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J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 35(3): 221-227, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330133


The purpose of this study is to explore the National Quality Strategy (NQS) levers (measurement and feedback, public reporting, learning and technical assistance, and certification) on state and national breastfeeding performance. The research evaluates the NQS levers of measurement and feedback and public reporting using secondary data analysis of publicly reported data from the National Immunization Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breastfeeding Report Cards between 2008 and 2018, the latest years available. Linear regression explores the association between the prevalence of state-level Baby-Friendly hospitals and state-level breastfeeding rates. Subsequent analyses use event study to test whether state-level Baby-Friendly hospital adoption is associated with higher breastfeeding rates. A 10% increase in Baby-Friendly hospitals at the state level is associated with increased population breastfeeding rates by nearly 5% and a decrease in early formula use (before 2 days of life) by 2% to 9%. Breastfeeding increased by 2% to 5% in the first 2 years following state-level Baby-Friendly initiatives, with subsequent increases up to 10% in the next 4 years. The National Quality Strategy levers of measurement and public reporting combined with certification and learning and technical assistance are associated with increases in exclusive breastfeeding, a national quality metric.

Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114040, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144481


RATIONALE: Stress process theory considers that actual and perceived isolation, caused by mobility restrictions from attempted containment of the COVID-19 pandemic, deteriorates mental health. OBJECTIVE: We examine the relationship between the COVID-19 lockdowns and mental health-related Google searches in 11 Latin American countries. We include the following countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. We also explore how changes in search patterns relate to income support policies and to COVID-19 death rates. METHOD: Using Google Trends data and an event-study design, as well as a difference-in-differences analysis, we investigate the association between country specific stay-at-home orders and internet searches including the following words: insomnia, stress, anxiety, sadness, depression, and suicide. RESULTS: We find three main patterns. First, searches for insomnia peak but then decline. Second, searches for stress, anxiety, and sadness increase and remain high throughout the lockdown. Third, there is no substantial change in depression-related or suicide-related searches after the lockdown. In terms of potential mechanisms, our results suggest that searches declined for suicide and insomnia following the passage of each country's income support, while in countries with higher COVID-19-related death rates, searches for insomnia, stress, and anxiety increased by more. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in Latin America, Google searches for words associated with mild mental health disorders increased during the COVID-19 stay-at-home orders. Nonetheless, these conclusions should not be construed as a general population mental health deterioration, as we cannot verify that search indicators are accurately related to the users' current feelings and behaviors, and as internet users may not be representative of the population in this region.

COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Motor de Búsqueda , Argentina , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ecuador , Guatemala , Honduras , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología , México , Pandemias , Perú , SARS-CoV-2 , Uruguay
Econ Hum Biol ; 41: 100991, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774434


This paper considers whether the COVID-19 stay-at-home order affected crimes targeting women. To answer this question, we use national municipal-level crime data from Mexico's National Public Security System. The NPSS reports sexual crimes, lapses in alimony, domestic violence, and femicides. Using the NPSS, we track monthly changes in crimes targeting women using an event-study design. Our results show that lapses in alimony, sexual crimes, and domestic violence follow a U-shaped trend. Each crime declined during the stay-at-home order, and then rose back to pre-COVID levels by October. Then, we analyze potential mechanisms for the reduction in crimes against women. We find that infection risk, victim-criminal match, and banning the sale of alcohol are related to higher declines in crime.

COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos
J Crim Justice ; 72: 101745, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994650


Objective: To investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on conventional crime and organized crime in Mexico City, Mexico. Methods: Mexico City's Attorney General's Office reported crime data, covering domestic violence, burglary, robbery, vehicle theft, assault-battery, homicides, kidnapping, and extortion. We use an event study for the intertemporal variation across the 16 districts (municipalities) in Mexico City for 2019 and 2020. Results: We find a sharp decrease on crimes related to domestic violence, burglary, and vehicle theft; a decrease during some weeks on crimes related to assault-battery and extortion, and no effects on crimes related to robbery, kidnapping, and homicides. Conclusions: While our results show a decline in conventional crime during the COVID- 19 pandemic, organized crime remains steady. These findings have policy implications for catastrophic events around the world, as well as possible national security issues in Mexico.

Birth ; 47(4): 430-437, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270283


PURPOSE: To explore the role of the birth center model of care in rural health and maternity care delivery in the United States. METHODS: All childbearing families enrolled in care at an American Association of Birth Centers Perinatal Data RegistryTM user sites between 2012 and 2020 are included in this descriptive analysis. FINDINGS: Between 2012 and 2020, 88 574 childbearing families enrolled in care with 82 American Association of Birth Centers Perinatal Data RegistryTM user sites. Quality outcomes exceeded national benchmarks across all geographic regions in both rural and urban settings. A stable and predictable rate of transfer to a higher level of care was demonstrated across geographic regions, with over half of the population remaining appropriate for birth center level of care throughout the perinatal episode of care. Controlling for socio demographic and medical risk factors, outcomes were as favorable for clients in rural areas compared with urban and suburban communities. CONCLUSIONS: Rural populations cared for within the birth center model of care experienced high-quality outcomes. HEALTH POLICY IMPLICATIONS: A major focus of the United States maternity care reform should be the expansion of access to birth center models of care, especially in underserved areas such as rural communities.