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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937984

RESUMEN

Projecting the burden of pancreatic cancer over time provides essential information to effectively plan measures for its management and prevention. Here, we obtained data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study between 1990 and 2019, to model how pancreatic cancer will affect the 27 countries of the European Union (EU) plus the United Kingdom (the pre-Brexit EU-28) until 2039 by conducting the Bayesian age-period-cohort analysis. The number of new pancreatic cancer cases in the EU-28 was 59,000 in 1990, 109,000 in 2019, and projected to be 147,000 in 2039. This corresponded to 60,000, 109,000, and 155,000 for deaths, and a loss of 1.3 million, 2.0 million, and 2.7 million for disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), respectively. The most pronounced increase of the crude incidence rate was observed and projected to be in the population older than 80 years. The age-standardized rate (ASR) of incidence, however, increased from 8.6 to 10.1 per 100,000 person-years during 1990-2019 but was projected to remain stable during 2019-2039. At the same time, our models only predicted a mild increase for the ASR of mortality until 2039. The fraction of pancreatic cancer mortality attributable to tobacco consumption decreased during 1990-2019, but we found upward trends for the attributable fractions for high fasting plasma glucose and high body-mass index. In conclusion, a substantial increase in counts of incidence, mortality, and DALYs lost of pancreatic cancer in the EU-28 is projected over the next two decades, which indicates the need for future health policies and interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; : 101449, 2021 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933353

RESUMEN

AIM: The prevalence of contact lens related dry eye (CLDE) is high and can lead to ocular discomfort, reduced quality of vision and life. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment in alleviating signs and symptoms of CLDE. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, examiner masked study. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 152 eyes of 76 patients (IPL group, n = 76 eyes; control group, n = 76 eyes) wearing contact lens (CL) and experiencing CLDE for more than 1 year. The IPL treatment group underwent two IPL treatment sessions at 3-week intervals while the control group received sham IPL treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ocular surface disease index (OSDI), non-invasive breakup time (NITBUT), tear film lipid layer (TFLL) quality, fluorescein staining (FS), meibum gland (MG) quality and expression, endothelial cell count (ECC) and intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed at baseline (D-0), day-21 (D-21) and day-42 (D-42) after IPL treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of treatment group and control group was 28.47 ± 5.16 years (21 females, 28 %) and 28.58 ± 4.33 years (23 females, 30 %) respectively. IPL treatment group had clinically and statistically significant improvement in mean NITBUT was observed at D14 (5.24 s, P<0.001) and D28 (6.08 s, P<0.001). OSDI, TFLL score and MG quality and expressibility all improved significantly (P<0.001) at D-42, whereas BCVA, ECC and IOP showed no significant changes at D-21 and D-42 in IPL treatment group. The control group showed no significant improvement in all parameters at D-21 and D-42. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that CL related DE can be safely alleviated with IPL treatment as it reduced the severity of symptoms, improved the overall tear film stability and reduced artificial tear use in participants with CLDE.

3.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934562

RESUMEN

The therapeutic outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unsatisfactory due to poor response and acquired drug resistance. To better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of HCC, here we used three Gene Expression Omnibus datasets to identify potential oncogenes, and thereby identified small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide C (SNRPC). We report that SNRPC is highly upregulated in HCC tissues as determined using immunohistochemistry assays of samples from a cohort of 224 HCC patients, and overexpression of SNRPC was correlated with multiple tumors, advanced stage, and poor outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with high SNRPC expression exhibited shorter survival in four independent HCC cohorts (all P<0.05). Furthermore, SNRPC mutations are significantly more frequent in HCC tissues than in normal liver tissues, and is an early event in the development of HCC. Functional network analysis suggested that SNRPC is linked to the regulation of ribosome, spliceosome, and proteasome signaling. Subsequently, gain- and loss-of-function assays showed that SNRPC promotes the motility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HCC cells in vitro. SNRPC expression was negatively correlated with the infiltration of CD4+ T cells, macrophage cells, and neutrophil cells (all P<0.05), as determined by analyzing the TIMER database. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SNRPC has a potential role in EMT and motility in HCC.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107697, 2021 Apr 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933847

