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1.
Med J Malaysia ; 75(1): 12-17, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008013

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This study looked into the different anatomical locations of pain and their trajectories within the first two weeks after Posterior Spinal Fusion (PSF) surgery for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) scheduled for PSF surgery. The anatomical locations of pain were divided into four: (1) surgical wound pain; (2) shoulder pain; (3) neck pain; and (4) low back pain. The anatomical locations of pain were charted using the visual analogue pain score at intervals of 12, 24, 36, 48 hours; and from day-3 to -14. Patient-controlled analgesia (morphine), use of celecoxib capsules, acetaminophen tablets and oxycodone hydrochloride capsule consumption were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were recruited. Patients complained of surgical wound pain score of 6.2±2.1 after surgery. This subsequently reduced to 4.2±2.0 by day-4, and to 2.4±1.3 by day-7. Shoulder pain scores of symptomatic patients peaked to 4.2±2.7 at 24 hours and 36 hours which then reduced to 1.8±1.1 by day-8. Neck pain scores of symptomatic patients reduced from 4.2±1.9 at 12 hours to 1.8±1.1 by day-4. Low back pain scores of symptomatic patients reduced from 5.3±2.3 at 12 hours to 1.8±1.1 by day- 12. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the presence of different anatomical locations of pain after surgery, surgical wound was the most significant pain and other anatomical locations of pain were generally mild. Surgical wound pain reduced to a tolerable level by day-4 when patients can then be comfortably discharged. This finding provides useful information for clinicians, patients and their caregivers.

2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 16-20, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915330

RESUMEN

Now a days depression is one of the leading cause of disabilities all over the world. Depression leads to a wide range of disorders and affects people of all communities. Medical students pass through a relatively high level of stress. Several studies revealed that anxiety and depression is significantly prevalent among medical students and often it persists even when they become physicians. The study was designed with an aim to estimate the prevalence of depression among the medical students of Bangladesh. The cross sectional descriptive type of observational study was conducted among randomly selected 399 Bangladeshi students of third year MBBS from six (6) randomly selected public medical colleges of Bangladesh from February 2017 to July 2017. Data were collected by a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire containing Beck's Depression Inventory. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Among 399 medical students, 45.6% were male and 54.4% were female. Regarding presence of depression among the medical students, 35.8% students had normal score. More than one fourth of the students (25.1%) had mild mood disturbance. Borderline clinical depression was found in 15.5% and moderate depression was found in 18.0% of the students. Severe depression was found in 5.3% students and one (0.3%) student was suffering from extreme depression. Overall 39.1% students were suffering from different levels of depression. Depression was prevalent more in female students (45.6%) than male students (31.3%). Suicidal tendency was present in 18.8% students. Among them 14.3% had thoughts of killing themselves but they would not carry them out; 3% would like to kill themselves and 1.5% would kill themselves if they had the chance. Suicidal tendency was also a bit higher in female students (19.3%) than male students (18.1%). A significant number (39.1%) of medical students of Bangladesh are suffering from depression and many of them (18.8%) have suicidal tendency which demands immediate attention of the authority. The findings of the study warrant a need for psychiatric counseling and support services for vulnerable students.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 43-47, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915334

RESUMEN

Hypertension is a major public health challenge to population in socio-economic and epidemiological transition. It is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality which accounts for 20-50 per cent of all deaths. Hypertension has been recognized among young adults more frequently in recent years. Data regarding hypertension in Bangladesh is often insufficient. The purpose of the study was to find out the risk factors of hypertension in young adults of Bangladesh. The study was conducted among 322 purposively selected young adults aged 20 to 49 years attending in the outpatient department of one public and five private hospitals of Mymensingh and Dhaka division of Bangladesh during the period of January 2018 to December 2018. More than half (54.4%) of the patients were at or below the age of 40 years. Mean age of the patients was 38.7±7.8 years and 58.7% were male. Maximum patients (87.6%) were married and with variable educational and occupational status. More than three fourth of the patients (76.7%) were from urban area whereas 14.3% from rural and 9.0% were from sub-urban area. Family history of hypertension was positive in 86.6% of patients. Blood pressure was categorized according to JNC 7. About half (49.4%) of the patients were stage I hypertensive; 22.4% were stage II hypertensive and 28.3% were pre-hypertensive. The major risk factor was tobacco smoking (46.0%), obesity (29.2%), dyslipidaemia (25.2%), high salt intake 21.8% and use of chewable tobacco (13.7%). Serum creatinine was found raised in 11.5%, cardiomegaly in 2.2% and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in 18.6% of patients. In 38.5% patients hypertension was complicated affecting heart (27.0%) and kidney (11.5%). Common comorbidities were ischaemic heart diseases (20.5%) and diabetes mellitus (13.4%). Tobacco use, obesity, dyslipidaemia and high salt intake are the major modifiable risk factors found in hypertensive young adults. In addition to medication these factors should be addressed for prevention and effective control of hypertension.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Cardiopatías/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Isquemia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
4.
Mymensingh Med J ; 27(4): 798-804, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487497

