemical components of PM2.5 that drive OP. A limited number of studies have simultaneously utilised multiple OP assays with a wide range of concurrent measurements and investigated the seasonality of PM2.5 OP. In this work, filter samples were collected in winter 2016 and summer 2017 during the atmospheric pollution and human health in a Chinese megacity campaign (APHH-Beijing), and PM2.5 OP was analysed using four acellular methods: ascorbic acid (AA), dithiothreitol (DTT), 2,7-dichlorofluorescin/hydrogen peroxidase (DCFH) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Each assay reflects different oxidising properties of PM2.5, including particle-bound reactive oxygen species (DCFH), superoxide radical production (EPR) and catalytic redox chemistry (DTT/AA), and a combination of these four assays provided a detailed overall picture of the oxidising properties of PM2.5 at a central site in Beijing. Positive correlations of OP (normalised per volume of air) of all four assays with overall PM2.5 mass were observed, with stronger correlations in winter compared to summer. In contrast, when OP assay values were normalised for particle mass, days with higher PM2.5 mass concentrations (µgm-3) were found to have lower mass-normalised OP values as measured by AA and DTT. This finding supports that total PM2.5 mass concentrations alone may not always be the best indicator for particle toxicity. Univariate analysis of OP values and an extensive range of additional measurements, 107 in total, including PM2.5 composition, gas-phase composition and meteorological data, provided detailed insight into the chemical components and atmospheric processes that determine PM2.5 OP variability. Multivariate statistical analyses highlighted associations of OP assay responses with varying chemical components in PM2.5 for both mass- and volume-normalised data. AA and DTT assays were well predicted by a small set of measurements in multiple linear regression (MLR) models and indicated fossil fuel combustion, vehicle emissions and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) as influential particle sources in the assay response. Mass MLR models of OP associated with compositional source profiles predicted OP almost as well as volume MLR models, illustrating the influence of mass composition on both particle-level OP and total volume OP. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that different assays cover different chemical spaces, and through comparison of mass- and volume-normalised data we demonstrate that mass-normalised OP provides a more nuanced picture of compositional drivers and sources of OP compared to volume-normalised analysis. This study constitutes one of the most extensive and comprehensive composition datasets currently available and provides a unique opportunity to explore chemical variations in PM2.5 and how they affect both PM2.5 OP and the concentrations of particle-bound reactive oxygen species.

11.
Environ Int ; 155: 106662, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The evidence on the association between ultrafine (UFP) particles and mortality is still inconsistent. Moreover, health effects of specific UFP sources have not been explored. We assessed the impact of UFP sources on daily mortality in Barcelona, Helsinki, London, and Zurich. METHODS: UFP sources were previously identified and quantified for the four cities: daily contributions of photonucleation, two traffic sources (fresh traffic and urban, with size mode around 30 nm and 70 nm, respectively), and secondary aerosols were obtained from data from an urban background station. Different periods were investigated in each city: Barcelona 2013-2016, Helsinki 2009-2016, London 2010-2016, and Zurich 2011-2014. The associations between total particle number concentrations (PNC) and UFP sources and daily (natural, cardiovascular [CVD], and respiratory) mortality were investigated using city-specific generalized linear models (GLM) with quasi-Poisson regression. RESULTS: We found inconsistent results across cities, sources, and lags for associations with natural, CVD, and respiratory mortality. Increased risk was observed for total PNC and natural mortality in Helsinki (lag 2; 1.3% [0.07%, 2.5%]), CVD mortality in Barcelona (lag 1; 3.7% [0.17%, 7.4%]) and Zurich (lag 0; 3.8% [0.31%, 7.4%]), and respiratory mortality in London (lag 3; 2.6% [0.84%, 4.45%]) and Zurich (lag 1; 9.4% [1.0%, 17.9%]). A similar pattern of associations between health outcomes and total PNC was followed by the fresh traffic source, for which we also found the same associations and lags as for total PNC. The urban source (mostly aged traffic) was associated with respiratory mortality in Zurich (lag 1; 12.5% [1.7%, 24.2%]) and London (lag 3; 2.4% [0.90%, 4.0%]) while the secondary source was associated with respiratory mortality in Zurich (lag 1: 12.0% [0.63%, 24.5%]) and Helsinki (4.7% [0.11%, 9.5%]). Reduced risk for the photonucleation source was observed for respiratory mortality in Barcelona (lag 2, -8.6% [-14.5%, -2.4%]) and for CVD mortality in Helsinki, as this source is present only in clean atmospheres (lag 1, -1.48 [-2.75, -0.21]). CONCLUSIONS: We found inconsistent results across cities, sources and lags for associations with natural, CVD, and respiratory mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ciudades , Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(26)2021 06 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155116

RESUMEN

Although leaded gasoline was banned at the end of the last century, lead (Pb) remains significantly enriched in airborne particles in large cities. The remobilization of historical Pb deposited in soils from atmospheric removal has been suggested as an important source providing evidence for the hypothetical long-term persistency of lead, and possibly other pollutants, in the urban environment. Here, we present data on Pb isotopic composition in airborne particles collected in London (2014 to 2018), which provide strong support that lead deposited via gasoline combustion still contributes significantly to the lead burden in present-day London. Lead concentration and isotopic signature of airborne particles collected at a heavily trafficked site did not vary significantly over the last decade, suggesting that sources remained unchanged. Lead isotopic composition of airborne particles matches that of road dust and topsoils and can only be explained with a significant contribution (estimate of 32 ± 10 to 43 ± 9% based on a binary mixing model) of Pb from leaded gasoline. The lead isotopes furthermore suggest significant contributions from nonexhaust traffic emissions, even though isotopic signatures of anthropogenic sources are increasingly overlapping. Lead isotopic composition of airborne particles collected at building height shows a similar signature to that collected at street level, suggesting effective mixing of lead within the urban street canyon. Our results have important implications on the persistence of Pb in urban environments and suggest that atmospheric Pb reached a baseline in London that is difficult to decrease further with present policy measures.


