Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 66
Filtrar
Más filtros










Base de datos
Intervalo de año de publicación
1.
Primates ; 62(6): 871-877, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586529

RESUMEN

Ants are the dominant group of animals in many habitats, particularly in tropical rainforests. High abundance and formation of large colonies convert them into a potential food source for a broad spectrum of animals. In this paper we review myrmecovory (consumption of ants) in Neotropical primates. Myrmecovory has been reported from 57 taxa (species + subspecies) out of 217 species of Neotropical primates, representing 18 out of 22 genera. The proportion of ants in the animal portion of the diet is highest amongst members of the genera Cebus, Sapajus, Cheracebus and Plecturocebus, but generally low in callitrichids, large pitheciids (Cacajao, Chiropotes) and atelids. Ants from seven subfamilies of Formicidae (out of 13 subfamilies found in the Neotropics) are consumed, including taxa with and without functional sting and with varying other defences. Foraging technics employed in myrmecovory range from picking ants from open substrates to extractive foraging involving the destruction of ant nests or shelters, but tool use has not been reported. We conclude that myrmecovory is widespread amongst Neotropical primates but on average contributes only a minor proportion of the diet. The diversity of foraging technics employed and lack of tool use in Neotropical primate myrmecovory, even for ants with functional stings and aggressive biting, suggests that tool use for myrmecovory in hominids has not evolved in response to ant defences but is a consequence of enhanced cognitive skills that evolved under other selection pressures.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Pitheciidae , Animales , Dieta , Ecosistema
4.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 96(2): 454-469, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140576

RESUMEN

Vertical stratification (VS) is a widespread phenomenon in plant and animal communities in forests and a key factor for structuring their species richness and biodiversity, particularly in tropical forests. The organisms composing forest communities adjust and shape the complex three-dimensional structure of their environment and inhabit a large variety of niches along the vertical gradient of the forest. Even though the degree of VS varies among different vertebrate groups, patterns of compositional stratification can be observed across taxa. Communities of birds, bats, primates, and non-flying small mammals are vertically stratified in terms of abundance, species richness, diversity, and community composition. Frugivorous members of these taxa play important roles as seed dispersers and forage on fruit resources that, in turn, vary in quantity and nutritional value along the vertical gradient. As a consequence, plant-seed disperser interaction networks differ among strata, which is manifested in differences in interaction frequencies and the degree of mutual specialization. In general, the canopy stratum is composed of strong links and generalized associations, while the lower strata comprise weaker links and more specialized interactions. Investigating the VS of communities can provide us with a better understanding of species habitat restrictions, resource use, spatial movement, and species interactions. Especially in the face of global change, this knowledge will be important as these characteristics can imply different responses of species and taxa at a fine spatial scale.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Bosques , Animales , Aves , Plantas , Semillas
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20328, 2020 11 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230212

RESUMEN

In pair-living mammals, genetic monogamy is extremely rare. One possible reason is that in socially monogamous animals, mate choice can be severely constrained, increasing the risk of inbreeding or pairing with an incompatible or low-quality partner. To escape these constraints, individuals might engage in extra-pair copulations. Alternatively, inbreeding can be avoided by dispersal. However, little is known about the interactions between mating system, mate choice, and dispersal in pair-living mammals. Here we genotyped 41 wild individuals from 14 groups of coppery titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus) in Peruvian Amazon using 18 microsatellite loci. Parentage analyses of 18 young revealed no cases of extra-pair paternity, indicating that the study population is mostly genetically monogamous. We did not find evidence for relatedness- or heterozygosity-based mate choice. Despite the lack of evidence for active inbreeding avoidance via mate choice, mating partners were on average not related. We further found that dispersal was not sex-biased, with both sexes dispersing opportunistically over varying distances. Our findings suggest that even opportunistic dispersal, as long as it is not constrained, can generate sufficient genetic diversity to prevent inbreeding. This, in turn, can render active inbreeding avoidance via mate choice and extra-pair copulations less necessary, helping to maintain genetic monogamy.