RESUMEN

We conducted a study to evaluate the reliability of the medial hemi-soleus muscle flap for wound coverage of infected open fracture of distal third of tibia. Wound coverage of exposed lower third tibia and ankle region remains a difficult task. Muscle flaps are preferred for infected wounds especially where there are exposed bone, joint and/or tendons. Soleus muscle is a good option for local reconstruction. Soleus being the prime ankle plantar flexor and stabilizer of the ankle in ambulation cannot be sacrificed without significant morbidity. Soleus is a bipennate muscle with independent blood supply of each half. Using one half retains its important function, increases arc of rotation, and makes it easy to orientate for coverage of defect of any shape thus obviating the need for use of whole Soleus muscle flap. So, medial hemisoleus muscle flap is a superior option than the whole Soleus. This post-intervention prospective study which was descriptive in nature was conducted at department of Orthopedics, Community Based Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from January 2012 to December 2012. Ten patients with distal third tibial defects were included in the study. Data was obtained by history taking, observation, clinical examination, supported by routine laboratory and radiological investigations. Before intervention they underwent to careful vascular study of the affected limb through Doppler ultrasonography. All the patients were provided soft tissue coverage with distally based medial hemi-soleus muscle flaps with split thickness skin graft on it. All the flaps survived with primary healing of the wound. Among the participants there were 7 male and 3 female with average age 44.60 years, SD 13.73 years. Eight patients were injured by road traffic accident and 2 patients had history of alleged assault. The wound size defects in primary site ranged from 4cm to 9cm in length and 3cm to 6.5cm in breadth. All the wounds in the primary site were infected. The fractures in the primary site were open fractures involving distal third of tibia. In the secondary site the injuries were fracture upper third tibia in the other lower limb 2, fracture femur on other lower limb 1, dislocation shoulder joint on the same side upper limb 1. The follow up period ranged from 8-16 weeks (average 12 weeks). The outcome was successful. All flaps survived without complication. Hemisoleus muscle flap is a valuable local option for soft tissue coverage of distal third of leg. It does not sacrifice the whole soleus muscle. Due to its longer arc of rotation, this flap can cover the defect of different size and shape in distal third of leg.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas Abiertas/complicaciones , Músculo Esquelético/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Fracturas de la Tibia/complicaciones , Técnicas de Cierre de Heridas , Infección de Heridas , Adulto , Bangladesh , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Resultado del Tratamiento , Infección de Heridas/etiología , Infección de Heridas/cirugía
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 27(4): 826-833, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487501

RESUMEN

Biliary atresia is the commonest cause of cholestatic jaundice. Early diagnosis & surgical correction helps long time survival & prevent development of cirrhosis. This study was conducted to find out the role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis of biliary atresia having positive hepatobiliary scintigraphy as there is chance of false positivity. This cross sectional study was carried out in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh at Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition Department from January 2014 to June 2015. All admitted patients with the diagnosis of neonatal cholestasis were evaluated clinically and by scintigraphy for biliary atresia. Having positive hepatobiliary scintigraphy but highly suggestive of biliary atresia were enrolled for this study. A total of 108 cases were initially selected. Among them 33 patients showed no excretion of tracer during hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Liver biopsy was done in these 33 cases. All cases (100%) had history of passage of pale or acholic stool. Fractionated serum bilirubin of >2mg/dl was found all of the cases. Histological scoring system reveals typical features of biliary atresia in 27(81.8%). Two had no conclusive histology of biliary atresia, four had features of neonatal hepatitis (12.1%). In this study, percutaneous liver biopsy with histological analysis by scoring system was found useful for the correct diagnosis of biliary atresia.


