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1.
Opt Express ; 29(3): 4504-4522, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771027

RESUMEN

We developed a fast and accurate polynomial based atmospheric correction (POLYAC) algorithm for hyperspectral radiometric measurements, which parameterizes the atmospheric path radiances using aerosol properties retrieved from co-located multi-wavelength multi-angle polarimeter (MAP) measurements. This algorithm has been applied to co-located spectrometer for planetary exploration (SPEX) airborne and research scanning polarimeter (RSP) measurements, where SPEX airborne was used as a proxy of hyperspectral radiometers, and RSP as the MAP. The hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance obtained from POLYAC is accurate when compared to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) ocean color products. POLYAC provides a robust alternative atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral or multi-spectral radiometric measurements for scenes involving coastal oceans and/or absorbing aerosols, where traditional atmospheric correction algorithms are less reliable.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843920

RESUMEN

Methane emissions due to accidents in the oil and natural gas sector are very challenging to monitor, and hence are seldom considered in emission inventories and reporting. One of the main reasons is the lack of measurements during such events. Here we report the detection of large methane emissions from a gas well blowout in Ohio during February to March 2018 in the total column methane measurements from the spaceborne Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). From these data, we derive a methane emission rate of 120 ± 32 metric tons per hour. This hourly emission rate is twice that of the widely reported Aliso Canyon event in California in 2015. Assuming the detected emission represents the average rate for the 20-d blowout period, we find the total methane emission from the well blowout is comparable to one-quarter of the entire state of Ohio's reported annual oil and natural gas methane emission, or, alternatively, a substantial fraction of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions from several European countries. Our work demonstrates the strength and effectiveness of routine satellite measurements in detecting and quantifying greenhouse gas emission from unpredictable events. In this specific case, the magnitude of a relatively unknown yet extremely large accidental leakage was revealed using measurements of TROPOMI in its routine global survey, providing quantitative assessment of associated methane emissions.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5405, 2019 11 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776336

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic aerosol emissions lead to an increase in the amount of cloud condensation nuclei and consequently an increase in cloud droplet number concentration and cloud albedo. The corresponding negative radiative forcing due to aerosol cloud interactions (RF[Formula: see text]) is one of the most uncertain radiative forcing terms as reported in the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Here we show that previous observation-based studies underestimate aerosol-cloud interactions because they used measurements of aerosol optical properties that are not directly related to cloud formation and are hampered by measurement uncertainties. We have overcome this problem by the use of new polarimetric satellite retrievals of the relevant aerosol properties (aerosol number, size, shape). The resulting estimate of RF[Formula: see text] = -1.14 Wm[Formula: see text] (range between -0.84 and -1.72 Wm[Formula: see text]) is more than a factor 2 stronger than the IPCC estimate that includes also other aerosol induced changes in cloud properties.

4.
Appl Opt ; 58(21): 5695-5719, 2019 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503878

RESUMEN

To improve our understanding of the complex role of aerosols in the climate system and on air quality, measurements are needed of optical and microphysical aerosol. From many studies, it has become evident that a satellite-based multiangle, multiwavelength polarimeter will be essential to provide such measurements. Here, high accuracy (∼0.003) on the degree of linear polarization (DoLP) measurements is important to retrieve aerosol properties with an accuracy needed to advance our understanding of the aerosol effect on climate. SPEX airborne, a multiangle hyperspectral polarimeter, has been developed for observing and characterizing aerosols from NASA's high-altitude research aircraft ER-2. It delivers measurements of radiance and DoLP at visual wavelengths with a spectral resolution of 3 and 7-30 nm, respectively, for radiance and polarization, at nine fixed equidistant viewing angles from -56° to +56° oriented along the ground track, and a swath of 7° oriented across-track. SPEX airborne uses spectral polarization modulation to determine the state of linear polarization of scattered sunlight. This technique has been developed in the Netherlands and has been demonstrated with ground-based instruments. SPEX airborne serves as a demonstrator for a family of space-based SPEX instruments that have the ability to measure and characterize atmospheric aerosol by multiangle hyperspectral polarimetric imaging remotely from a satellite platform. SPEX airborne was calibrated radiometrically and polarimetrically using Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) facilities including the Polarization Stage Generator-2 (PSG-2), which is designed for polarimetric calibration and validation of the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI). Using the PSG-2, the accuracy of the SPEX airborne DoLP measurements in the laboratory setup is found to be 0.002-0.004. Radiometric calibration is realized with an estimated accuracy of 4%. In 2017, SPEX airborne took part in the "Aerosol Characterization from Polarimeters and Lidar" campaign on the ER-2 that included four polarimeters and two lidars. Polarization measurements of SPEX airborne and the coflying Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), recorded during the campaign, were compared and display root-mean-square (RMS) differences ranging from 0.004 (at 555 nm) up to 0.02 (at 410 nm). For radiance measurements, excellent agreement between SPEX airborne and RSP is obtained with an RMS difference of ∼4%. The lab- and flight-performance values for polarization are similar to those recently published for AirMSPI, where also an intercomparison with RSP was made using data from field campaigns in 2013. The intercomparison of radiometric and polarimetric data both display negligible bias. The in-flight comparison results provide verification of SPEX airborne's capability to deliver high-quality data.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 303, 2019 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696820