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Toward the end of December 2019, a novel type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV) broke out in Wuhan, China. Here, the hematological characteristics of patients with severe and critical 2019-nCoV pneumonia in intensive care unit (ICU) were investigated, which may provide the necessary basis for its diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: We collected data on patients with confirmed 2019-nCoV pneumonia in the ICU of Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan from February 25 to April 2, 2020. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the presence of 2019-nCoV, and various hematological characteristics were analyzed. RESULTS: All patients tested positive for 2019-nCoV using nasopharyngeal swabs or sputum after admission, and interstitial pneumonia findings were noted on chest computed tomography. Sex, age and comorbidities were not significantly different between the severe and critical groups. In terms of prognosis, the survival rate of patients in the severe group reached 100%, whereas that of patients in the critical group was only 13.33% after positive treatment. Furthermore, lymphocyte percentage, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, D-dimer, myohemoglobin, procalcitonin, and IL-6 levels were high-risk factors for disease progression in critical patients. Finally, lymphocyte percentage and blood urea nitrogen, calcium, myohemoglobin, and IL-6 levels were closely associated with patient prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: 2019-nCoV pneumonia should be considered a systemic disease. Patients with more complications were more likely to develop critical disease. Lymphocyte percentage and blood urea nitrogen, calcium, myohemoglobin, and IL-6 levels can be monitored to prevent progression critical disease.

5.
J Insect Physiol ; : 104248, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945808

RESUMEN

Since 2016, the fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda) has invaded large parts of Africa and Asia, impacting millions of hectares of maize crops and thereby posing a major threat to food security. The rapid geographic spread and outbreak dynamics of S. frugiperda are tied to its unique dispersal ability and long-distance migration capability. Yet, up till present, limited research has been conducted on the physiological determinants of S. frugiperda flight and migration. In this study, we used laboratory experiments to assess whether mating and oviposition affect S. frugiperda flight ability and wingbeat frequency. During 2019-2020, migratory FAW females were trapped in Yunnan (China) and dissected to assess ovarian development. Tethered flight assays showed that gravid S. frugiperda females exhibited strong flight ability at 1-3 days following the onset of oviposition. Flight distance and duration negatively correlated with the number of deposited eggs. Ovarian dissections further showed that over 50% of migrant females were mated and 46-54% had initiated oviposition. Our study shows the complex, yet nuanced effects of reproductive status on flight capacity, with possibly a facultative trade-off between flight and reproduction. These novel insights into S. frugiperda physiology and migration behavior can guide future monitoring and integrated pest management (IPM) programs against this newly-invasive pest in China and abroad.

6.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120032736, 2021 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947214

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating subtype of stroke with high mortality and disability. Inflammatory response promotes secondary brain injury after ICH. TREM (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells)-1 is a key regulator of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TREM-1 in neuroinflammatory response after ICH in mice. METHODS: CD1 mice (n=275) were used in this study. Mice were subjected to ICH by autologous blood injection. TREM-1 knockout CRISPR was administered intracerebroventricularly to evaluate the role of TREM-1 after ICH. A selective TREM-1 inhibitor, LP17, was administered intranasally 2 hours after ICH. To elucidate TREM-1 signaling pathway, CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain family member 9) activation CRISPR was administered with LP17 and TREM-1 activating anti-mouse TREM-1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was administered with Rottlerin, a specific PKC (protein kinase C) δ inhibitor. Lastly, to evaluate the role of HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1) in TREM-1 mediated microglia activation, glycyrrhizin, an inhibitor of HMBG1 was administered with TREM-1 activating mAb. Neurobehavioral test, brain water content, Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, and coimmunoprecipitation was performed. RESULTS: TREM-1 knockout reduced ICH-induced neurobehavioral deficits and neuroinflammatory response. The temporal expression of HMGB1, TREM-1, PKC δ, and CARD9 increased after ICH. TREM-1 was expressed on microglia. Intranasal administration of LP17 significantly decreased brain edema and improved neurobehavioral outcomes at 24 and 72 hours after ICH. LP17 promoted M2 microglia polarization and reduced proinflammatory cytokines after ICH, which was reversed with CARD9 activation CRISPR. TREM-1 mAb increased neurobehavior deficits, proinflammatory cytokines, and reduced M2 microglia after ICH, which was reversed with Rottlerin. HMBG1 interaction with TREM-1 increased after ICH, and glycyrrhizin reduced neuroinflammation and promoted M2 microglia which was reversed with TREM-1 mAb. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that TREM-1 enhanced neuroinflammation by modulating microglia polarization after ICH, and this regulation was partly mediated via PKC δ/CARD9 signaling pathway and increased HMGB1 activation of TREM-1.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 491, 2021 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cancer survivors who develop breast cancer as a second malignancy (BCa-2) are common. Yet, little is known about the prognosis of BCa-2 compared to first primary breast cancer (BCa-1). METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we conducted a population-based cohort study including 883,881 patients with BCa-1 and 36,313 patients with BCa-2 during 1990-2015. Compared with patients with BCa-1, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of breast cancer-specific mortality among patients with BCa-2, using multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: During the follow-up (median 5.5 years), 114,964 and 3829 breast cancer-specific deaths were identified among BCa-1 and BCa-2 patients, respectively. Patients with BCa-2 had more favorable tumor characteristics and received less intensive treatment e.g., surgery and chemo-/radio-therapy, compared to patients with BCa-1. When adjusting for demographic factors, patients with BCa-2 were at similar risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97-1.03) compared to patients with BCa-1. However, when additionally controlling for tumor characteristics and treatment modes, BCa-2 patients were at an increased risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.08-1.15). The risk elevation was particularly greater when the first malignancy was lung, bladder, ovarian or blood malignancy (HRs 1.16-1.85), or when the first malignancy was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.28-1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, patients with BCa-2 have worse breast cancer-specific survival, compared with their BCa-1 counterparts, although the risk elevation is mild. High-risk subgroups based on first malignancy's characteristics may be considered for active clinical management.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941490

