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1.
Prog Brain Res ; 262: 399-430, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931189

RESUMEN

It has been increasingly recognized that tinnitus is likely to be generated by complex network changes. Acoustic trauma that causes tinnitus induces significant changes in multiple metabolic pathways in the brain. However, it is not clear whether those metabolic changes in the brain could also be reflected in blood samples and whether metabolic changes could discriminate acoustic trauma, hyperacusis and tinnitus. We analyzed brain and serum metabolic changes in rats following acoustic trauma or a sham procedure using metabolomics. Hearing levels were recorded before and after acoustic trauma and behavioral measures to quantify tinnitus and hyperacusis were conducted at 4 weeks following acoustic trauma. Tissues from 11 different brain regions and serum samples were collected at about 3 months following acoustic trauma. Among the acoustic trauma animals, eight exhibited hyperacusis-like behavior and three exhibited tinnitus-like behavior. Using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis, significant metabolic changes were found in acoustic trauma animals in both the brain and serum samples with a number of metabolic pathways significantly perturbated. Furthermore, metabolic changes in the serum were able to differentiate sham from acoustic trauma animals, as well as sham from hyperacusis animals, with high accuracy. Our results suggest that serum metabolic profiling in combination with machine learning analysis may be a promising approach for identifying biomarkers for acoustic trauma, hyperacusis and potentially, tinnitus.

2.
J Nutr Biochem ; : 108750, 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933581

RESUMEN

Lycopene has a wide range of biological functions, especially its antioxidant capacity. However, effects of lycopene on muscle fatigue resistant and muscle fiber type conversion are unknown. In this study, we found that lycopene significantly prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion in mice. We also showed that lycopene increased the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber by promoting muscle fiber type conversion from fast-twitch to slow-twitch in mice and in C2C12 myotubes. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling was activated by lycopene. AMPK upstream and downstream regulators including nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-ß (CaMKKß), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ coactivator-1ɑ (PGC-1ɑ) were also increased by lycopene. AMPK inhibitor compound C markedly attenuated the lycopene-induced skeletal muscle fiber type conversion in C2C12 myotubes. Taken together, we provided the first evidence that lycopene increases the proportion of slow-twitch muscle fiber through AMPK signaling pathway to improve fatigue resistant of skeletal muscle.

3.
Food Chem ; 358: 129868, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933953

RESUMEN

This work aims at investigating the pH-regulated relationship between the structural features and emulsifying properties of chicken liver protein (CLP) during succinylation and related mechanisms behind. The results demonstrated that the major succinylation sites occurred at lysine, histidine and tyrosine of CLP, and the succinylation degree increased by 30.66% as pH increased to 10. The succinylation pH elevation increased the solubility and oil absorption capacity of CLP, thus favoring its improvement in emulsifying properties, due to the succinylation process-induced increase in surface charge density and amphiphilic balance as well as modified network structure. However, the surface hydrophobicity of succinylated products decreased by 10.75% when the pH increased from 7 to 10. Besides, succinylation-induced variations in electrostatic repulsive and particle size distribution greatly improved the storability of the emulsions. These results suggested the great potential of pH-modulated succinylation to regulate the structure-property relationship of protein-based products.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249579, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831012

RESUMEN

Along with the plight of the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 come the xenophobic behaviors and hate crimes against people with Asian descent around the globe. The threat of a public health emergency catalyzed underlying xenophobic sentiments, manifesting them into racial discrimination of various degrees. With most discriminatory acts reported in liberal societies, this article investigates whether an economy more open to trade and migration can be more susceptible to xenophobia. Using our first-hand survey data of 1767 Chinese respondents residing overseas from 65 different countries during February of 2020, we adopt an instrumental variable strategy to identify the causal effect of openness to trade and migration of their residence country on the likelihood of them receiving discriminatory behaviors during the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. Our results show that greater openness to trade increases the likelihood of reported xenophobic behaviors, while openness to migration decreases it. On the other hand, stronger trade or immigration relationships with China are associated with less reported discrimination. And these effects primarily influence discriminatory behavior in interpersonal spaces, rather than through media outlets. Our findings highlight nuances of the effect of trade relations on the culture of a society.