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic methane emissions from China are likely greater than in any other country in the world. The largest fraction of China's anthropogenic emissions is attributable to coal mining, but these emissions may be changing; China enacted a suite of regulations for coal mine methane (CMM) drainage and utilization that came into full effect in 2010. Here, we use methane observations from the GOSAT satellite to evaluate recent trends in total anthropogenic and natural emissions from Asia with a particular focus on China. We find that emissions from China rose by 1.1 ± 0.4 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2010 to 2015, culminating in total anthropogenic and natural emissions of 61.5 ± 2.7 Tg CH4 in 2015. The observed trend is consistent with pre-2010 trends and is largely attributable to coal mining. These results indicate that China's CMM regulations have had no discernible impact on the continued increase in Chinese methane emissions.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440515

RESUMEN

The Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission will carry into space the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI), a spectrometer measuring at 5nm spectral resolution in the ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) with additional spectral bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and two multi-angle polarimeters that will overlap the OCI spectral range and spatial coverage, i. e., the Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration (SPEXone) and the Hyper-Angular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP2). These instruments, especially when used in synergy, have great potential for improving estimates of water reflectance in the post Earth Observing System (EOS) era. Extending the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) observations to the UV, where aerosol absorption is effective, adding spectral bands in the SWIR, where even the most turbid waters are black and sensitivity to the aerosol coarse mode is higher than at shorter wavelengths, and measuring in the oxygen A-band to estimate aerosol altitude will enable greater accuracy in atmospheric correction for ocean color science. The multi-angular and polarized measurements, sensitive to aerosol properties (e.g., size distribution, index of refraction), can further help to identify or constrain the aerosol model, or to retrieve directly water reflectance. Algorithms that exploit the new capabilities are presented, and their ability to improve accuracy is discussed. They embrace a modern, adapted heritage two-step algorithm and alternative schemes (deterministic, statistical) that aim at inverting the TOA signal in a single step. These schemes, by the nature of their construction, their robustness, their generalization properties, and their ability to associate uncertainties, are expected to become the new standard in the future. A strategy for atmospheric correction is presented that ensures continuity and consistency with past and present ocean-color missions while enabling full exploitation of the new dimensions and possibilities. Despite the major improvements anticipated with the PACE instruments, gaps/issues remain to be filled/tackled. They include dealing properly with whitecaps, taking into account Earth-curvature effects, correcting for adjacency effects, accounting for the coupling between scattering and absorption, modeling accurately water reflectance, and acquiring a sufficiently representative dataset of water reflectance in the UV to SWIR. Dedicated efforts, experimental and theoretical, are in order to gather the necessary information and rectify inadequacies. Ideas and solutions are put forward to address the unresolved issues. Thanks to its design and characteristics, the PACE mission will mark the beginning of a new era of unprecedented accuracy in ocean-color radiometry from space.

7.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45759, 2017 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393869

RESUMEN

Year-to-year variations in the atmospheric methane (CH4) growth rate show significant correlation with climatic drivers. The second half of 2010 and the first half of 2011 experienced the strongest La Niña since the early 1980s, when global surface networks started monitoring atmospheric CH4 mole fractions. We use these surface measurements, retrievals of column-averaged CH4 mole fractions from GOSAT, new wetland inundation estimates, and atmospheric δ13C-CH4 measurements to estimate the impact of this strong La Niña on the global atmospheric CH4 budget. By performing atmospheric inversions, we find evidence of an increase in tropical CH4 emissions of ∼6-9 TgCH4 yr-1 during this event. Stable isotope data suggest that biogenic sources are the cause of this emission increase. We find a simultaneous expansion of wetland area, driven by the excess precipitation over the Tropical continents during the La Niña. Two process-based wetland models predict increases in wetland area consistent with observationally-constrained values, but substantially smaller per-area CH4 emissions, highlighting the need for improvements in such models. Overall, tropical wetland emissions during the strong La Niña were at least by 5% larger than the long-term mean.