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics, treatments, and prognosis of patients with renal primitive neuroectodermal ectodermal tumors (rPNETs) with inferior vena cava (IVC) tumor thrombus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 6 patients with rPNETs and IVC tumor thrombus between January 2005 and December 2019, and identified 39 published cases through a literature review. The clinicopathological characteristics, treatments, and survival data were analyzed. RESULTS: The median patient age patients was 26 years, and the male to female ratio was approximately 1:1. The average tumor diameter was 12.5 cm. Seventeen patients (37.8%) showed metastasis at diagnosis. Forty-three cases (95.6%) were managed with surgical resection, and 35 (77.8%) received adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery. Follow-up data were available for 41 patients (median follow-up, 10 months; range, 4.5-13.0). The median overall survival (OS) and median progression-free survival (PFS) were both 30.0 months. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had better PFS than those who underwent surgery only (30.0 months [95% confidence interval [CI], 4.3-55.7] vs 5.0 months [95% CI, 1.0-9.0]; P = .036). In terms of OS, however, the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (30.0 months [95% CI, 8.4-52.6] vs 7.0 months [95% CI, 4.5-9.5]; P = .244). CONCLUSIONS: rPNET with IVCTT is an extremely rare entity that mostly occurs in young adults. Although multidisciplinary treatment is used, the prognosis of this disease remains unclear. RN with IVC tumor thrombectomy is a challenging procedure requiring vascular management techniques and experience. Adjuvant chemotherapy contributes to improved PFS, but not OS. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment play a key role in improving prognosis.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793160

RESUMEN

Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) is a group of immune-mediated liver inflammatory diseases with three major forms including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Interaction of both genetic and environmental factors leads to the breakdown of self-tolerance, hence resulting in hyper-responsive of autoantibodies and aggressive autoreactive immune cells. Genetic studies have identified dozens of risk loci associated with initiation and development of AILD. However, the role of exogenous factors remains unclear. Recently, both infectious and inflammatory diseases have been associated with microbiota, which colonizes multiple mucosal surfaces and participates in human physiological process and function in immune system, particularly influencing liver and biliary system via gut-liver axis. Emerging evidence on the role of gut microbiota has expanded our knowledge of AILD in both pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets, along with putative diagnosis biomarkers. Herein we review the relationship between host and gut microbiota, discuss their potential roles in disease onset and progression, and summarize the compositional and functional alterations of the microbiota in AILD. We also highlight the microbiotabased therapeutics such as antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

