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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134753, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783825

RESUMEN

Importance: Whether neurodegeneration contributes to the early pathobiology of late-life depression remains incompletely understood. Objective: To investigate whether lower retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, a marker of neurodegeneration, is associated with the incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms and depressive symptoms over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a population-based cohort study from the Netherlands (The Maastricht Study) with baseline examination between 2010 and 2020 and median (IQR) follow-up of 5.0 (3.0-6.0) years. Participants were recruited from the general population. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were oversampled by design. Data analysis was performed from September 2020 to January 2021. Exposures: RNFL, an index of neurodegeneration, assessed with optical coherence tomography. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 (continuous score, 0-27) at baseline and over time via annual assessments. The presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was defined as a PHQ-9 score of 10 or higher. Results: We used data from 4934 participants with depressive symptoms over time (mean [SD] age, 59.7 [8.4] years; 2159 women [50.8%]; 870 had type 2 diabetes [20.5%]). Lower RNFL thickness was associated with higher incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms (per 1 SD, hazard ratio 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.23) and more depressive symptoms over time (per 1 SD, rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06), after adjustment for demographic, cardiovascular, and lifestyle factors. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that lower RNFL thickness is associated with higher incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms and more depressive symptoms over time. Hence, neurodegeneration may be associated with the early pathobiology of late-life depression.

2.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 32, 2021 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673905

RESUMEN

Purpose: The putative presence of SARS-CoV-2 in ocular specimen puts healthcare workers at risk. We thoroughly examined conjunctival swabs and tear fluid in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: A total of 243 symptomatic laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this observational multicenter study. Conjunctival swabs were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed to identify viral strains and to determine tissue tropism. Schirmer tear samples from 43 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 25 healthy controls were analyzed by multiplex cytokine immunoassays. Results: Viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in conjunctival swabs from 17 (7.0%) of 243 COVID-19 patients. Conjunctival samples were positive for viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA as long as 12 days after disease onset. Cycle threshold (Ct) values for conjunctival swabs (mean 34.5 ± 5.1) were significantly higher than nasopharyngeal swabs (mean 16.7 ± 3.6). No correlation between Ct values of conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs was observed. The majority of positive conjunctival samples were detected only once and primarily during the first visit. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed that the virus strain found in the conjunctiva was most often identical to the one found in the nasopharynx. Tear cytokine levels IL-1ß and IL-6 were elevated in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusions: Conjunctival samples that were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained the same viral strain as the nasopharynx. Translational Relevance: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and elevated cytokines in tear fluid confirm the involvement of the ocular surface in COVID-19 disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , ARN Viral , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581759

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Endogenously formed advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be important drivers of microvascular dysfunction and the microvascular complications of diabetes. AGEs are also formed in food products, especially during preparation methods involving dry heat. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess cross-sectional associations between dietary AGE intake and generalized microvascular function in a population-based cohort. METHODS: In 3144 participants of the Maastricht Study (mean ± SD age: 60 ± 8 y, 51% men) the dietary AGEs Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were estimated using the combination of our ultra-performance LC-tandem MS dietary AGE database and an FFQ. Microvascular function was determined in the retina as flicker light-induced arteriolar and venular dilation and as central retinal arteriolar and venular equivalents, in plasma as a z score of endothelial dysfunction biomarkers (soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble E-selectin, and von Willebrand factor), in skin as the heat-induced skin hyperemic response, and in urine as 24-h albuminuria. Associations were evaluated using multiple linear regression adjusting for demographic, cardiovascular, lifestyle, and dietary factors. RESULTS: Overall, intakes of CML, CEL, and MG-H1 were not associated with the microvascular outcomes. Although higher intake of CEL was associated with higher flicker light-induced venular dilation (ß percentage change over baseline: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.26) and lower plasma biomarker z score (ß: -0.04 SD; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.00 SD), the effect sizes were small and their biological relevance can be questioned. CONCLUSIONS: We did not show any strong association between habitual intake of dietary AGEs and generalized microvascular function. The contribution of dietary AGEs to generalized microvascular function should be further assessed in randomized controlled trials using specifically designed dietary interventions.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 44(11): 2493-2502, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588209