8.
Geophys Res Lett ; 43(16): 8783-8790, 2016 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002565

RESUMEN

We demonstrate that multi-angle polarization measurements in the near-UV and blue part of the spectrum are very well suited for passive remote sensing of aerosol layer height. For this purpose we use simulated measurements with different set-ups (different wavelength ranges, with and without polarization, different polarimetric accuracies) as well as airborne measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) obtained over the continental USA. We find good agreement of the retrieved aerosol layer height from RSP with measurements from the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) showing a mean absolute difference of less than 1 km. Furthermore, we found that the information on aerosol layer height is provided for large part by the multi-angle polarization measurements with high accuracy rather than the multi-angle intensity measurements. The information on aerosol layer height is significantly decreased when the shortest RSP wavelength (410 nm) is excluded from the retrieval and is virtually absent when 550 nm is used as shortest wavelength.

9.
Appl Opt ; 48(18): 3322-36, 2009 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19543338

RESUMEN

Retrievals of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from space-borne measurements of backscattered near-infrared sunlight are hampered by aerosol and cirrus cloud scattering effects. We propose a retrieval approach that allows for the retrieval of a few effective aerosol parameters simultaneously with the CO2 total column by parameterizing particle amount, height distribution, and microphysical properties. Two implementations of the proposed method covering different spectral bands are tested for an ensemble of simulated nadir observations for aerosol (and cirrus) loaded scenes over low- and mid-latitudinal land surfaces. The residual aerosol-induced CO(2) errors are mostly below 1% up to aerosol optical thickness 0.5. The proposed methods also perform convincing for scenes where cirrus clouds of optical thickness 0.1 overlay the aerosol.

10.
Appl Opt ; 46(16): 3332-44, 2007 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17514291

RESUMEN

We investigate the capabilities of different instrument concepts for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land. It was found that, if the surface reflection properties are unknown, only multiple-viewing-angle measurements of both intensity and polarization are able to provide the relevant aerosol parameters with sufficient accuracy for climate research. Furthermore, retrieval errors are only little affected when the number of viewing angles is increased at the cost of the number of spectral sampling points and vice versa. This indicates that there is a certain amount of freedom for the instrument design of dedicated aerosol instruments. The final choice on the trade-off between the spectral sampling and the number of viewing angles should be made taking other factors into account, such as instrument complexity and the ability to obtain global coverage.

11.
Appl Opt ; 46(2): 243-52, 2007 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17268571

RESUMEN

We present what we believe to be a novel approach to simulating the spectral fine structure (<1 nm) in measurements of spectrometers such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME). GOME measures the Earth's radiance spectra and daily solar irradiance spectra from which a reflectivity spectrum is commonly extracted. The high-frequency structures contained in such a spectrum are, apart from atmospheric absorption, caused by Raman scattering and by a shift between the solar irradiance and the Earth's radiance spectrum. Normally, an a priori high-resolution solar spectrum is used to simulate these structures. We present an alternative method in which all the required information on the solar spectrum is retrieved from the GOME measurements. We investigate two approaches for the spectral range of 390-400 nm. First, a solar spectrum is reconstructed on a fine spectral grid from the GOME solar measurement. This approach leads to undersampling errors of up to 0.5% in the modeling of the Earth's radiance spectra. Second, a combination of the solar measurement and one of the Earth's radiance measurement is used to retrieve a solar spectrum. This approach effectively removes the undersampling error and results in residuals close to the GOME measurement noise of 0.1%.

12.
Appl Opt ; 45(23): 5993-6006, 2006 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16926888

RESUMEN

Accurate radiative transfer calculations in cloudy atmospheres are generally time consuming, limiting their practical use in satellite remote sensing applications. We present a model to efficiently calculate the radiative transfer of polarized light in atmospheres that contain homogeneous cloud layers. This model combines the Gauss-Seidel method, which is efficient for inhomogeneous cloudless atmospheres, with the doubling method, which is efficient for homogeneous cloud layers. Additionally to reduce the computational effort for radiative transfer calculations in absorption bands, the cloud reflection and transmission matrices are interpolated over the absorption and scattering optical thicknesses within the cloud layer. We demonstrate that the proposed radiative transfer model in combination with this interpolation technique is efficient for the simulation of satellite measurements for inhomogeneous atmospheres containing one homogeneous cloud layer. For example, the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements in the oxygen A band (758-773 nm) and the Hartley-Huggins ozone band (295-335 nm) with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm can be simulated for these atmospheres within 1 min on a 2.8 GHz PC with an accuracy better than 0.1%.

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