10.
Urol Int ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882508

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTIONS: The objective of this study was to determine the prognostic value of positive lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and tumor thrombus (TT) and to explore risk factors predicting LNs metastasis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 216 patients with RCC and TT treated at a single institution from January 2015 to December 2019. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier curves divided by pathological LN status. Associations between clinicopathological features and survival outcomes were evaluated using Cox regression models. Logistic regression model was performed to determine risk factors associated with LN metastasis. RESULTS: We identified 216 patients with RCC and TT including 85 (39.4%) who did and 131 (60.6%) who did not undergo lymph node dissection. Pathologically positive LNs were found in 18 (8.3%) cases. pN1 had significant worse OS (median: 21 vs. 41 and 56 months, p < 0.001) and PFS (median:14 vs. 29 and 33 months, p < 0.001) than pN0 and pNx respectively. However, survival outcomes of OS and PFS were similar between pNx-0/M1 and pN1/M0 group and between 1- and ≥2-node-positive group. Non-CCRCC (p = 0.001), sarcomatoid differentiation (p < 0.001), and pathologically positive LNs (p = 0.025) were independent prognostic predictors predicting worse OS while distance metastasis (p = 0.009), non-CCRCC (p = 0.023), necrosis (p = 0.014), sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.003), and pathologically positive LNs (p = 0.007) were independent prognostic indicators predicting worse PFS. Clinically positive LNs (p = 0.014) and sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.009) were predictors of positive LNs. CONCLUSIONS: LNs metastasis independently associated with worse survival outcomes in RCC and TT populations, with similar survival outcomes compared to distance metastasis. Therefore, more accurate risk stratification is warranted for guiding postoperative surveillance and adjuvant therapy.

11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884546

RESUMEN

Vibration of the elevated urban rail transit (URT) severely affects the health of nearby residents, threatens the integrity of adjacent historic buildings, and aggravates the performance of vibration-sensitive instruments in buildings, and the accompanied annoying structure-borne noise always arouses public complaint. Vibration and noise mitigation measures through track structures and/or noise barriers are increasingly favored to deal with these challenging issues. This paper presents systematic field measurements on noise and vibrations of elevated URT. The vibration experiment covers vibration of track structures, bridge girders and piers, and ground soil under three different track structures, i.e., embedded sleeper track, ladder sleeper track, and floating slab track (FST) with rubber mats. Noise measurements were also conducted considered the effect of track structures and with or without fully enclosed noise barriers. It is shown that ladder sleeper track and FST were more effective in control bridge vibration than ground vibration. The overall vibration level of the bridge is 8~10 dB greater than the ground vibrations. The noise reduction effect through track structure was limited for far-field ground. Furthermore, it is found that the noise barrier was more effective to reduce near-field wheel/rail rolling noise rather than far-field noise. Good correlation between structure-borne noise and vibration was observed for both the embedded sleeper track and FST at the bottom slab of the box girder bridge.

12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(14): 3207-3212, 2021 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885575

RESUMEN

A green and efficient approach for the synthesis of selenium-substituted iminoisobenzofuran using 2-vinylbenzamides and diselenides in a continuous electrochemical microreactor has been developed. This strategy enabled the preparation of a series of iminoisobenzofuran derivatives in moderate to good yields under metal-free and oxidant-free conditions. The application of the electrochemical flow system successfully overcomes the difficulty of process control in traditional electrochemistry and achieves efficient transformation of electricity. Moreover, the continuous-flow system combined with electrosynthesis overcomes the difficulty in realizing a scale-up reaction in conventional batch-type electrolysis.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888544

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes-associated endothelial barrier function impairment might be linked to disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis. To study the role and molecular mechanism of Orais-vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin signaling complex and its downstream signaling pathway in diabetic endothelial injury using mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The activity of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) was detected by calcium imaging after 7 days of high-glucose (HG) or normal-glucose (NG) exposure, the expression levels of Orais after HG treatment was detected by western blot analysis. The effect of HG exposure on the expression of phosphorylated (p)-VE-cadherin and VE-cadherin on cell membrane was observed by immunofluorescence assay. HG-induced transendothelial electrical resistance was examined in vitro after MAECs were cultured in HG medium. FD-20 permeability was tested in monolayer aortic endothelial cells through transwell permeability assay. The interactions between Orais and VE-cadherin were detected by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence technologies. Immunohistochemical experiment was used to detect the expression changes of Orais, VE-cadherin and p-VE-cadherin in aortic endothelium of mice with diabetes. RESULTS: (1) The expression levels of Orais and activity of SOCE were significantly increased in MAECs cultured in HG for 7 days. (2) In MAECs cultured in HG for 7 days, the ratio of p-VE-cadherin to VE-cadherin expressed on the cell membrane and the FD-20 permeability in monolayer endothelial cells increased, indicating that intercellular permeability increased. (3) Orais and VE-cadherin can interact and enhance the interaction ratio through HG stimulation. (4) In MAECs cultured with HG, the SOCE activator ATP enhanced the expression level of p-VE-cadherin, and the SOCE inhibitor BTP2 decreased the expression level of p-VE-cadherin. (5) Significantly increased expression of p-VE-cadherin and Orais in the aortic endothelium of mice with diabetes. CONCLUSION: HG exposure stimulated increased expression of Orais in endothelial cells, and increased VE-cadherin phosphorylation through Orais-VE-cadherin complex and a series of downstream signaling pathways, resulting in disruption of endothelial cell junctions and initiation of atherosclerosis.