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased risks of cognitive dysfunction and brain abnormalities. The extent to which risk factor modification can mitigate these risks is unclear. We investigated the associations between incident dementia, cognitive performance, and brain abnormalities among individuals with type 2 diabetes, according to the number of risk factors on target, compared with control subjects without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective data were from UK Biobank of 87,856 individuals (n = 10,663 diabetes, n = 77,193 control subjects; baseline 2006-2010), with dementia follow-up until February 2018. Individuals with diabetes were categorized according to the number of seven selected risk factors within the guideline-recommended target range (nonsmoking; guideline-recommended levels of glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, BMI, albuminuria, physical activity, and diet). Outcomes were incident dementia, domain-specific cognitive performance, white matter hyperintensities, and total brain volume. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 9.0 years, 147 individuals (1.4%) with diabetes and 412 control subjects (0.5%) had incident dementia. Among individuals with diabetes, excess dementia risk decreased stepwise for a higher number of risk factors on target. Compared with control subjects (incidence rate per 1,000 person-years 0.62 [95% CI 0.56; 0.68]), individuals with diabetes who had five to seven risk factors on target had no significant excess dementia risk (absolute rate difference per 1,000 person-years 0.20 [-0.11; 0.52]; hazard ratio 1.32 [0.89; 1.95]). Similarly, differences in processing speed, executive function, and brain volumes were progressively smaller for a higher number of risk factors on target. These results were replicated in the Maastricht Study. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with diabetes, excess dementia risk, lower cognitive performance, and brain abnormalities decreased stepwise for a higher number of risk factors on target.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e021318, 2021 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308679

RESUMEN

Background The mechanisms underlying the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular disease may include accelerated vascular aging. The aim was to compare the magnitude of vascular aging in patients with high versus low risk of OSA. Methods and Results In 2 community-based studies, the PPS3 (Paris Prospective Study 3) and the Maastricht Study, high risk of OSA was determined with the Berlin questionnaire (a screening questionnaire for OSA). We assessed carotid artery properties (carotid intima-media thickness, Young's elastic modulus, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid pulse wave velocity, carotid diameter using high precision ultrasound echography), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (in the Maastricht Study only). Regression coefficients were estimated on pooled data using multivariate linear regression. A total of 8615 participants without prior cardiovascular disease were included (6840 from PPS3, 62% men, mean age 59.5±6.2 years, and 1775 from the Maastricht Study, 51% men, 58.9±8.1 years). Overall, high risk of OSA prevalence was 16.8% (n=1150) in PPS3 and 23.8% (n=423) in the Maastricht Study. A high risk of OSA was associated with greater carotid intima-media thickness (ß=0.21; 0.17-0.26), Young's elastic modulus (ß=0.21; 0.17-0.25), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ß=0.24; 0.14-0.34), carotid pulse wave velocity (ß=0.31; 0.26-0.35), and carotid diameter (ß=0.43; 0.38-0.48), after adjustment for age, sex, total cholesterol, smoking, education level, diabetes mellitus, heart rate, and study site. Consistent associations were observed after additional adjustments for mean blood pressure, body mass index, or antihypertensive medications. Conclusions These data lend support for accelerated vascular aging in individuals with high risk of OSA. This may, at least in part, underlie the association between OSA and cardiovascular disease.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Rigidez Vascular , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Velocidad de la Onda del Pulso Carotídeo-Femoral , Correlación de Datos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/epidemiología , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/fisiopatología , Ultrasonografía/métodos
6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 97: 61-67, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low-grade inflammation (LGI) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) might play a key role in the development of depression. We investigated the associations and mediation of LGI and ED with four-year incidence and course of depressive symptoms (remitted, recurrent or persistent). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: In this prospective cohort study (mean age 59.6 ± 8.2 years, 48.9% women, 26.6% diabetes by design), Cox and multinomial regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, educational level and diabetes status were used to investigate the associations of LGI and ED with onset and course of depressive symptoms as assessed by the PHQ-9 questionnaire. RESULTS: During 10,847 person-years of follow-up, 264 participants developed incident depression. Higher levels of LGI (OR [95%CI] per SD 1.32[1.16-1.49], p < 0.001) and ED (1.26[1.11-1.43], p < 0.001) were associated with incident depressive symptoms. In mediation analysis, 60% of the total effect of ED with incident depressive symptoms could be attributed to LGI. 76 out of 2637 participants had a persistent course of depressive symptoms. Higher levels of LGI (1.75[1.40-2.19], p < 0.001) and ED (1.33[1.04-1.71], p = 0.021) were associated with a persistent course of depressive symptoms. Higher ED was more strongly associated with persistent depressive symptoms (1.33[1.04-1.71], p = 0.021), while LGI was associated with remission of depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: LGI and ED were both associated with incident depressive symptoms, where the latter association was substantially mediated by LGI. ED was further associated with a persistent course of depressive symptoms, while LGI was not. These results suggest a temporal, vascular contribution of both LGI and ED to the etiology and chronicity of depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Enfermedades Vasculares , Anciano , Biomarcadores , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inflamación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(13): e020387, 2021 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121414