Asunto(s)
Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Xenofobia/psicología , /epidemiología , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Arch Med Res ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875273

RESUMEN

Virus infection can alter immune regulatory activity, and thus may be involved in the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Recently, the pandemic of COVID-19 has posed a huge threat to public health and emerging evidence suggests that coronavirus may be implicated in the development and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, how coronavirus infection impacts the risk of autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this review, we focused on the association between coronavirus and autoimmunity, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms linking coronavirus exposure to autoimmunity. Additionally, we briefly introduced the role that coronavirus plays in several autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and idiopathicthrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).

6.
Nanoscale ; 13(14): 6953-6964, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885497

RESUMEN

Two-dimensional (2D) non-van der Waals magnetic materials have attracted considerable attention due to their high-temperature ferromagnetism, active surface/interface properties originating from dangling bonds, and good stability under ambient conditions. Here, we demonstrate the controlled synthesis and systematic Raman investigation of ultrathin non-van der Waals antiferromagnetic α-MnSe single crystals. Square and triangular nanosheets with different growth orientations can be achieved by introducing different precursors via the atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method. The temperature-dependent resonant enhancement in the Raman intensity of two peaks at 233.8 cm-1 and 459.9 cm-1 gives obvious evidence that the antiferromagnetic spin-ordering is below TN∼ 160 K. Besides, a new peak located at 254.2 cm-1, gradually appearing as the temperature decreased from 180 K to 100 K, may also be a signature of phase transition from paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic. The phonon dispersion spectra of α-MnSe simulated by density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) match well with the observed Raman signals. Moreover, a fabricated α-MnSe phototransistor exhibits p-type conducting behavior and high photodetection performance. We believe that these findings will be beneficial for the applications of 2D α-MnSe in magnetic and semiconducting fields.

7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 275: 114095, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819505

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. (Euphorbiaceae) is a perennial herb distributed in grassland, hill slopes or gravel hillside, with average altitude of 100-600 m. The whole grass of E. fischeriana is toxic with roots used as folk medicine to treat Zhushui, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, cough, as well as external applications such as cure of scabies and tuberculosis of lymph nodes. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This systematic review aims to provide a detailed and in-depth summary about the reported advances in traditional uses, clinical applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicity of E. fischeriana, so as to offer fresh ideas and broader vision and insights for subsequent studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various scientific data bases such as CNKI, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Science Direct, SciFinder Scholar and Web of Science were searched to collect information about E. fischeriana. Other relevant literatures were searched in 'Flora of China Editorial Committee', ancient books, Ph.D and Masters' Dissertation to get more data of E. fischeriana. RESULTS: A total of 241 chemical constituents have been identified from the roots of E. fischeriana, including diterpenoids, triterpenoids, meroterpenoids, acetophenones, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, phenolic acids, tannins, etc. Various pharmacological activities have been demonstrated, especially anti-tumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-leukemia activities. Moreover, different investigations about clinical uses and toxicology of E. fischeriana indicated that attention should be paid to its usage and dosage. CONCLUSION: The researches of E. fischeriana are excellent, but gap still remains. As a poisonous traditional Chinese medicine, there are not enough studies on the toxicity of E. fischeriana. In addition, scholars' research on the pharmacological mechanism of E. fischeriana focuses more on the anti-tumor activity, which can be broadened in the future. Presumably, chemical constituents and biological activities of diterpenoids and trace meroterpenoids in E. fischeriana deserve further research in-depth in the future, in order to provide low toxicity and high efficiency lead compounds. Meanwhile, further studies on other medicinal aspects may lay a foundation for the comprehensive development and utilization of E. fischeriana.

