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1.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(11): 2294-2308, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use shows age-graded patterning, with normative use progressing through characteristic milestones of escalating use or severity. Despite some knowledge about the timing of milestone attainment and sequencing across milestones, there is a gap in our understanding of the earliest stages of use. This study characterizes the timing, sequencing, and speed of progression through milestones beginning with the first sip of alcohol. METHODS: Sixth through eighth graders (N = 1023; 52% female; 76% White; M = 12.23 years old) completed web surveys through the end of high school. Participants reported on alcohol experiences including the first sip, full drink, consumption of 3+ drinks/occasion (heavy drinking), being drunk, and experiencing acute consequences, from which milestone age and speed of progression (duration) were calculated. Milestone prevalence, sequencing, and timing were characterized, and associations between age of attainment and speed of progression were examined. We also examined whether milestone timing and progression varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. RESULTS: Overall, milestones followed the expected ordering with the exception of heavy drinking (3+ drinks/occasion) and being drunk, which appear to index similar experiences. An earlier age of attainment was associated with an increased likelihood of attaining each of the milestones. In contrast, once a milestone was achieved, there was reduced risk of initiation of subsequent adjacent milestones for individuals with an earlier first sip and full drink, and earlier initiation was associated with a longer duration to subsequent milestones. Girls were more likely to attain all milestones than boys, but there was no sex difference in the age of attainment. In contrast, Hispanic youth reported earlier ages of initiation than White non-Hispanic youth, but the likelihood of attainment did not vary by race/ethnicity. Rapid progression was observed in females but did not vary by race/ethnicity. DISCUSSION: Risks associated with early drinking are complex, with little support for normative ordering of milestones beyond the first sip. Although early drinking is associated with an increased risk of subsequent drinking, it does not appear to place the drinker on an accelerated course to heavier use. A nuanced understanding of risks associated with milestone timing may inform intervention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Edad de Inicio , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 698-711, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472880

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Given the adverse outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, understanding factors that give rise to occasions of simultaneous use is critical. This study examines the relationships between situational motives and contexts and three situational outcomes: simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) use versus cannabis-only use, number of cannabis uses, and subjective effects. METHOD: Past-month SAM users (n = 341; 52% female; 75% White; 10% Latinx/Hispanic; age 18-24) from three U.S. college campuses completed 8 weeks of surveys up to five times a day. Three-level generalized linear mixed-effects models tested the effects of situational motives and social and physical contexts on occasion type (SAM vs. cannabis-only), cannabis use, and subjective effects. RESULTS: Situational social and enhancement motives were related to greater odds of SAM relative to cannabis-only use; expansion motives were reported more often on cannabis-only occasions. Using with others and at friends' places, being with others consuming cannabis, and being with others who are intoxicated were more likely when combining alcohol with cannabis. Increased number of cannabis uses and subjective effects in a social context were evident only on cannabis-only occasions. Using alone and using at home were greater on cannabis-only occasions and were associated with lower cannabis use and subjective effects. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of alcohol and cannabis use occurs during social situations and when motivated by positive reinforcement but number of cannabis uses is not increased when consuming cannabis with alcohol in social situations. Characterizing the complex interplay of situational factors that contribute to risky use will inform interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Motivación , Adulto Joven
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444465

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a global pandemic that has resulted in widespread negative outcomes. Face masks and social distancing have been used to minimize its spread. Understanding who will engage in protective behaviors is crucial for continued response to the pandemic. We aimed to evaluate factors that are indicative of mask use and social distancing among current and former college students prior to vaccine access. Participants (N = 490; 67% female; 60% White) were current and former U.S. undergraduate college students. Perceived effectiveness and descriptive norms regarding COVID-19 safety measures, COVID-19-related news watching and seeking, state response timing to stay-at-home mandates, impulsivity-like traits, affect (mood), and demographic variables were assessed. Results found that greater perceived effectiveness indicated increased personal compliance within and across behaviors. Greater norms related to compliance within behaviors (e.g., indoor norms related to indoor compliance). Increased perceived stress, anxiety, and negative affect indicated greater compliance. More positive affect was associated with less compliance. Being non-White, compared to White (p < 0.001), and female, compared to male (p < 0.001), were associated with greater compliance. Overall, early implementation of stay-at-home orders, exposure to COVID-19-related news, and increased perceived effectiveness are crucial for health safety behavior compliance. Findings are important for informing response to health crises, including COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Distanciamiento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 752-764, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755224