RESUMEN

Background This cross-sectional study evaluated associations between structural and functional measures of left ventricular diastolic function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a well-characterized population-based cohort stratified according to glucose metabolism status. Methods and Results Six hundred seventy-two participants from The Maastricht Study (mean±SD age, 61±9 years; 17.4% prediabetes and 25.4% type 2 diabetes mellitus) underwent both echocardiography to determine left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, maximum tricuspid flow regurgitation, average e' and E/e' ratio; and submaximal cycle ergometer test to determine CRF as maximum power output per kilogram body mass. Associations were examined with linear regression adjusted for cardiovascular risk and lifestyle factors, and interaction terms. After adjustment, in normal glucose metabolism but not (pre)diabetes, higher left atrial volume index (per 1 mL/m2), left ventricular mass index (per 1 g/m2.7), maximum tricuspid regurgitation flow (per 1 m/s) were associated with higher CRF (maximum power output per kilogram body mass; ß in normal glucose metabolism 0.015 [0.008-0.023], Pinteraction (pre)diabetes <0.10; 0.007 [-0.001 to 0.015], Pinteraction type 2 diabetes mellitus <0.10; 0.129 [0.011-0.246], Pinteraction >0.10; for left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, maximum tricuspid regurgitation flow, respectively). Furthermore, after adjustment, in all individuals, higher average E/e' ratio (per unit), but not average e', was associated with lower CRF (normal glucose metabolism -0.044 [-0.071 to -0.016]), Pinteraction >0.10). Conclusions In this population-based study, structural and functional measures of left ventricular diastolic function were independently differentially associated with CRF over the strata of glucose metabolism status. This suggests that deteriorating left ventricular diastolic function, although of small effect, may contribute to the pathophysiological process of impaired CRF in the general population. Moreover, the differential effects in these structural measures may be the consequence of cardiac structural adaptation to effectively increase CRF in normal glucose metabolism, which is absent in (pre)diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/metabolismo , Capacidad Cardiovascular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Estado Prediabético/sangre , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/fisiopatología , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Anciano , Ciclismo , Biomarcadores/sangre , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Diástole , Ecocardiografía Doppler , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Estado Prediabético/diagnóstico , Estado Prediabético/fisiopatología , Estudios Prospectivos , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/diagnóstico por imagen
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253125, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166426