8.
BMC Urol ; 21(1): 72, 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906652

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is used to treat urinary tract calculi, but postoperative complications include shivering, fever and infection. To investigate the effects of irrigation fluid temperature on postoperative complications. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial included 120 consecutive patients undergoing flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy at the Urology Department, Suining Central Hospital, Sichuan, China between January 2017 and July 2019. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 into three groups (17 °C, 27 °C or 37 °C). Primary outcome was fever incidence (body temperature > 37.5 °C) within 48 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes included shivering incidence during recovery from anesthesia, white blood cell count (WBC), serum procalcitonin (PCT) and incidence of suspected infection (temperature > 38.5 °C and PCT > 0.5 µg/L). RESULTS: There were 108 patients, (17 °C group, n = 36; 27 °C group, n = 35; 37 °C group, n = 37), received flexible ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy and analyzed. Age, gender distribution, body mass index, ASA grade, stone burden, preoperative creatinine, preoperative core temperature and irrigation fluid volume did not differ significantly between groups. 17 °C, 27 °C and 37 °C groups exhibited significant differences in the incidences of postoperative fever (38.9% vs. 17.1% vs. 13.5%) and shivering (22.2% vs. 5.7% vs. 2.7%) (p < 0.05 for all pairwise comparisons). There was no significant difference of WBC, PCT and incidence of suspected infection in 37 °C or 27 °C group compared with 17 °C group. One case each of flash pulmonary edema and bleeding occurred in 37 °C group. CONCLUSION: Warming the irrigation fluid can reduce the incidence of postoperative fever and shivering, but further studies are needed to determine the optimal temperature. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry and allocated as ChiCTR2000031683. The trial was registered on 07/04/2020 and this was a retrospective registration.

9.
Trials ; 22(1): 295, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879221

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is common in China. Pharmacological therapy is not the first recommendation because of its safety issues. Nonpharmacological therapy, such as lifestyle adjustments, weight loss, muscle strengthening, and aerobic exercise programs, is strongly recommended for KOA. However, these approaches may fail due to poor patient compliance. There is a lack of high-quality randomized controlled trials of acupotomy, an effective treatment for KOA. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of acupotomy in patients with KOA. METHODS: A total of 136 patients will be enrolled at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine and assigned to the acupotomy group or sham acupotomy group according to the block randomization scheme. Patients in the acupotomy group will receive 2 sessions of acupotomy for 2 weeks (once a week). Patients in the sham group will receive 2 sessions of sham stimulation for 2 weeks (once a week). All patients will use indomethacin cream externally. The primary outcome will be the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the secondary outcomes will be the visual analog scale (VAS) score, plantar pressure distribution test result, X-ray examination findings, musculoskeletal ultrasound findings, maximum knee circumference, joint mobility, and quality of life. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 1 week after the end of treatment, and at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first single-blind, sham-controlled study of acupotomy. The outcome assessors will also be blinded. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the efficacy of acupotomy in treating KOA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000033047 . Registered on 18 May 2020.

10.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930259

RESUMEN

The ubiquitous volatile linalool is metabolized in plants to non-volatile derivatives. We studied Nicotiana attenuata plants which naturally vary in (S)-(+)-linalool contents, and lines engineered to produce either (R)-(-)- or (S)-(+)-linalool. Only (S)-(+)-linalool production was associated with slower growth of a generalist herbivore, and a large fraction was present as non-volatile derivatives. We found that variation in volatile linalool and its nonvolatile glycosides mapped to the same genetic locus which harbored the biosynthetic gene, NaLIS, but that free linalool varied more in environmental responses. This study reveals how (S)-(+)-linalool and conjugates differ in their regulation and possible functions in resistance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Hepatology ; 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928666

RESUMEN

Proteins that recognize the epigenetic modifications function as mediators to interpret the epigenetic codes. Hypoxia response and metabolic rewiring are two major events during cancer progression. However, it's still unclear whether and how epigenetic regulator integrates hypoxia response and metabolism together. We data mined the clinical association of 33 histone Kac reader proteins with liver cancer and that AF9 is upregulated in cancer and correlates with tumor stage and poor prognosis. Conditional deletion of Af9 in mouse liver resulted in decreased tumor formation induced by c-Met/ß-catenin. Loss of AF9 heavily impaired cell proliferation and completely blocked solid tumor formation. We further discovered AF9 formed a positive feedback circuit with HIF1α and also stabilized cMyc. Mechanically, AF9 interacted with HIF1α and targeted HIF1A promoter while AF9 recognized cMyc acetylation at K148, protected cMyc phosphorylation at S62 and then stabilized the cMyc which in turn upregulates PFKP expression. Otherwise, knockout of Af9 in mouse hepatocyte increased the infiltration of CD8+ T cells which is linked to the downregulation of LDHA. In conclusions, AF9 is upregulated to promote gene expression of hypoxia tolerance and glycolysis by simultaneously forming a complex with HIF1α and recognizing acetylated cMyc. Our results establish the oncogenic role of AF9 in human liver cancer, which could be a potential target for designing novel drugs against liver cancer.