Asunto(s)
Callicebus/genética , Genotipo , Reproducción/genética , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología , Alelos , Animales , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , ADN Mitocondrial/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/química , Femenino , Sitios Genéticos , Heterocigoto , Endogamia , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Paternidad , Perú
6.
Primate Biol ; 7(2): 19-23, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995477

RESUMEN

The presence of a grooming claw on the second toe is a characteristic of Strepsirrhini and tarsiers. There is also some evidence for the presence of a grooming claw in Platyrrhini. Here we report qualitative findings from different species of saki monkeys, genus Pithecia, on the presence of modified nails on the second toe. These observations suggest that a grooming claw or a grooming claw-like nail occurs in different Pithecia species, but that it does not consistently occur in all individuals.

7.
Bioscience ; 70(9): 794-803, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973409

RESUMEN

Threats to biodiversity are well documented. However, to effectively conserve species and their habitats, we need to know which conservation interventions do (or do not) work. Evidence-based conservation evaluates interventions within a scientific framework. The Conservation Evidence project has summarized thousands of studies testing conservation interventions and compiled these as synopses for various habitats and taxa. In the present article, we analyzed the interventions assessed in the primate synopsis and compared these with other taxa. We found that despite intensive efforts to study primates and the extensive threats they face, less than 1% of primate studies evaluated conservation effectiveness. The studies often lacked quantitative data, failed to undertake postimplementation monitoring of populations or individuals, or implemented several interventions at once. Furthermore, the studies were biased toward specific taxa, geographic regions, and interventions. We describe barriers for testing primate conservation interventions and propose actions to improve the conservation evidence base to protect this endangered and globally important taxon.

8.
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(1): 191489, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218967

RESUMEN

Pair living and pair bonding are rare in mammals, and the mechanisms of their maintenance remain a puzzle. Titi monkeys, a 'textbook example' for 'monogamous' primates, have strong pair bonds and extensive male care. To investigate mechanisms of pair-bond maintenance, we studied seven wild groups of red titis (Plecturocebus cupreus) in Peruvian Amazonia over a period of 14 months. We analysed pair bonds by measuring proximity, grooming and approaches/leaves within pairs, and collected data on intergroup encounters. Females contributed to grooming more than males, especially during infant dependency, when most of the grooming within pairs was done by females. Females were also more active in controlling proximity between pair mates, making most of the approaches and leaves. Males, on the other hand, invested more in territorial defences. They participated in more intergroup encounters than females and were more active during these encounters. Our data is most consistent with the 'male-services' hypothesis for pair-bond maintenance, where a female contributes more to the proximity and affiliation maintenance while a male provides beneficial services.

9.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 95(4): 889-910, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097520

RESUMEN

Mixed-species animal groups (MSGs) are widely acknowledged to increase predator avoidance and foraging efficiency, among other benefits, and thereby increase participants' fitness. Diversity in MSG composition ranges from two to 70 species of very similar or completely different phenotypes. Yet consistency in organization is also observable in that one or a few species usually have disproportionate importance for MSG formation and/or maintenance. We propose a two-dimensional framework for understanding this diversity and consistency, concentrating on the types of interactions possible between two individuals, usually of different species. One axis represents the similarity of benefit types traded between the individuals, while the second axis expresses asymmetry in the relative amount of benefits/costs accrued. Considering benefit types, one extreme represents the case of single-species groups wherein all individuals obtain the same supplementary, group-size-related benefits, and the other extreme comprises associations of very different, but complementary species (e.g. one partner creates access to food while the other provides vigilance). The relevance of social information and the matching of activities (e.g. speed of movement) are highest for relationships on the supplementary side of this axis, but so is competition; relationships between species will occur at points along this gradient where the benefits outweigh the costs. Considering benefit amounts given or received, extreme asymmetry occurs when one species is exclusively a benefit provider and the other a benefit user. Within this parameter space, some MSG systems are constrained to one kind of interaction, such as shoals of fish of similar species or leader-follower interactions in fish and other taxa. Other MSGs, such as terrestrial bird flocks, can simultaneously include a variety of supplementary and complementary interactions. We review the benefits that species obtain across the diversity of MSG types, and argue that the degree and nature of asymmetry between benefit providers and users should be measured and not just assumed. We then discuss evolutionary shifts in MSG types, focusing on drivers towards similarity in group composition, and selection on benefit providers to enhance the benefits they can receive from other species. Finally, we conclude by considering how individual and collective behaviour in MSGs may influence both the structure and processes of communities.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Biodiversidad , Aves/clasificación , Peces/clasificación , Mamíferos/clasificación , Reptiles/clasificación , Animales , Técnicas de Observación Conductual , Evolución Biológica , Aves/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Peces/fisiología , Mamíferos/fisiología , Conducta Predatoria/fisiología , Reptiles/fisiología , Conducta Espacial/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Ecol Evol ; 9(16): 8965-8977, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462995