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Closed-loop insulin delivery systems, which integrate continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and algorithms that continuously guide insulin dosing, have been shown to improve glycaemic control. The ability to predict future glucose values can further optimize such devices. In this study, we used machine learning to train models in predicting future glucose levels based on prior CGM and accelerometry data. METHODS: We used data from The Maastricht Study, an observational population-based cohort that comprises individuals with normal glucose metabolism, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes. We included individuals who underwent >48h of CGM (n = 851), most of whom (n = 540) simultaneously wore an accelerometer to assess physical activity. A random subset of individuals was used to train models in predicting glucose levels at 15- and 60-minute intervals based on either CGM data or both CGM and accelerometer data. In the remaining individuals, model performance was evaluated with root-mean-square error (RMSE), Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho) and surveillance error grid. For a proof-of-concept translation, CGM-based prediction models were optimized and validated with the use of data from individuals with type 1 diabetes (OhioT1DM Dataset, n = 6). RESULTS: Models trained with CGM data were able to accurately predict glucose values at 15 (RMSE: 0.19mmol/L; rho: 0.96) and 60 minutes (RMSE: 0.59mmol/L, rho: 0.72). Model performance was comparable in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Incorporation of accelerometer data only slightly improved prediction. The error grid results indicated that model predictions were clinically safe (15 min: >99%, 60 min >98%). Our prediction models translated well to individuals with type 1 diabetes, which is reflected by high accuracy (RMSEs for 15 and 60 minutes of 0.43 and 1.73 mmol/L, respectively) and clinical safety (15 min: >99%, 60 min: >91%). CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning-based models are able to accurately and safely predict glucose values at 15- and 60-minute intervals based on CGM data only. Future research should further optimize the models for implementation in closed-loop insulin delivery systems.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/análisis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patología , Ejercicio Físico , Aprendizaje Automático , Monitoreo Ambulatorio/métodos , Estado Prediabético/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Algoritmos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Estado Prediabético/metabolismo , Estado Prediabético/terapia , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos
9.
Diabetologia ; 64(8): 1880-1892, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991193

RESUMEN

AIMS: CVD is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with diabetes. It is currently unclear whether daily glucose variability contributes to CVD. Therefore, we investigated whether glucose variability is associated with arterial measures that are considered important in CVD pathogenesis. METHODS: We included participants of The Maastricht Study, an observational population-based cohort, who underwent at least 48 h of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (n = 853; age: 59.9 ± 8.6 years; 49% women, 23% type 2 diabetes). We studied the cross-sectional associations of two glucose variability indices (CGM-assessed SD [SDCGM] and CGM-assessed CV [CVCGM]) and time in range (TIRCGM) with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), carotid distensibility coefficient, carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index and circumferential wall stress via multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Higher SDCGM was associated with higher cf-PWV after adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle factors (regression coefficient [B] per 1 mmol/l SDCGM [and corresponding 95% CI]: 0.413 m/s [0.147, 0.679], p = 0.002). In the model additionally adjusted for CGM-assessed mean sensor glucose (MSGCGM), SDCGM and MSGCGM contributed similarly to cf-PWV (respective standardised regression coefficients [st.ßs] and 95% CIs of 0.065 [-0.018, 0.167], p = 0.160; and 0.059 [-0.043, 0.164], p = 0.272). In the fully adjusted models, both higher CVCGM (B [95% CI] per 10% CVCGM: 0.303 m/s [0.046, 0.559], p = 0.021) and lower TIRCGM (B [95% CI] per 10% TIRCGM: -0.145 m/s [-0.252, -0.038] p = 0.008) were statistically significantly associated with higher cf-PWV. Such consistent associations were not observed for the other arterial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that greater daily glucose variability and lower TIRCGM are associated with greater aortic stiffness (cf-PWV) but not with other arterial measures. If corroborated in prospective studies, these results support the development of therapeutic agents that target both daily glucose variability and TIRCGM to prevent CVD.