Asunto(s)
Atmósfera/química , Plomo/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gasolina/análisis , Historia del Siglo XX , Isótopos/análisis , Londres , Material Particulado/análisis , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130429, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126680

RESUMEN

Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 24 n-alkanes, 7 hopanes, 2 cholestanes, inorganic ions, elements and carbon fractions were analyzed in real-world source samples of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) from traffic emissions (gasoline vehicles-TGV, diesel vehicles-TDV, diesel ship-TDS, and heavy oil ships-THOS), coal combustion (coal-fired industrial boilers-CIB, power plants-CPP, and residential stoves-CRS), industrial process emissions (cement industry-IPCI, and steel industry-IPSI), and dust (soil dust-DSD, road dust-DRD, and construction dust-DCD). High molecular weight (sum of five to seven rings) PAHs accounted for higher fractions for TGV (80%) and THS (61%) than for TDV, TDS and coal combustion sources (31%-47%). Hopane ratios (C29αß/C30αß) in coal related sources were mostly higher than 1, whereas that of traffic emissions was lower than 1. The homohopane index [S/(S + R)], which is a useful index for identifying the maturity of fuels, ranked as TGV > THS > TDV and TDS > coal combustion. For n-alkane profiles, coal related sources showed peaks at C16-C19, TDV, TDS and THS showed similar peaks at C17-C25, but peaks for DSD (C30-C32), DRD (C17-C20, C24-25 and C30-C31), CRS (C16-C18 and C28-C29) and TGV (C24-C26) are different. Organic markers were selected which can best differentiate the subtypes within source categories by considering the component levels and variations. Through a comprehensive review, we showed that it is inadvisable to directly use diagnostic ratios for source attribution, although their trends can assist in identifying influential sources.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Carbón Mineral/análisis , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
14.
Chemosphere ; 274: 129913, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979925

RESUMEN

Increasing emissions from sources such as construction and burning of biomass from crop residues, roadside and municipal solid waste have led to a rapid increase in the atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (≤2.5 µm; PM2.5) over many Indian cities. Analyses of their chemical profiles are important for receptor models to accurately estimate the contributions from different sources. We have developed chemical source profiles for five important pollutant sources - construction (CON), paved road dust (PRD), roadside biomass burning (RBB), solid waste burning (SWB), and crop residue burning (CPB) - during three intensive campaigns (winter, summer and post-monsoon) in and around Delhi. We obtained chemical characterisations of source profiles incorporating carbonaceous material such as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43-, Na+ and NH4+), and elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb). CON was dominated by the most abundant elements, K, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca. PRD was also dominated by crustal elements, accounting for 91% of the total analysed elements. RBB, SWB and CPB profiles were dominated by organic matter, which accounted for 94%, 86.2% and 86% of the total PM2.5, respectively. The database of PM emission profiles developed from the sources investigated can be used to assist source apportionment studies for accurate quantification of the causes of air pollution and hence assist governmental bodies in formulating relevant countermeasures.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146540, 2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794462

RESUMEN

Sporting walkways (SW) are a new innovation which may prove popular in many cities. As there is currently no information on possible health risks associated with their use, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with deposited dust sampled on SW in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, have been measured and interpreted in relation to sources and cancer risk. The average ∑PAHs (16 compounds) ranged between 1357 ng/g in residential areas and 3764 ng/g in central urban areas, with suburban areas between. The congener profile and diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicate a predominant source associated with petroleum combustion (pyrogenic source), most probably vehicular emissions. Carcinogenic potential is estimated from the sum of carcinogenic compound concentrations weighted by their individual potency relative to benzo(a)pyrene, and is found to be similar to household dust sampled in the same city, and lower than many other indoor and outdoor (road) dusts sampled across the world.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Ciudades , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita
20.
Sci Adv ; 7(3)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523881

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 lockdowns led to major reductions in air pollutant emissions. Here, we quantitatively evaluate changes in ambient NO2, O3, and PM2.5 concentrations arising from these emission changes in 11 cities globally by applying a deweathering machine learning technique. Sudden decreases in deweathered NO2 concentrations and increases in O3 were observed in almost all cities. However, the decline in NO2 concentrations attributable to the lockdowns was not as large as expected, at reductions of 10 to 50%. Accordingly, O3 increased by 2 to 30% (except for London), the total gaseous oxidant (O x = NO2 + O3) showed limited change, and PM2.5 concentrations decreased in most cities studied but increased in London and Paris. Our results demonstrate the need for a sophisticated analysis to quantify air quality impacts of interventions and indicate that true air quality improvements were notably more limited than some earlier reports or observational data suggested.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19/epidemiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Ciudades , Gases/análisis , Humanos , Londres , Aprendizaje Automático , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Paris , Material Particulado , Temperatura
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