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In spring 2020, U.S. universities closed campuses to limit the transmission of COVID-19, resulting in an abrupt change in residence, reductions in social interaction, and in many cases, movement away from a heavy drinking culture. The present mixed-methods study explores COVID-19-related changes in college student drinking. We characterize concomitant changes in social and location drinking contexts and describe reasons attributed to changes in drinking. METHODS: We conducted two studies of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drinking behavior, drinking context, and reasons for both increases and decreases in consumption among college students. Study 1 (qualitative) included 18 heavy-drinking college students (Mage  = 20.2; 56% female) who completed semi-structured interviews. Study 2 (quantitative) included 312 current and former college students who reported use of alcohol and cannabis (Mage  = 21.3; 62% female) and who completed an online survey. RESULTS: In both studies, COVID-19-related increases in drinking frequency were accompanied by decreases in quantity, heavy drinking, and drunkenness. Yet, in Study 2, although heavier drinkers reduced their drinking, among non-heavy drinkers several indices of consumption increased or remained stable . Both studies also provided evidence of reductions in social drinking with friends and roommates and at parties and increased drinking with family. Participants confirmed that their drinking decreased due to reduced social opportunities and/or settings, limited access to alcohol, and reasons related to health and self-discipline. Increases were attributed to greater opportunity (more time) and boredom and to a lesser extent, lower perceived risk of harm and to cope with distress. CONCLUSION: This study documents COVID-19-related changes in drinking among college student drinkers that were attributable to changes in context, particularly a shift away from heavy drinking with peers to lighter drinking with family. Given the continued threat of COVID-19, it is imperative for researchers, administrators, and parents to understand these trends as they may have lasting effects on college student drinking behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades/tendencias , Adaptación Psicológica/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Autoinforme , Adulto Joven
5.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106783, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360444

RESUMEN

We examined tobacco use changes in young adult college students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on smoking and vaping. First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day). Also, given the potential protective effects of pausing (temporarily or permanently discontinuing) smoking or vaping, we evaluated its predictors. We hypothesized that generalized anxiety and moving home would increase the odds of pausing. We also explored effects of COVID-related news exposure and seeking on tobacco use. We re-contacted young adults two years after they completed a study on alcohol and marijuana co-use. A subset (N = 83; 26.6% of the 312 respondents) were enrolled in college and reported use of cigarettes (n = 35) and/or e-cigarettes (n = 69) in the week prior to their campus closing (PC). Paired sample t-tests compared smoking and vaping frequency and quantity PC to past-week use since closing (SC). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine predictors of pausing. Both smoking and vaping frequency decreased from PC to SC; however, decreased frequency did not correspond to reduced quantity. Twenty-four participants (28.9%) paused past-week use SC. Higher anxiety and moving home (versus living independently) were related to increased odds of pausing, whereas COVID-19 related news exposure and seeking were related to decreased odds of pausing. Characterizing COVID-19 related tobacco use change provides insights into how college students respond to novel health threats and informs potential interventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Vapeo/epidemiología , Vapeo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 193: 83-90, 2018 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recanting - denying previous reports of lifetime substance use - occurs frequently in longitudinal investigations of adolescent substance use. While research has focused on how individual differences contribute to recanting, intra-individual factors associated with recanting over time remain understudied. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 1023) were assessed six times between 2009 - 2015. The sample included participants who reported ever-sipping alcohol in at least one assessment who maintained or recanted ever-sipping at the subsequent assessment (n = 543, 53.1% of full sample; 54.5% female; 84.9% white; 89.5% non-Hispanic). The majority (58.6%) of the sample recanted ever-sipping. We fit linear mixed models to investigate whether prospective changes in perceived peer drinking, peer approval, alcohol expectancies, and fear of reprisal predicted recanting. To explore whether mechanisms of recanting differed for delayed (i.e., two assessments or later) recanting, we refit the models in a subset of data excluding immediate (i.e., subsequent assessment) recanters. RESULTS: Prospective increases in perceived peer drinking (OR = 0.65), peer approval of drinking (OR = 0.82), and positive and negative alcohol expectancies (OR = 0.96; 0.98, respectively) predicted lower odds of recanting. Similar effects were observed among only delayed recanters. CONCLUSION: Time-varying, intra-individual factors uniquely predicted recanting over time. Although most recanting occurs immediately following the initial report of ever-sipping, the observed effects were consistent between delayed recanters and the sample as a whole. Considering the systematic patterns evident in recanting, researchers should consider using computer-assisted or other research methods that minimize or verify recanting when it occurs while also informing missing data models.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Grupo Paritario , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
7.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 42(1): 184-194, 2018 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193150