10.
J Nutr ; 151(7): 1886-1893, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982103

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a heterogeneous group of bioactive compounds, are thought to contribute to arterial stiffness, which in turn is a causal factor in the pathogenesis of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Whether AGEs derived from food also contribute to arterial stiffness is not clear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether higher intake of dietary AGEs is associated with arterial stiffness. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study in 2255 participants of The Maastricht Study (mean ± SD age: 60 ± 8 y, 51% male, mean ± SD BMI: 26.9 ± 4.4 kg/m2, n = 1326 normal glucose metabolism, n = 341 prediabetes, and n = 585 type 2 diabetes mellitus), we estimated intake of the dietary AGEs Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) by a validated FFQ coupled to our ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry dietary AGE database. Arterial stiffness was determined using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), carotid distensibility coefficient (DC), and carotid Young's elastic modulus (YEM). We performed multiple linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders (demographic, hemodynamic, cardiovascular, and dietary factors). RESULTS: In the fully adjusted models we observed no statistically significant associations between intake of the dietary AGEs CML, CEL, and MG-H1 and arterial stiffness expressed as cfPWV, carotid DC, and carotid YEM. CONCLUSIONS: In adults aged 40-75 y, habitual intake of the dietary AGEs CML, CEL, and MG-H1 is not associated with arterial stiffness measured as cfPWV, carotid DC, or carotid YEM.

11.
Microcirculation ; 28(6): e12702, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905576

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether arterial stiffening is a determinant of subtle retinal microvascular changes that precede diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data from the Maastricht Study, a type 2 diabetes-enriched population-based cohort study. We used multivariable linear regression analysis to investigate, in individuals without and with type 2 diabetes, the associations of carotid distensibility coefficient and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity with retinal microvascular diameters and flicker light-induced dilation and adjusted for cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors. RESULTS: The retinal microvascular diameter study population consisted of N = 2434 participants (51.4% men, mean ± SD age 59.8 ± 8.1 years, and 28.1% type 2 diabetes). No measures of arterial stiffness were significantly associated with microvascular diameters. Greater carotid distensibility coefficient (i.e., lower carotid stiffness) was significantly associated with greater retinal arteriolar flicker light-induced dilation (per standard deviation, standardized beta [95% CI] 0.06 [0.00; 0.12]) and non-significantly, but directionally similarly, associated with greater retinal venular flicker light-induced dilation (0.04 [-0.02; 0.10]). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (i.e., aortic stiffness) was not associated with retinal microvascular flicker light-induced dilation. The associations between carotid distensibility coefficient and retinal arteriolar and venular flicker light-induced dilation were two- to threefold stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes than in those without. CONCLUSION: In this population-based study greater carotid, but not aortic, stiffness was associated with worse retinal flicker light-induced dilation and this association was stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Hence, carotid stiffness may be a determinant of retinal microvascular dysfunction.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249920, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857224

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To establish whether one can build a mortality prediction model for COVID-19 patients based solely on demographics and comorbidity data that outperforms age alone. Such a model could be a precursor to implementing smart lockdowns and vaccine distribution strategies. METHODS: The training cohort comprised 2337 COVID-19 inpatients from nine hospitals in The Netherlands. The clinical outcome was death within 21 days of being discharged. The features were derived from electronic health records collected during admission. Three feature selection methods were used: LASSO, univariate using a novel metric, and pairwise (age being half of each pair). 478 patients from Belgium were used to test the model. All modeling attempts were compared against an age-only model. RESULTS: In the training cohort, the mortality group's median age was 77 years (interquartile range = 70-83), higher than the non-mortality group (median = 65, IQR = 55-75). The incidence of former/active smokers, male gender, hypertension, diabetes, dementia, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic cardiac disease, chronic neurological disease, and chronic kidney disease was higher in the mortality group. All stated differences were statistically significant after Bonferroni correction. LASSO selected eight features, novel univariate chose five, and pairwise chose none. No model was able to surpass an age-only model in the external validation set, where age had an AUC of 0.85 and a balanced accuracy of 0.77. CONCLUSION: When applied to an external validation set, we found that an age-only mortality model outperformed all modeling attempts (curated on www.covid19risk.ai) using three feature selection methods on 22 demographic and comorbid features.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bélgica/epidemiología , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Comorbilidad , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
13.
J Hypertens ; 39(3): 494-502, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186329