12.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928841

RESUMEN

Thirty castrated Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) pigs were randomly divided into three groups and slaughtered at 180, 210, and 240 days of age, respectively. Here, we found that the live weight, carcass weight, carcass length, dressing percentage, eye muscle area, backfat deposit, muscle yellowness b* value, drip loss, and cooking loss increased significantly, and the muscle pH 45 min value decreased dramatically as the slaughter age of DLY pigs extended. Moreover, increasing the slaughter age of DLY pigs could obtain higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) percentage, crude protein, essential amino acids (EAA) contents and EAA/NEAA level, and lower n-6/n-3 PUFA level and antioxidant capacity. Together, this study suggests that the older slaughter age improves the carcass traits and nutritional value of pork, but leads to a significant decrease in pork sensory quality in DLY finishing pigs.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826200

RESUMEN

The first catalytic asymmetric multiple vinylogous addition reactions initiated by Meinwald rearrangement of vinyl epoxides were realized by employing chiral N,N'-dioxide/Sc(III) complex catalysts. The vinyl epoxides, as masked ß,γ-unsaturated aldehydes, via direct vinylogous additions with isatins, 2-alkenoylpyridines or methyleneindolinones, provided a facile and efficient way for the synthesis of chiral 3-hydroxy-3-substituted oxindoles, α,ß-unsaturated aldehydes and spiro-cyclohexene indolinones, respectively with high efficiency and stereoselectivity. The control experiments and kinetic studies revealed that the Lewis acid acted as dual-tasking catalyst, controlling the initial rearrangement to match subsequent enantioselective vinylogous addition reactions. A catalytic cycle with a possible transition model was proposed to illustrate the reaction mechanism.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 783: 146863, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872912

RESUMEN

Microplastic pollution of freshwaters is known to be a great concern in China and these pollutants can be discharged into the coastal environment through fluvial processes, posing threats to the global marine ecosystem. This paper reviewed the literature measuring microplastic pollution in the Chinese freshwater environment and found that microfibres dominate other plastic morphologies in more than 65% of samples collected in surface water, sediments and effluents of wastewater treatment plants and domestic sewers. Current potential sources of microfibre pollution are identified including fishery activities, laundry sewage, and waste textiles according to previous research. Recommendations are offered using the circular economy management framework, such as textile waste reuse and recycling systems in China, for improving current control measures for microplastics in freshwaters.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6699033, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829063

RESUMEN

Asarum is a traditional medicine and has been widely used as remedies for inflammatory diseases, toothache, headache, local anesthesia, and aphthous stomatitis in China, Japan, and Korea. Our previous research found that safrole and methyl eugenol were vital compounds that contribute to distinguish the different species and raw Asarum and its processed products apart. The pharmacokinetics of safrole and methyl eugenol after oral administration of Asarum extract has not been reported yet. In this study, a rapid and simple gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method that has a complete run time of only 4.5 min was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of safrole and methyl eugenol in rat plasma after administration of Asarum extracts. The chromatographic separation was realized on a DB-17 column (30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm). And detection was carried out under selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Plasma samples were pretreated by n-hexane. The pharmacokinetic parameters provided by this study will be beneficial for further developments and clinical applications of Asarum.

16.
Phytochemistry ; 186: 112736, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799193

RESUMEN

Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata, as a traditional medicine, is widely distributed in China, Korea and Japan. In China, the dried root of this plant is named 'langdu'. It is traditionally used to treat oedema, skin ulcers, abdominal distension, cough, asthma, tuberculosis swelling and other diseases. Previous studies have found that the chemical constituents of E. ebracteolata are mainly concentrated in terpenoids, acetophenones, and flavonoids. Both extracts and pure compounds from E. ebracteolata were found to possess many pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antimicrobial effects. In addition, it was reported that E. ebracteolata shows toxicity. To provide inspiration for further in-depth studies on this plant, this review will provide a timely and systematic summary of E. ebracteolata in traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology toxicology, and quality control.

