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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1062-1068, 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751320


An estimated 219 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2017, causing approximately 435,000 deaths (1). Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective Anopheles mosquito. Five Plasmodium species that regularly cause illness in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi (2). The parasite first develops in the liver before infecting red blood cells. Travelers to areas with endemic malaria can prevent malaria by taking chemoprophylaxis. However, most antimalarials do not kill the liver stages of the parasite, including hypnozoites that cause relapses of disease caused by P. vivax or P. ovale. Therefore, patients with these relapsing species must be treated with two medications: one for the acute infection, and another to treat the hypnozoites (antirelapse therapy). Until recently, primaquine was the only drug available worldwide to kill hypnozoites. Tafenoquine, a long-acting 8-aminoquinoline drug related to primaquine, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on July 20, 2018, for antirelapse therapy (Krintafel) and August 8, 2018, for chemoprophylaxis (Arakoda) (3,4). This report reviews evidence for the efficacy and safety of tafenoquine and provides CDC guidance for clinicians who prescribe chemoprophylaxis for travelers to areas with endemic malaria and treat malaria.

Aminoquinolinas/uso terapéutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Malaria/prevención & control , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Prevención Secundaria , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Medicina del Viajero , Estados Unidos
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107955


BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is an inflammatory condition of the brain associated with long-term neurologic sequelae and even death in children. Although viruses are often implicated, an etiology is not identified in the majority of cases. Metagenomics-based next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a high-throughput sequencing technique that can enhance the detection of novel or low-frequency pathogens. METHODS: Hospitalized immunocompetent children aged 6 months to 18 years with encephalitis of unidentified etiology were eligible for enrollment. Demographic, historical, and clinical information was obtained, and residual blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were subjected to mNGS. Pathogens were identified by querying the sequence data against the NCBI GenBank database. RESULTS: Twenty children were enrolled prospectively between 2013 and 2017. mNGS of CSF identified 7 nonhuman nucleic acid sequences of significant frequency in 6 patients, including that of Mycoplasma bovis, parvovirus B19, Neisseria meningitidis, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. mNGS also detected Cladophialophora species, tobacco mosaic virus, and human bocavirus, which were presumed to be contaminants or nonpathogenic organisms. One patient was found to have positive serology results for California encephalitis virus, but mNGS did not detect it. Patients for whom mNGS identified a diagnosis had a significantly higher CSF white blood cell count, a higher CSF protein concentration, and a lower CSF glucose level than patients for whom mNGS did not identify a diagnosis. CONCLUSION: We describe here the results of a prospective cohort analysis to evaluate mNGS as a diagnostic tool for children with unexplained encephalitis. Although mNGS detected multiple nonpathogenic organisms, it also identified multiple pathogens successfully and was most useful in patients with a CSF abnormality.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 13(4): 226-33, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234970


While combination antiretroviral therapy allows HIV-infected patients to have life expectancies similar to that of the general population, it may also contribute to the development of co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Such complications could compromise long-term quality of life, especially in HIV-infected youth whose lifetime cumulative exposure to antiretrovirals is likely to be many decades. Recent studies continue to demonstrate abnormalities associated with antiretroviral therapy, although clinical manifestations are rare in this younger population, especially with modern antiretrovirals. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature on complications of treatment in youth with HIV.

Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Fármacos Anti-VIH/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Osteoporosis/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida
Pediatr Ann ; 44(5): e103-7, 2015 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25996196


There are currently 12 species and over 100 serotypes that have been identified in the enterovirus genus, including the coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and polioviruses. Since their discovery 65 years ago, much has been discovered and continues to be researched regarding the pathogenicity and scope of disease of nonpolio enteroviruses. Like many infections, enteroviruses have been found to affect neonates much differently, and often more severely, than older children and adults. Neonatal infections often cause mild illnesses with nonspecific symptoms, but they may also have severe presentations involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, hematologic, or central nervous systems. This article provides an overview of what is known about nonpolio enteroviruses in neonates including epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment.

Infecciones por Enterovirus/diagnóstico , Enterovirus , Infecciones por Enterovirus/terapia , Humanos , Recién Nacido