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: : An exaggerated exercise SBP, which is potentially modifiable, may be associated with incident depressive symptoms via an increased pulsatile pressure load on the brain. However, the association between exaggerated exercise SBP and incident depressive symptoms is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether exaggerated exercise SBP is associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms over time. METHODS: : We used longitudinal data from the population-based Maastricht Study, with only individuals free of depressive symptoms at baseline included (n = 2121; 51.3% men; age 59.5 ±â€Š8.5 years). Exercise SBP was measured at baseline with a submaximal exercise cycle test. We calculated a composite score of exercise SBP based on four standardized exercise SBP measures: SBP at moderate workload, SBP at peak exercise, SBP change per minute during exercise and SBP 4 min after exercise. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were determined annually at follow-up and defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire score of at least 10. RESULTS: : After a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, 175 participants (8.3%) had incident clinically relevant depressive symptoms. A 1 SD higher exercise SBP composite score was associated with a higher incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms [hazard ratio: 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.54)]. Results were adjusted for age, sex, education level, glucose metabolism status, lifestyle, cardiovascular risk factors, resting SBP and cardiorespiratory fitness. CONCLUSION: : A higher exercise SBP response is associated with a higher incidence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Depresión , Depresión/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 99(6): e860-e868, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258290

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate whether higher blood pressure and greater arterial stiffness are associated with the presence of macular cysts and whether this association is already present in the absence of micro-aneurysms in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), we performed a macular volume scan in 2647 individuals (mean age 60 ± 8 years, 50% men, 27% type 2 diabetes). The association between macular cysts and 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility was assessed by use of logistic regression. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours systolic blood pressure was associated with the presence of macular cysts [OR = 1.03 (95% CI 1.00-1.05) per 1 mmHg, p = 0.03]. 24 hr pulse pressure [OR = 1.61 (95% CI 1.11-2.34) per 10 mmHg, p = 0.01] and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [OR = 1.16 (95% CI 1.02-1.32) per 1 m/s, p = 0.02] were associated with macular cysts, while carotid distensibility was not [OR = 1.03 (95% CI 0.96-1.11) per 1.0*10-3 /kPa, p = 0.45]. Associations were similar in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes and were already present in the absence of micro-aneurysms. CONCLUSION: Twenty-four hours systolic blood pressure, 24 hr pulse pressure and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity are associated with the presence of OCT-detected macular cysts in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, even in the absence of micro-aneurysms. Therefore, blood pressure and aortic stiffness are potential factors contributing to macular cysts.

15.
Front Physiol ; 12: 787083, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987417

RESUMEN

Purpose: Carotid artery properties can be evaluated with high accuracy and reproducibility using multiple M-line ultrasound. However, the cost of multiple M-line-based imaging modalities and the extensive operator expertise requirements hamper the large-scale application for arterial properties assessment, particularly in resource-constrained settings. This study is aimed to assess the performance of a single M-line approach as an affordable and easy-to-use alternative to multiple M-line imaging for screening purposes. Methods: We used triplicate longitudinal common carotid artery (CCA) ultrasound recordings (17 M-lines covering about 16 mm, at 500 frames per second) of 500 subjects from The Maastricht Study to assess the validity and reproducibility of a single against multiple M-line approach. The multiple M-line measures were obtained by averaging over all available 17 lines, whereas the middle M-line was used as a proxy for the single M-line approach. Results: Diameter, intima-media thickness (IMT), and Young's elastic modulus (YEM) were not significantly different between the single and multiple M-line approaches (p > 0.07). Distension and distensibility coefficient (DC) did differ significantly (p < 0.001), however, differences were technically irrelevant. Similarly, Bland-Altman analysis revealed good agreement between the two approaches. The single M-line approach, compared to multiple M-line, exhibited an acceptable reproducibility coefficient of variation (CV) for diameter (2.5 vs. 2.2%), IMT (11.9 vs. 7.9%), distension (10 vs. 9.4%), DC (10.9 vs. 10.2%), and YEM (26.5 vs. 20.5%). Furthermore, in our study population, both methods showed a similar capability to detect age-related differences in arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Single M-line ultrasound appears to be a promising tool to estimate anatomical and functional CCA properties with very acceptable validity and reproducibility. Based on our results, we might infer that image-free, single M-line tools could be suited for screening and for performing population studies in low-resource settings worldwide. Whether the comparison between single and multiple M-line devices will yield similar findings requires further study.