Asunto(s)
Atresia Biliar , Colestasis , Bangladesh , Atresia Biliar/complicaciones , Biopsia , Niño , Colestasis/diagnóstico , Colestasis/etiología , Colestasis/patología , Estudios Transversales , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Hígado
6.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(1): 22-37, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218379

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: While prone positioning (PP) has been shown to improve patient survival in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients, the rate of application of PP in clinical practice still appears low. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of use of PP in ARDS patients (primary endpoint), the physiological effects of PP, and the reasons for not using it (secondary endpoints). METHODS: The APRONET study was a prospective international 1-day prevalence study performed four times in April, July, and October 2016 and January 2017. On each study day, investigators in each ICU had to screen every patient. For patients with ARDS, use of PP, gas exchange, ventilator settings and plateau pressure (Pplat) were recorded before and at the end of the PP session. Complications of PP and reasons for not using PP were also documented. Values are presented as median (1st-3rd quartiles). RESULTS: Over the study period, 6723 patients were screened in 141 ICUs from 20 countries (77% of the ICUs were European), of whom 735 had ARDS and were analyzed. Overall 101 ARDS patients had at least one session of PP (13.7%), with no differences among the 4 study days. The rate of PP use was 5.9% (11/187), 10.3% (41/399) and 32.9% (49/149) in mild, moderate and severe ARDS, respectively (P = 0.0001). The duration of the first PP session was 18 (16-23) hours. Measured with the patient in the supine position before and at the end of the first PP session, PaO2/FIO2 increased from 101 (76-136) to 171 (118-220) mmHg (P = 0.0001) driving pressure decreased from 14 [11-17] to 13 [10-16] cmH2O (P = 0.001), and Pplat decreased from 26 [23-29] to 25 [23-28] cmH2O (P = 0.04). The most prevalent reason for not using PP (64.3%) was that hypoxemia was not considered sufficiently severe. Complications were reported in 12 patients (11.9%) in whom PP was used (pressure sores in five, hypoxemia in two, endotracheal tube-related in two ocular in two, and a transient increase in intracranial pressure in one). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this prospective international prevalence study found that PP was used in 32.9% of patients with severe ARDS, and was associated with low complication rates, significant increase in oxygenation and a significant decrease in driving pressure.


Asunto(s)
Respiración con Presión Positiva , Posición Prona , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/terapia
7.
Pathog Glob Health ; 111(7): 388-394, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065795

RESUMEN

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a vector borne disease caused by parasitic worms such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Current therapeutics to treat LF are mainly microfilarcidal, and lack activity against adult worms. This set back, poses a challenge for the control and elimination of filariasis. Thus, in this study the activities of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against the filarial worm B. pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia were evaluated. Different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 15, 20 µg/ml) of CAPE were used to assess its effects on motility, viability and microfilarial (mf) production of B. pahangi in vitro. Anti-Wolbachial activity of CAPE was measured in worms by quantification of Wolbachial wsp gene copy number using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our findings show that CAPE was found to significantly reduce adult worm motility, viability, and mf release both in vitro and in vivo. 20 µg/ml of CAPE halts the release of mf in vitro by day 6 of post treatment. Also, the number of adult worms recovered in vivo were reduced significantly during and after treatment with 50 mg/kg of CAPE relative to control drugs, diethylcarbamazine and doxycycline. Real time PCR based on the Wolbachia ftsZ gene revealed a significant reduction in Wolbachia copy number upon treatment. Anti-Wolbachia and antifilarial properties of CAPE require further investigation as an alternative strategy to treat LF.