17.
Immunobiology ; 226(3): 152077, 2021 Mar 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831654

RESUMEN

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most common pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in humans. Due to its high rates of antibiotic resistance, vaccination has become the best method to control the dissemination of M. pneumoniae. The recombinant carboxyl terminus of the P1 (P1C) protein is an immunodominant antigen, but it has negative effects such as poor stability and lower purity. In the current study, T-B epitopes of the P1C protein were predicted according to bioinformatics analysis and assessed for efficacy in peptide vaccination. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously inoculated with the T-B epitope peptides four times and then infected with M. pneumoniae through the respiratory tract. The results showed that the T-B epitope peptides of the P1C protein (P1C103-117, P1C155-169, P1C224-238 and P1C244-258) induced strong antigen-specific serum antibody responses and cellular immune responses with high levels of serum IgG, IgA antibodies and Th1-biased (IFN-γ and IL-2) cytokines. Immunization with T-B epitope peptides significantly reduced the M. pneumoniae burden and the degree of inflammation in the challenged mice. Furthermore, the levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the supernatants of lung homogenates were observably reduced compared to those in the PBS group. Overall, our findings demonstrate that T-B epitopes (P1C103-117, P1C155-169, P1C224-238 and P1C244-258) play significant roles in the P1C protein and can be used to induce powerful humoral and cellular immune responses to provide significant protection against M. pneumoniae pulmonary infection, which provides new insight into the design of potential multiepitope vaccines to prevent host infection by M. pneumoniae.

18.
J Affect Disord ; 288: 10-16, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839553

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common public health problem in China. However, few studies have focused on its incidence and separated age, period, and cohort effects. This study aimed to assess the age, period, and cohort effects on the incidence trends of MDD in China between 1993 and 2017. METHODS: The incidence data of MDD were obtained from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2017. Age-period-cohort modeling method was used to separate the age, period, and cohort effects on MDD incidence rate. RESULTS: The incidence number of MDD increased by 22.8% while the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 15.6% over 25 years. Age-period-cohort analysis indicated that the net drift was -0.433% per year, with -0.486% for females and -0.385% for males. For both sexes, the local drifts were all <0 in 10 to 54 years age groups but >0 in 55 to 94 years age groups. The longitudinal age curves of MDD incidence basically showed an increasing trend, except for a subpeak at 20-24 years age group. The period rate ratio largely declined over time, except for an uptick after 2003-2007. The cohort rate ratio followed an inverted U-shaped pattern and was highest in 1951-1955 birth cohort. LIMITATIONS: The MDD data were estimated and wide social factors were not included in the analyses. CONCLUSION: The changes of MDD incidence rate in China are likely to be related to rapid social and economic development, and major historical events. However, the associations need to be interpreted with caution.

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653755, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912180

RESUMEN

Fasciola gigantica produces excretory-secretory products (ESPs) with immune-modulating effects to promote its own survival. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to gain a comprehensive global understanding of changes in the expression of mRNAs, miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with F. gigantica ESPs. A total of 1,544 differently expressed mRNAs (790 upregulated and 754 downregulated genes), 30 differently expressed miRNAs (24 upregulated and 6 downregulated genes), 136 differently expressed circRNAs (83 upregulated and 53 downregulated genes), and 1,194 differently expressed lncRNAs (215 upregulated and 979 downregulated genes) were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that F. gigantica ESPs altered the expression of genes associated with the host immune response, receptor signaling, disease and metabolism. Results from RNA-seq were validated by qRT-PCR. These findings provide an important resource for future investigation of the role of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs in mediating the immune-modulating effects of F. gigantica ESPs.

20.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e30, 2021 04 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843547

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As one of the most widely researched consequence of traumatic events, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms among people exposed to the trauma resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak varies greatly across studies. This review aimed at examining the pooled prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms among people exposed to the trauma resulting from COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Systematic searches of databases were conducted for literature published on PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, PsycArticle, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure until October 14, 2020. Statistical analyses were performed using R software (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020180309). RESULTS: A total of 106,713 people exposed to the trauma resulting from the COVID-19 outbreak were identified in the 76 articles, of which 33,810 were reported with post-traumatic stress symptoms. The pooled prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms among people exposed to the trauma resulting from COVID-19 outbreak was 28.34%, with a 95% confidence interval of 23.03-34.32%. Subgroup analysis indicated that older age, male and bigger sample size were associated with higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms. After controlling for other factors, the results of meta-regression showed that the influence of gender and sample size on prevalence is no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were very common among people exposed to the trauma resulting from COVID-19 outbreak. Further research is needed to explore more possible risk factors for post-traumatic stress symptoms and identify effective strategies for preventing PTSD-related symptoms among people exposed to the trauma resulting from COVID-19 outbreak.

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