RESUMEN

Seed dispersal distance (SDD) critically influences the survival of seedlings, spatial patterns of genetic diversity within plant populations, and gene flow among plant populations. In animal-dispersed species, foraging behavior and movement patterns determine SDD. Direct observations of seed dispersal events by animals in natural plant populations are mostly constrained by the high mobility and low visibility of seed dispersers. Therefore, diverse alternative methods are used to estimate seed dispersal distance, but direct comparisons of these approaches within the same seed dispersal system are mostly missing.We investigated two plant species with different life history traits, Leonia cymosa and Parkia panurensis, exclusively dispersed by two tamarin species, Saguinus mystax and Leontocebus nigrifrons. We compared SDD estimates obtained from direct observations, genetic identification of mother plants from seed coats, parentage analysis of seedlings/saplings, and phenomenological and mechanistic modeling approaches.SDD derived from the different methods ranged between 158 and 201 m for P. panurensis and between 178 and 318 m for L. cymosa. In P. panurensis, the modeling approaches resulted in moderately higher estimates than observations and genotyping of seed coats. In L. cymosa, parentage analysis resulted in a lower estimate than all other methods. Overall, SDD estimates for P. panurensis (179 ± 16 m; mean ± SD) were significantly lower than for L. cymosa (266 ± 59 m; mean ± SD).Differences among methods were related to processes of the seed dispersal loop integrated by the respective methods (e.g., seed deposition or seedling distribution). We discuss the merits and limitations of each method and highlight the aspects to be considered when comparing SDD derived from different methodologies. Differences among plant species were related to differences in reproductive traits influencing gut passage time and feeding behavior, highlighting the importance of plant traits on animal-mediated seed dispersal distance.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10356, 2019 07 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346187

RESUMEN

Increasingly large proportions of tropical forests are anthropogenically disturbed. Where natural regeneration is possible at all, it requires the input of plant seeds through seed dispersal from the forest matrix. Zoochorous seed dispersal - the major seed dispersal mode for woody plants in tropical forests - is particularly important for natural regeneration. In this study, covering a period of more than 20 years, we show that small New World primates, the tamarins Saguinus mystax and Leontocebus nigrifrons, increase their use of an anthropogenically disturbed area over time and disperse seeds from primary forest tree species into this area. Through monitoring the fate of seeds and through parentage analyses of seedlings of the legume Parkia panurensis from the disturbed area and candidate parents from the primary forest matrix, we show that tamarin seed dispersal is effective and contributes to the natural regeneration of the disturbed area.


Asunto(s)
Callitrichinae , Bosques , Dispersión de Semillas , Animales , Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Fabaceae/genética , Fabaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Periodicidad , Estaciones del Año , Plantones/genética , Plantones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Clima Tropical
13.
Primate Biol ; 6(1): 59-64, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110716

RESUMEN

Due to their inconspicuous behaviour and colouration, it has been assumed that titi monkeys' main anti-predator behaviour is passive crypsis and hiding. So far, active predator mobbing has been documented only for black-fronted titi monkeys, Callicebus nigrifrons. Here we report for the first time mobbing behaviour of red titi monkeys, Plecturocebus cupreus (previously Callicebus cupreus), as reaction to an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and a Boa constrictor. We also report other active anti-predator behaviours, such as alarm calling and approaching, as reactions to tayras (Eira barbara) and raptors. Our observations provide additional evidence for sex differences in anti-predator behaviour, possibly related to the evolution and maintenance of social monogamy.