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED). METHODS: Data were taken from a sample of 882 middle school youth (52% female; 24% non-White) enrolled in an ongoing study on alcohol initiation and progression. Exposure to alcohol content in films was measured using a method that combines content analysis and random assignment of movie titles to youth surveys. The hazard of initiating alcohol use (sip, full drink, HED) as a function of exposure was estimated using survival analysis. Associations were adjusted for demographic, personality, and social influence factors known to be associated with both movie exposure and alcohol use. RESULTS: Exposure to alcohol content was common. Hours of exposure prospectively predicted earlier onset of alcohol involvement across all outcomes. Viewing movies with friends appeared to augment the media exposure effect, in contrast to viewing movies with parents, which was not a significant predictor of initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to alcohol in films is involved in the entry into early stages of alcohol involvement. Findings support further investigation into the role of the media in underage drinking, especially in the context of consuming media with friends and peers. Limiting media exposure and/or stronger Federal Trade Commission oversight of movie ratings should be a priority for preventing underage drinking.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Películas Cinematográficas/tendencias , Grupo Paritario , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/tendencias , Adolescente , Femenino , Amigos/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Padres/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos
8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 30(5): 566-577, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27269292

RESUMEN

Research characterizing the adolescent drinking context is limited, often relies on samples of current drinkers reporting on recent/last or typical drinking experiences, and provides little information about the context of very early use. The present study uses repeated monthly assessments to describe the context of drinking days and matched nondrinking days to determine the unique risk associated with different drinking-related characteristics. Additionally, we used latent class analysis to empirically identify key configurations of drinking-related characteristics and both family- and nonfamily-related environmental characteristics (social context, physical location, source of alcohol). Data included 688 days (344 drinking days, 344 nondrinking days) from 164 middle-school students enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (62% female; 26% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Results supported 4 patterns: (a) heavier drinking occurring in a peer context, lighter drinking occurring in (b) a family context or (c) a peer context, and (d) drinking alcohol obtained at home without permission. Latent classes varied as a function of gender, age, peer norms, and parenting behaviors as well as alcohol type and perceived alcohol availability. Findings indicated that highly endorsed contexts were not necessarily the riskiest ones, and simply targeting an oft-reported source of alcohol, physical location, or social context may not be an effective strategy for reducing underage drinking. Additionally, although greater monitoring and anticipated parent reaction to drinking are typically protective against adolescent drinking, we found they were associated with parent-sanctioned drinking, suggesting the role of parenting practices must be considered in the context of drinking pattern. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Grupo Paritario , Medio Social , Consumo de Alcohol en Menores/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres , Estudios Prospectivos
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