Asunto(s)
Brugia pahangi/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Cafeicos/uso terapéutico , Filariasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Alcohol Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Animales , Ácidos Cafeicos/administración & dosificación , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Filariasis/parasitología , Gerbillinae , Humanos , Masculino , Alcohol Feniletílico/administración & dosificación , Alcohol Feniletílico/uso terapéutico , Wolbachia/efectos de los fármacos
8.
Malays J Pathol ; 39(1): 47-53, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28413205

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, prolonged ketamine abuse has been reported to cause urinary tract damage. However, there is little information on the pathological effects of ketamine from oral administration. We aimed to study the effects of oral ketamine on the urinary tract and the reversibility of these changes after cessation of ketamine intake. METHODS: Rats were fed with illicit (a concoction of street ketamine) ketamine in doses of 100 (N=12), or 300 mg/kg (N=12) for four weeks. Half of the rats were sacrificed after the 4-week feeding for necropsy. The remaining rats were taken off ketamine for 8 weeks to allow for any potential recovery of pathological changes before being sacrificed for necropsy. Histopathological examination was performed on the kidney and urinary bladder. RESULTS: Submucosal bladder inflammation was seen in 67% of the rats fed with 300 mg/kg illicit ketamine. No bladder inflammation was observed in the control and 100 mg/kg illicit ketamine groups. Renal changes, such as interstitial nephritis and papillary necrosis, were observed in rats given illicit ketamine. After ketamine cessation, no inflammation was observed in the bladder of all rats. However, renal inflammation remained in 60% of the rats given illicit ketamine. No dose-effect relationship was established between oral ketamine and changes in the kidneys. CONCLUSION: Oral ketamine caused pathological changes in the urinary tract, similar to that described in exposure to parenteral ketamine. The changes in the urinary bladder were reversible after short-term exposure.


Asunto(s)
Inflamación/inducido químicamente , Ketamina/efectos adversos , Riñón/patología , Sistema Urinario/patología , Animales , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Animales , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Sistema Urinario/efectos de los fármacos
9.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 188(2): 311-322, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28170096

RESUMEN

Behçet's disease (BD) is an autoinflammatory, chronic relapsing/remitting disease of unknown aetiology with both innate and acquired immune cells implicated in disease pathogenesis. Peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells and their CD56Dim /CD56Bright subsets were surface phenotyped using CD27 and CD16 surface markers in 60 BD patients compared to 60 healthy controls (HCs). Functional potential was assessed by production of interferon (IFN)-γ, granzyme B, perforin and the expression of degranulation marker CD107a. The effects of disease activity (BDActive versus BDQuiet ) and BD medication on NK cells were also investigated. Peripheral blood NK cells (P < 0·0001) and their constituent CD56Dim (P < 0·0001) and CD56Bright (P = 0·0015) subsets were depleted significantly in BD patients compared to HCs, and especially in those with active disease (BDActive ) (P < 0·0001). BD patients taking azathioprine also had significantly depleted NK cells compared to HCs (P < 0·0001). A stepwise multivariate linear regression model confirmed BD activity and azathioprine therapy as significant independent predictor variables of peripheral blood NK percentage (P < 0·001). In general, CD56Dim cells produced more perforin (P < 0·0001) and granzyme B (P < 0·01) expressed higher CD16 levels (P < 0·0001) compared to CD56Bright cells, confirming their increased cytotoxic potential with overall higher NK cell CD107a expression in BD compared to HCs (P < 0·01). Interestingly, IFN-γ production and CD27 expression were not significantly different between CD56Dim /CD56Bright subsets. In conclusion, both BD activity and azathioprine therapy have significant independent depletive effects on the peripheral blood NK cell compartment.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Behçet/inmunología , Circulación Sanguínea/inmunología , Células Asesinas Naturales/inmunología , Subgrupos Linfocitarios/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Azatioprina/efectos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Behçet/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Behçet/fisiopatología , Antígeno CD56/genética , Femenino , Proteínas Ligadas a GPI/genética , Granzimas/biosíntesis , Humanos , Interferón gamma/biosíntesis , Células Asesinas Naturales/química , Células Asesinas Naturales/clasificación , Proteína 1 de la Membrana Asociada a los Lisosomas/genética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perforina/biosíntesis , Receptores de IgG/genética , Adulto Joven
10.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 24(2): 273-7, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27574278

RESUMEN

Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke (MELAS) syndrome is a progressive multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder. MELAS syndrome impairs oxidative phosphorylation and predisposes patients to lactic acidosis, particularly under metabolic stress. We report 2 siblings with MELAS-associated idiopathic scoliosis who underwent posterior spinal instrumented fusion with measures taken to minimise anaesthetic and surgical stress, blood loss, and operating time.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome MELAS/complicaciones , Escoliosis/cirugía , Fusión Vertebral/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/complicaciones , Escoliosis/etiología , Hermanos , Fusión Vertebral/instrumentación
11.
Korean J Parasitol ; 54(3): 273-80, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417081