14.
Primates ; 59(6): 549-552, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238424

RESUMEN

We report temporal variation and an "outbreak" of frog predation by moustached tamarins, Saguinus mystax, in north-eastern Peruvian Amazonia. Frog predation rates were generally very low, but strongly increased in October 2015. Other high rates, identified by outlier analyses, were also observed in September-November of other years. Over all study years, predation rates in this 3-month period were significantly higher than those in the remainder of the year, suggesting a seasonal pattern of frog predation by tamarins. Reduced fruit availability or increased frog abundance or a combination of both may be responsible for both the seasonal pattern and the specific "outbreak" of frog predation.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Conducta Predatoria , Saguinus/fisiología , Estaciones del Año , Animales , Clima , Conducta Alimentaria , Frutas , Perú
15.
Mol Ecol ; 26(21): 5896-5910, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921766

RESUMEN

Spatial genetic structure (SGS) of plants results from the nonrandom distribution of related individuals. SGS provides information on gene flow and spatial patterns of genetic diversity within populations. Seed dispersal creates the spatial template for plant distribution. Thus, in zoochorous plants, dispersal mode and disperser behaviour might have a strong impact on SGS. However, many studies only report the taxonomic group of seed dispersers, without further details. The recent increase in studies on SGS provides the opportunity to review findings and test for the influence of dispersal mode, taxonomic affiliation of dispersers and their behaviour. We compared the proportions of studies with SGS among groups and tested for differences in strength of SGS using Sp statistics. The presence of SGS differed among taxonomic groups, with reduced presence in plants dispersed by birds. Strength of SGS was instead significantly influenced by the behaviour of seed dispersal vectors, with higher SGS in plant species dispersed by animals with behavioural traits that result in short seed dispersal distances. We observed high variance in the strength of SGS in plants dispersed by animals that actively or passively accumulate seeds. Additionally, we found SGS was also affected by pollination and marker type used. Our study highlights the importance of vector behaviour on SGS even in the presence of variance created by other factors. Thus, more detailed information on the behaviour of seed dispersers would contribute to better understand which factors shape the spatial scale of gene flow in animal-dispersed plant species.


Asunto(s)
Flujo Génico , Genética de Población , Plantas/genética , Dispersión de Semillas , Animales , Aves , Variación Genética , Polinización , Análisis Espacial
16.
Ecol Evol ; 7(5): 1435-1441, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28261455

RESUMEN

Seed dispersal is a key ecological process in tropical forests, with effects on various levels ranging from plant reproductive success to the carbon storage potential of tropical rainforests. On a local and landscape scale, spatial patterns of seed dispersal create the template for the recruitment process and thus influence the population dynamics of plant species. The strength of this influence will depend on the long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal. We examined the long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal with spatially explicit data on seed dispersal by two neotropical primate species, Leontocebus nigrifrons and Saguinus mystax (Callitrichidae), collected during four independent studies between 1994 and 2013. Using distributions of dispersal probability over distances independent of plant species, cumulative dispersal distances, and kernel density estimates, we show that spatial patterns of seed dispersal are highly consistent over time. For a specific plant species, the legume Parkia panurensis, the convergence of cumulative distributions at a distance of 300 m, and the high probability of dispersal within 100 m from source trees coincide with the dimension of the spatial-genetic structure on the embryo/juvenile (300 m) and adult stage (100 m), respectively, of this plant species. Our results are the first demonstration of long-term consistency of spatial patterns of seed dispersal created by tropical frugivores. Such consistency may translate into idiosyncratic patterns of regeneration.