16.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336630

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study examined the associations between accelerometer-derived sedentary time (ST), lower intensity physical activity (LPA), higher intensity physical activity (HPA) and the incidence of depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up. METHODS: We included 2082 participants from The Maastricht Study (mean ± s.d. age 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 51.2% men) without depressive symptoms at baseline. ST, LPA and HPA were measured with the ActivPAL3 activity monitor. Depressive symptoms were measured annually over 4 years of follow-up with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between ST, LPA, HPA and incident depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10). Analyses were adjusted for total waking time per day, age, sex, education level, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking status and alcohol use. RESULTS: During 7812.81 person-years of follow-up, 203 (9.8%) participants developed incident depressive symptoms. No significant associations [Hazard Ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found between sex-specific tertiles of ST (lowest v. highest tertile) [1.13 (0.76-1.66], or HPA (highest v. lowest tertile) [1.14 (0.78-1.69)] and incident depressive symptoms. LPA (highest v. lowest tertile) was statistically significantly associated with incident depressive symptoms in women [1.98 (1.19-3.29)], but not in men (p-interaction <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an association between ST or HPA and incident depressive symptoms. Lower levels of daily LPA were associated with an increased risk of incident depressive symptoms in women. Future research is needed to investigate accelerometer-derived measured physical activity and ST with incident depressive symptoms, preferably stratified by sex.

17.
Thromb Res ; 196: 486-490, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091701

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is recognized. The prevalence of PE in patients with respiratory deterioration at the Emergency Department (ED), the regular ward, and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are not well-established. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate how often PE was present in individuals with COVID-19 and respiratory deterioration in different settings, and whether or not disease severity as measured by CT-severity score (CTSS) was related to the occurrence of PE. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between April 6th and May 3rd, we enrolled 60 consecutive adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 from the ED, regular ward and ICU who met the pre-specified criteria for respiratory deterioration. RESULTS: A total of 24 (24/60: 40% (95% CI: 28-54%)) patients were diagnosed with PE, of whom 6 were in the ED (6/23: 26% (95% CI: 10-46%)), 8 in the regular ward (8/24: 33% (95% CI: 16-55%)), and 10 in the ICU (10/13: 77% (95% CI: 46-95%)). CTSS (per unit) was not associated with the occurrence of PE (age and sex-adjusted OR 1.06 (95%CI 0.98-1.15)). CONCLUSION: The number of PE diagnosis among patients with COVID-19 and respiratory deterioration was high; 26% in the ED, 33% in the regular ward and 77% in the ICU respectively. In our cohort CTSS was not associated with the occurrence of PE. Based on the high number of patients diagnosed with PE among those scanned we recommend a low threshold for performing computed tomography angiography in patients with COVID-19 and respiratory deterioration.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiología , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagen , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/diagnóstico por imagen , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(20): e017502, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054610

RESUMEN

Background Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and can be beneficially influenced by physical activity. However, it is not clear how an individual's physical activity pattern over a week is associated with arterial stiffness. Therefore, we examined the associations of the amount and pattern of higher intensity physical activity with arterial stiffness. Methods and Results Data from the Maastricht Study (n=1699; mean age: 60±8 years, 49.4% women, 26.9% type 2 diabetes mellitus) were used. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility. The amount (continuous variable as h/wk) and pattern (categorical variable) of higher intensity physical activity were assessed with the activPAL3. Activity groups were: inactive (<75 min/wk), insufficiently active (75-150 min/wk), weekend warrior (>150 min/wk in ≤2 sessions), and regularly active (>150 min/wk in ≥3 sessions). In the fully adjusted model (adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and cardiovascular risk factors), higher intensity physical activity was associated with lower carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (amount: ß = -0.05, 95% CI, -0.09 to -0.01; insufficiently active: ß = -0.33, 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; weekend warrior: ß = -0.38, 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.12; and regularly active: ß = -0.46, 95% CI, -0.71 to -0.21 [reference: inactive]). These associations were stronger in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant association between higher intensity physical activity with carotid distensibility. Conclusions Participating in higher intensity physical activity was associated with lower carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity, but there was no difference between the regularly actives and the weekend warriors. From the perspective of arterial stiffness, engaging higher intensity physical activity, regardless of the weekly pattern, may be an important strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, particularly in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad/métodos , Conducta Sedentaria , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Acelerometría/métodos , Factores de Riesgo Cardiometabólico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Arterias Carótidas/fisiopatología , Femenino , Arteria Femoral/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso/métodos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo
19.
Diabetologia ; 63(11): 2315-2328, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757152