RESUMEN

We evaluated the activity of methanolic extracts of Melaleuca cajuputi flowers against the filarial worm Brugia pahangi and its bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. Anti-Wolbachia activity was measured in worms and in Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells by PCR, electron microscopy, and other biological assays. In particular, microfilarial release, worm motility, and viability were determined. M. cajuputi flower extracts were found to significantly reduce Wolbachia endosymbionts in Aa23 cells, Wolbachia surface protein, and microfilarial release, as well as the viability and motility of adult worms. Anti-Wolbachia activity was further confirmed by observation of degraded and phagocytized Wolbachia in worms treated with the flower extracts. The data provided in vitro and in vivo evidence that M. cajuputi flower extracts inhibit Wolbachia, an activity that may be exploited as an alternative strategy to treat human lymphatic filariasis.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Brugia pahangi/efectos de los fármacos , Filaricidas/farmacología , Flores/química , Melaleuca/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Wolbachia/efectos de los fármacos , Aedes , Animales , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Bioensayo , Línea Celular , Femenino , Filaricidas/aislamiento & purificación , Locomoción/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Metanol , Microscopía Electrónica , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Solventes , Simbiosis/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Mymensingh Med J ; 24(4): 868-72, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26620034

RESUMEN

Ventricular lead perforation is an infrequent but it's a critical complication of pacemaker implantation. Perforation was usually associated with the use of small-caliber active fixation leads, and can occur beyond the first few days (sub acute) or even more than a month after implantation (late). We report the case of right ventricular perforation by a ventricular fixation lead in 61 years old man detected more than two months after implantation. Radiology and echocardiography can confirm the perforation by revealing progression of the lead beyond the cardiac silhouette or indirectly visualizing the presence of pericardial effusion. However, its pathophysiology and optimal management are currently unclear.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Cardíaca Artificial/efectos adversos , Lesiones Cardíacas/etiología , Ventrículos Cardíacos/lesiones , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 385, 2015 Oct 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26497742

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. METHODS: Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. RESULTS: This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and ß-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that M. cajuputi extracts possess antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The results revealed that both extracts had significant antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity. Both extracts had antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and B. cereus. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities could be attributed to high flavonoid and phenolic contents identified using GC/MS and LC/MS. Therefore, M. cajuputi could be an excellent source for natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents for medical and nutraceutical applications.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Melaleuca/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Flores/química , Radicales Libres/análisis , Hierro/análisis , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Hojas de la Planta/química , Aceite de Árbol de Té/farmacología
14.
J Biomater Appl ; 29(4): 566-81, 2014 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24913613

RESUMEN

Embolization of vascular tumors is an important tool in minimally invasive surgical intervention. Radiopaque, non-degradable, and non-deformable spherical zinc-silicate glass particles were produced in a range of 45-500 µm. Three size ranges (45-150, 150-300, and 300-500 µm) were used in the current study. The glass microspheres were eluted in polar (saline solution) and non-polar (dimethyl sulfoxide) medium, and ion release profiles were recorded using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Approximately 80% of Gaussian distribution was achieved by simple sieving. The ions released from the microspheres were dependent upon surface area to volume ratio as well as the nature of elution media. Greater ions were released from smaller particles (45-150 µm) having largest surface area in polar medium. For the genotoxicity bacterial mutation Ames assay, the concentrations of all the ions were well below their therapeutic concentration reported in the literature. No mutagenic effect was observed in the bacterial mutation Ames test. Hence, it can be concluded that the glass microspheres produced herein are non-mutagenic further supporting the materials potential as a suitable embolic agent.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biocompatibles , Cerámica , Embolización Terapéutica/métodos , Silicatos , Compuestos de Zinc , Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Materiales Biocompatibles/toxicidad , Cerámica/toxicidad , Vidrio , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Microesferas , Pruebas de Mutagenicidad , Tamaño de la Partícula , Silicatos/toxicidad , Neoplasias Vasculares/terapia , Compuestos de Zinc/toxicidad
15.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 28: 1-14, 2013 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23959231