17.
Sci Adv ; 3(1): e1600946, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28116351

RESUMEN

Nonhuman primates, our closest biological relatives, play important roles in the livelihoods, cultures, and religions of many societies and offer unique insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and the threat of emerging diseases. They are an essential component of tropical biodiversity, contributing to forest regeneration and ecosystem health. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations. This situation is the result of escalating anthropogenic pressures on primates and their habitats-mainly global and local market demands, leading to extensive habitat loss through the expansion of industrial agriculture, large-scale cattle ranching, logging, oil and gas drilling, mining, dam building, and the construction of new road networks in primate range regions. Other important drivers are increased bushmeat hunting and the illegal trade of primates as pets and primate body parts, along with emerging threats, such as climate change and anthroponotic diseases. Often, these pressures act in synergy, exacerbating primate population declines. Given that primate range regions overlap extensively with a large, and rapidly growing, human population characterized by high levels of poverty, global attention is needed immediately to reverse the looming risk of primate extinctions and to attend to local human needs in sustainable ways. Raising global scientific and public awareness of the plight of the world's primates and the costs of their loss to ecosystem health and human society is imperative.


Asunto(s)
Cercopithecidae , Ecosistema , Extinción Biológica , Animales
18.
Primate Biol ; 4(1): 127-130, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110700

RESUMEN

We report observations on fur-rubbing with leaves from Piper aduncum by a San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe. Fur-rubbing occurred during the transition from the dry to the rainy season in a titi monkey group living in a forest fragment in the Moyobamba region of Peru. Since Piper leaves include very potent compounds that may affect ectoparasites, we tentatively interpret the observed fur-rubbing as self-medication.

19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 283(1828)2016 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053753

RESUMEN

Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that has received little attention. The colour vision of uakaris (Cacajao) is of particular interest because these monkeys have the most dramatic red facial skin of any primate, as well as a unique fission/fusion social system and a specialist diet of seeds. Here, we investigate colour vision in a wild population of the bald uakari,C. calvus, by genotyping the X-linked opsin locus. We document the presence of a polymorphic colour vision system with an unprecedented number of functional alleles (six), including a novel allele with a predicted maximum spectral sensitivity of 555 nm. This supports the presence of strong balancing selection on different alleles at this locus. We consider different hypotheses to explain this selection. One possibility is that trichromacy functions in sexual selection, enabling females to choose high-quality males on the basis of red facial coloration. In support of this, there is some evidence that health affects facial coloration in uakaris, as well as a high prevalence of blood-borne parasitism in wild uakari populations. Alternatively, the low proportion of heterozygous female trichromats in the population may indicate selection on different dichromatic phenotypes, which might be related to cryptic food coloration. We have uncovered unexpected diversity in the last major lineage of NWMs to be assayed for colour vision, which will provide an interesting system to dissect adaptation of polymorphic trichromacy.


Asunto(s)
Visión de Colores , Pitheciidae/fisiología , Opsinas de Bastones/genética , Animales , Cara , Femenino , Masculino , Pitheciidae/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Piel
20.
J Chem Ecol ; 42(4): 323-8, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27039380

RESUMEN

Fleshy fruits contain a myriad of secondary metabolites that may fulfill various non-mutually exclusive ecological functions. Among them are defense against pathogens and herbivores, manipulation of frugivores' gut retention time, or controlling the germination process. In addition, it has been suggested that aroma compounds may be used as fruit-selection cues by frugivores, and that plants may be under selection to provide a reliable signal for ripeness to seed-dispersal vectors through ripe fruit aroma. A previous project demonstrated that fruit odor of two Neotropical primate-dispersed plant species can be used by primates to identify ripe fruits. Here, we provide data supporting the hypothesis that olfactory conspicuousness of ripeness in these two species may be an evolved signal rather than a cue exploited by primates. We analyzed the odors of ripe and unripe fruits of the two species along with odors of two sympatric species whose main dispersal vector is passerine birds. We show that only primate-dispersed species significantly change their odor profiles upon ripening. Thus, odor of bird-dispersed species is not informative regarding their ripeness level and is likely to fulfill other functions. We discuss these data in light of the multiple hypotheses for the presence of fruit secondary metabolites, and we offer a roadmap for future studies to establish the hypothesis that fruit odor is an evolved signal for ripeness.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Frutas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Odorantes/análisis , Plantas/química , Primates/fisiología , Dispersión de Semillas , Clima Tropical , Animales
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...