14.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-13, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827354

RESUMEN

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B) is a candidate gene that regulates livestock animal lipid metabolism and encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid ß-oxidation. To explore the effect of this gene on lipid metabolism in cattle, this study examined CPT1B gene polymorphism in Chinese Simmental cattle and the effect of CPT1B on lipid metabolism. The results showed that the triglyceride content increased significantly with increasing CPT1B gene expression in bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFFs) (p < 0.05), while CPT1B knockout led to decreased CPT1B expression and a downward trend in triglyceride levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant association between the g.119896238 G > C locus and Chinese Simmental cattle backfat thickness (p < 0.05). Backfat thickness was significantly greater in individuals with the GC genotype (0.93 ± 0.67 cm) than in those with the CC genotype (0.84 ± 0.60 cm). The g.119889302 T > C locus was significantly correlated with arachidonic acid content in Chinese Simmental cattle (p < 0.05). The arachidonic acid content in the longissimus muscle was significantly higher in CC genotype beef cattle (0.054 g/100 g) than in those with the other two genotypes (0.046 g/100 g, 0.049 g/100 g). These molecular markers can be effectively used for marker-assisted selection in cattle breeding.

15.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 1126-1137, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818278

RESUMEN

Diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is a chronic complication of diabetes in the skeletal system. High level of miR-340-5p may be harmful to the bone formation. In this study, the DOP model of rats was successfully established via streptozotocin (STZ) and ovariectomy (OVX) treatment. It was manifested by reduced body weight, insulin level, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteocalcin (OCN) and collagen-I expressions, as well as increased concentration of fasting blood glucose. Moreover, we found that miR-340-5p expression was increased while runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) was decreased in femurs. Furthermore, the effects of miR-340-5p on osteogenic differentiation (OD) in high glucose (HG)-treated MC3T3-E1 cells were explored. Exposure to OD and HG contributed to elevated miR-340-5p level. Inhibition of miR-340-5p enhanced ALP level, calcium deposition, and OCN, collagen-I and RUNX2 levels. On the contrary, miR-340-5p overexpression reversed these promotional effects. Luciferase assay indicated that RUNX2 may be a target gene of miR-340-5p. Moreover, RUNX2 deficiency decreased miR-340-5p inhibition-induced ALP activity, calcium accumulation and OCN, collagen-I, RUNX2 levels. In short, the above findings revealed that inhibition of miR-340-5p facilitated osteogenic differentiation through regulating RUNX2 in MC3TC-E1 cells, which provided targeted therapeutic strategies for the treatment of DOP.

16.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808934

RESUMEN

Every day, new information is presented with respect to how to best combat the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This manuscript sheds light on such recent findings, including new co-factors (i.e., neuropilin-1) and routes (i.e., olfactory transmucosal) allowing cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 and induction of neurological symptoms, as well as the new SARS-CoV-2 variants. We highlight the SARS-CoV-2 human-animal interfaces and elaborate containment strategies using the same vaccination (i.e., nanoparticle "NP" formulations of the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines) for humans, minks, raccoon dogs, cats, and zoo animals. We investigate the toxicity issues of anti-CoV NPs (i.e., plasmonic NPs and quantum dots) on different levels. Namely, nano-bio interfaces (i.e., protein corona), in vitro (i.e., lung cells) and in vivo (i.e., zebrafish embryos) assessments, and impacts on humans are discussed in a narrative supported by original figures. Ultimately, we express our skeptical opinion on the comprehensive administration of such antiviral nanotheranostics, even when integrated into facemasks, because of their reported toxicities and the different NP parameters (e.g., size, shape, surface charge, and purity and chemical composition of NPs) that govern their end toxicity. We believe that more toxicity studies should be performed and be presented, clarifying the odds of the safe administration of nanotoxocological solutions and the relief of a worried public.