RESUMEN

Completely resorbable composites are an attractive alternative for metallic bone-fracture fixation devices. However, failure of their interfacial integrity within aqueous environments, which can lead to a rapid loss of overall mechanical properties, has been reported in the literature. In this study coupling agents were investigated for phosphate glass fibre reinforced poly(lactic acid) composites. Three coupling agents with varying wettability were employed to improve initial mechanical properties and their retention in vitro via improvement of the interfacial bond between polymer matrix and fibres. Coupling agents were grafted onto the glass fibres by dip-coating in coupling agent solution at optimised concentrations. Three-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and sorbitol ended PLA oligomer treatments improved the initial flexural properties (27% strength with APS and 17% modulus via SPLA treatment) of the composites and 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) treatments also decreased the loss of flexural strength and modulus during degradation. HDI treated samples retained 57.2% and 64.7% of their initial strength and modulus, respectively compared to control where only 34% of initial strength and 52% of initial modulus was retained after 28 days of degradation in PBS solution. Initial improvements in flexural properties were associated with improved shear bond strength at the interface due to covalent bonding between the glass fibres and polymer matrix provided by the coupling agents. Delay in mechanical property loss with degradation was suggested to be due to the hydrophobicity at the interface, which could have hindered the interfacial integrity loss and consequently loss of mechanical integrity of the composites. All coupling agent treated and control composites were tested for cytocompatibility using a primary human osteoblast cell line. A comparable response to the control, in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation was observed supporting the use of these agents within implantable devices.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacología , Vidrio/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Fenómenos Mecánicos , Fosfatos/química , Polímeros/química , Fosfatasa Alcalina/metabolismo , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Colágeno/biosíntesis , Colágeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Osteoblastos/citología , Osteoblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Poliésteres , Agua/química
16.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 23(10): 2531-41, 2012 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22760401

RESUMEN

Six phosphate glass formulations (in the system P(2)O(5)-CaO-MgO-Na(2)O-Fe(2)O(3)) were produced with fixed magnesium and calcium content at 24 and 16 mol%, respectively. P(2)O(5) and Fe(2)O(3) were varied between 40-50 and 0-4 mol% respectively, with the balance being Na(2)O. EDX analyses confirmed the final composition of the glasses investigated to within a 1-2 % error margin. Thermal analyses showed a linear increase in T(g) with increasing Fe(2)O(3) and P(2)O(5) contents, with Fe(2)O(3) showing a greater effect than P(2)O(5). This was proposed to be due to the formation of Fe-O-P bonds and an increase in the cross-link density of the glass network enhancing the durability of the glass. The glasses that were investigated revealed a decrease in degradation rate with increasing Fe(2)O(3) and P(2)O(5) contents and again the effect of Fe(2)O(3) was greater. All the above characteristics correlated well with structural changes measured by IR and XPS analyses. Cytocompatibility studies showed good cellular (MG63) response to the glasses up to 168 h in terms of cell viability, proliferation and differentiation. Statistical analysis revealed that all the formulations with the exception of P50Fe4 gave a comparable response to the control (TCP), which suggested that after a threshold level of glass durability is achieved the degradation rate has no or minimal effect on biocompatibility. However, it was seen that the glass chemistry can also affect cellular response, since increasing the P(2)O(5) content promoted phenotypic expression that was not related to degradation rate but to the degradation products. This was supported using an elution assay.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biocompatibles , Vidrio , Fosfatasa Alcalina/metabolismo , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 21(3): 399-403, 2012 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22828533

RESUMEN

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in most developing countries. The present study was carried out among 100 clinically suspected pulmonary TB patients. One hundred sputum specimens were collected one from each of the suspects attending DOT'S corner of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method detecting IS6110 sequence present in all Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains using sputum samples in comparison to culture on Lowenstein-Jensen mediums. The PCR was done using primers mtb1 & mtb2 which commonly target an insertion sequence of the organism (IS6110). Out of 100 samples, 18 (18%) showed PCR positive, whereas culture in Lowenstein-Jensen media were positive in 19(19%). In PCR 1 was false negative but none was false positive. In present study, sensitivity and specificity of PCR found 94.74% and 100% respectively. Analyzing the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that the PCR technique is a rapid and alternative method of culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. In the present study, only presence or absence of M. tuberculosis was determined.