RESUMEN

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Depression is twice as common in individuals with type 2 diabetes as in the general population. However, it remains unclear whether hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are directly involved in the aetiology of depression. Therefore, we investigated the association of markers of hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, measured as continuous variables, with incident depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up. METHODS: We used data from the longitudinal population-based Maastricht Study (n = 2848; mean age 59.9 ± 8.1 years, 48.8% women, 265 incident depression cases, 10,932 person-years of follow-up). We assessed hyperglycaemia by fasting and 2 h post-load OGTT glucose levels, HbA1c and skin autofluorescence (reflecting AGEs) at baseline. We used the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index and HOMA-IR to calculate insulin resistance at baseline. Depressive symptoms (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10) were assessed at baseline and annually over 4 years. We used Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for demographic, cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors. RESULTS: Fasting plasma glucose, 2 h post-load glucose and HbA1c levels were associated with an increased risk for incident depressive symptoms after full adjustment (HR 1.20 [95% CI 1.08, 1.33]; HR 1.25 [1.08, 1.44]; and HR 1.22 [1.09, 1.37] per SD, respectively), while skin autofluorescence, insulin sensitivity index and HOMA-IR were not (HR 0.99 [0.86, 1.13]; HR 1.02 [0.85, 1.25]; and HR 0.93 [0.81, 1.08], per SD, respectively). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The observed temporal association between hyperglycaemia and incident depressive symptoms in this study supports the presence of a mechanistic link between hyperglycaemia and the development of depressive symptoms. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatología , Hiperglucemia/sangre , Hiperglucemia/fisiopatología , Anciano , Biomarcadores/sangre , Glucemia/fisiología , Depresión/fisiopatología , Ayuno/sangre , Femenino , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Hemoglobina A Glucada/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668720

RESUMEN

Extracellular matrix protein turnover may play an important role in left atrial (LA) remodelling. The aim is to investigate the associations between matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) and LA volume index (LAVI) and if these associations are independent of TIMP-1 levels. Participants from The Hoorn Study, a population-based cohort study (n = 674), underwent echocardiography. Serum MMPs (i.e., MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-10) and TIMP-1 levels were measured with ELISA. Multiple linear regression analyses were used. MMP-1 levels were not associated with LAVI. Higher MMP-2 levels were associated with larger LAVI (regression coefficient per SD increase in MMP (95% CI); 0.03 (0.01; 0.05). Higher MMP-3 and MMP-9 levels were associated with smaller LAVI; -0.04 (-0.07; -0.01) and -0.04 (-0.06; -0.02) respectively. Only in women were higher MMP-10 levels associated with larger LAVI; 0.04 (0.00; 0.07, p-interaction 0.04). Additionally, only in women were higher TIMP-1 levels associated with smaller LAVI; -0.05 (-0.09; -0.01, p-interaction 0.03). The associations between MMPs and LAVI were independent of TIMP-1 levels. In conclusion, serum MMPs are associated with LAVI, independent of CVD risk factors and TIMP-1 levels. In addition, these associations differ according to sex and within MMP subgroups. This shows that the role of MMPs in LA remodelling is complex.


Asunto(s)
Remodelación Atrial/fisiología , Metaloproteinasas de la Matriz/sangre , Inhibidor Tisular de Metaloproteinasa-1/sangre , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Atrios Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagen , Atrios Cardíacos/patología , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Factores Sexuales
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