17.
Biochem J ; 2021 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900386

RESUMEN

The study on the enhanced mechanisms of the enzymes involved in plant absorption, plant degradation, and microbial mineralization in the remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is of great significance for the application of plant-microbe combined remediation technique in PCB-contaminated soils. The present study first used a combination of molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods to calculate the effects of the plant absorption enzyme, plant degradation enzyme, and microbial mineralization enzyme on the PCBs in the soil environment. A multifunctional plant degradation enzyme was constructed with three functional roles of absorption, degradation, and mineralization using amino acid sequence recombination and site-directed mutagenesis to modify the template of plant degradation enzyme. Finally, using the Taguchi experimental design-assisted molecular dynamics simulation method, the suitable external environmental conditions of plant-microbe combined remediation of the PCB--contaminated soil were determined. In total, six multifunctional plant degradation enzymes were designed, which exhibited a significantly improved efficiency of PCB degradation. In comparison to the complex of plant absorption enzyme, plant degradation enzyme, and microorganism mineralization enzyme (6QIM-3GZX-1B85), the six multifunctional plant degradation enzymes exhibited significantly higher efficiency (2.10-2.38 times) in degrading the PCBs, with a maximum of 2.69 times under suitable external environmental conditions.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(34): 4190-4193, 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908455

RESUMEN

Chemical transformations under visible irradiation are interesting in green preparation. Herein, a photo-oxidative coupling reaction of para-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) dimerizing to 4-aminophenyl disulfide (APDS) rather than 4,4'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) was achieved in water by visible light irradiation, producing monodispersed organic nanoparticles in situ with strong light scattering visualized by the dark-field microscopy (DFM) imaging technique, owing to the formation of disulfide.

19.
Genomics ; 113(4): 1988-1998, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872704

RESUMEN

Infliximab/adalimumab (IFX/ADA) and vedolizumab (VDZ) are the most widely used biologics in inflammatory bowel diseases. Current models used to predict their efficacies are restricted to either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis or to only one type of biologic, which makes them limited in external validation. We therefore designed a comprehensive comparison among these models to identify the most meaningful predictors for patient responses. Several biomarkers and models were compared for their abilities to predict both IFX/ADA and VDZ responses by receiver operating characteristic curves. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression was adopted to determine a simplified gene signature. Verification was performed in biopsy samples by immunohistochemical staining. The GIMATS module (based on counts of IgG plasma cells, inflammatory monocytes, activated T cells, and stromal cells) had the best overall performance for response prediction in both biologics (IFX/ADA, AUC = 0.720-0.853; VDZ, AUC = 0.661-0.728). Based on this module, patients were equally divided into 3 groups: M type (GIMATS-low, metabolism), with a preference for IFX/ADA; I type (GIMATS-high, immune), with a preference for VDZ; and N type (GIMATS-medium, normal), with no preference for either treatment. Furthermore, to improve clinical utility, a simplified 6-gene model, MIN score, was established to determine the baseline expression of G0S2, S100A9, SELE, CHI3L1, MMP1 and CXCL13 and function as a substitute for GIMATS module. Our study suggested that the classification of metabolic or immune type by MIN score was valuable for IBD diagnosis to assist with selection of IFX/ADA and VDZ.

20.
Adv Mater ; : e2008447, 2021 Apr 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864408

RESUMEN

The application of Li-S batteries has been hindered by the shuttling behavior and sluggish reaction kinetics of polysulfides. Here an effective polysulfide immobilizer and catalytic promoter is developed by proposing oxygen-vacancy-rich Tin O2 n -1 quantum dots (OV-Tn QDs) decorated on porous carbon nanosheets (PCN), which are modulated using Ti3 C2 Tx MXene as starting materials. The Tn QDs not only confine polysulfides through strong chemisorption but also promote polysulfide conversion via redox-active catalysis. The introduction of oxygen vacancies further boosts the immobilization and conversion of polysulfides by lowering the adsorption energy and shortening the bond lengths. The PCN provides a physical polysulfide confinement as well as a flexible substrate preventing OV-Tn QDs from aggregation. Moreover, the two building blocks are conductive, thereby effectively improving the electron/charge transfer. Finally, the ultrasmall size of QDs along with the porous structure endows OV-Tn QDs@PCN with large specific surface area and pore volume, affording adequate space for S loading and volume expansion. Therefore, the OV-Tn QDs@PCN/S delivers a high S loading (79.1 wt%), good rate capability (672 mA h g-1 at 2 C), and excellent long-term cyclability (88% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 2 C). It also exhibits good Li+ storage under high S-mass loading and lean electrolyte.

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