Asunto(s)
Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Esputo/microbiología
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 20(4): 614-9, 2011 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22081179

RESUMEN

Chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies investigated the diagnostic and prognostic value of some biochemical markers to detect the hepatic fibrosis and found a correlation between serum markers and hepatic fibrosis. Among them serum hyaluronic acid (HA) has been identified as a potential marker of fibrosis or cirrhosis in different studies. A prospective study in 60 subjects was conducted to evaluate the association between serum HA and hepatic fibrosis. Thirty consecutive patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection undergoing liver biopsy were studied. Sera were obtained for HA using enzyme linked protein binding assay. Patients with hepatic fibrosis had higher serum HA concentration compared with healthy subjects (236.65 ± 227.07 vs. 23.32 ± 14.22 respectively, p<0.001). Correlation was found between high serum HA concentration and increasing degree of hepatic fibrosis (R-0.322 and p<0.041). This study had shown a good correlation between serum HA and different stages of hepatic fibrosis. So serum HA may be used as a useful marker of hepatic fibrosis.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B Crónica/complicaciones , Hepatitis C Crónica/complicaciones , Ácido Hialurónico/sangre , Cirrosis Hepática/diagnóstico , Adulto , Femenino , Hepatitis B Crónica/sangre , Hepatitis C Crónica/sangre , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/sangre , Cirrosis Hepática/etiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
19.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 2(12): 901-6, 2011 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24900279

RESUMEN

Given the pressing need for new antiprotozoal drugs without cross-resistance with current (failing) chemotherapy, we have explored 3-tridecylpyridinium alkaloids (3TPAs), derivatives of viscosamine, as antiparasitic agents. We have developed a simple synthetic route toward viscosamine and related cyclic and linear monomers and oligomers. Evaluation for cytotoxicity on the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania spp., and Plasmodium falciparum revealed several 3TPAs with antiprotozoal activity in the nanomolar range. Their promising selectivity index in vitro prompted us to study the dynamics of cytotoxicity on trypanosomes in more detail. Parasites were killed relatively slowly at therapeutically safe concentrations, in a process that did not target the cell cycle. Clearance of T. brucei cultures was observed at drug concentrations of 1-10 µM.

20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 66(1): 111-25, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21078603

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to investigate the anti-kinetoplastid activity of choline-derived analogues with previously reported antimalarial efficacy. METHODS: from an existing choline analogue library, seven antimalarial compounds, representative of the first-, second- and third-generation analogues previously developed, were assessed for activity against Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. Using a variety of techniques, the effects of choline analogue exposure on the parasites were documented and a preliminary investigation of their mode of action was performed. RESULTS: the activities of choline-derived compounds against Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana were determined. The compounds displayed promising anti-kinetoplastid activity, particularly against T. brucei, to which 4/7 displayed submicromolar EC(50) values for the wild-type strain. Low micromolar concentrations of most compounds cleared trypanosome cultures within 24-48 h. The compounds inhibit a choline transporter in Leishmania, but their entry may not depend only on this carrier; T. b. brucei lacks a choline carrier and the mode of uptake remains unclear. The compounds had no effect on the overall lipid composition of the cells, cell cycle progression or cyclic adenosine monophosphate production or short-term effects on intracellular calcium levels. However, several of the compounds, displayed pronounced effects on the mitochondrial membrane potential; this action was not associated with production of reactive oxygen species but rather with a slow rise of intracellular calcium levels and DNA fragmentation. CONCLUSIONS: the choline analogues displayed strong activity against kinetoplastid parasites, particularly against T. b. brucei. In contrast to their antimalarial activity, they did not act on trypanosomes by disrupting choline salvage or phospholipid metabolism, instead disrupting mitochondrial function, leading to chromosomal fragmentation.


Asunto(s)
Antiprotozoarios/farmacología , Cationes Bivalentes/farmacología , Colina/análogos & derivados , Colina/farmacología , Leishmania mexicana/efectos de los fármacos , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/efectos de los fármacos , Antiprotozoarios/química , Fragmentación del ADN , Potencial de la Membrana Mitocondrial/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos
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