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1.
Addict Behav ; 114: 106747, 2020 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307406

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Smoking cigarettes under the influence of alcohol or cannabis is associated with perceived pleasure. However, it is unclear whether these changes in perceived reward impact the extent of concurrent use of cigarettes with alcohol or cannabis. The current study investigated if self-reported changes in perceived reward from concurrent use of cigarettes with alcohol or cannabis are related to the extent of concurrent use in real-world contexts using a smartphone-based Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) study. METHODS: The sample included 126 diverse young adult smokers in the San Francisco Bay Area who reported current alcohol or cannabis use at baseline (M = 22.8 years, 50.8% male, 40.5% sexual minority, 39.7% Non-Hispanic White). Participants completed an online baseline survey and 30 days of smartphone-based daily EMA surveys of cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis use. The baseline assessed self-reported changes in perceived pleasure of smoking cigarettes while using alcohol or cannabis separately. EMA surveys included detailed questions about concurrent use (i.e., the extent of smoking while using another substance) covering the previous day. A total of 2,600 daily assessments were analyzed using mixed models. RESULTS: Higher perceived pleasure from smoking cigarettes while drinking alcohol or using cannabis at baseline were both associated with a greater extent of concurrent use of cigarettes with alcohol (b = 0.140; SE = 0.066; t = 2.1; p = .035) and cannabis (b = 0.136; SE = 0.058; t = 2.4; p = .019) on a given day. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that perceived reward from concurrently using cigarettes with alcohol or cannabis is associated with the extent of concurrent use. Findings can inform tailored smoking cessation interventions.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092106

RESUMEN

Given the emerging tobacco landscape, dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes has increased among young adults, but little is known about its associated factors. Peer crowds, defined as macro-level connections between individuals with similar core values (e.g., "Hip Hop" describing a group that prefers hip hop music and values strength, honor, and respect), are a promising way to understand tobacco use patterns. We examined associations between peer crowds and tobacco use patterns by using data from a cross sectional survey of 1340 young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2014. Outcomes were the past 30-day use of: neither cigarettes nor e-cigarettes; cigarettes but not e-cigarettes; e-cigarettes but not cigarettes; and both cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Peer crowds included Hipster, Hip Hop, Country, Partier, Homebody, and Young Professional. Multinomial regression analysis indicated that peer crowds were significantly associated with different tobacco use patterns. Compared to Young Professionals, Hip Hop and Hipster crowds were more likely to dual use; Hipsters were more likely to use e-cigarettes only, and Country participants were more likely to smoke cigarettes only. These findings suggest that tobacco control campaigns and cessation interventions should be tailored to different young adult peer crowds and address poly-tobacco use.

3.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804517

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority (SM) young adults have higher rates of substance use than heterosexuals, but little is known about daily use of multiple substances, which confer numerous health risks for this population. Using daily diary data from a smartphone-based study, we examined the associations between sexual identity (i.e., SM vs. heterosexual) and patterns of same-day multiple substance use (i.e., cigarettes and alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis, alcohol and cannabis, and all 3 substances). METHOD: Young adult smokers (N = 147, aged 18-26, 51.7% female, 41.5% SM, 40.8% White) reported consecutive daily assessments on substance use over 30 days. We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations between sexual identity and patterns of same-day multiple substance use, controlling for demographic factors and psychological distress. RESULTS: Of 2,891 daily assessments, 16.7% reported same-day use of cigarettes and alcohol, 18.1% cigarettes and cannabis, 1.5% alcohol and cannabis, and 15.0% use of all 3 substances. SM participants (vs. heterosexuals) had significantly greater odds of reporting days with use of cigarettes and cannabis [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 2.05, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.04, 4.01]] and use of all three substances (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI [1.51, 5.14]) than days with single substance use or no use. CONCLUSIONS: These findings warrant tailored interventions addressing multiple substance use among SM young adults and temporally accurate measures of multiple substance use patterns. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
J Community Health ; 45(2): 319-328, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535264

RESUMEN

This study evaluated young adults' exposure to drifting secondhand smoke in San Francisco County housing units using the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey (N = 1363). Logistic and geographically weighted regression models were used to determine whether residing in multiunit housing or in areas with greater neighborhood disorder were risk factors for exposure, and how drifting smoke exposure varied spatially within San Francisco County. Residing in buildings with five or more units significantly increased the odds of reporting drifting smoke exposure [OR (3.5 1.3, 9.9)], but neighborhood disorder did not have a significant association in the fully adjusted logistic regression model. At the local level, however, neighborhood disorder was significantly associated with exposure in lower income residential and downtown areas. Multiunit housing was significantly associated with exposure across all neighborhoods.

5.
Community Ment Health J ; 56(1): 149-156, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535346

RESUMEN

Recent migrants to the United States face various stressors, including adjustment to new community norms and practices. To ease this transition, migrant groups have traditionally formed enclaves where they might live in close proximity and access institutions designed to serve their cultural interests. For newer migrant groups, such as Brazilians residing in New England, neighborhood social cohesion may therefore be particularly important for buffering against serious psychological distress. We use representative data from the 2007 Boston Metropolitan Immigrant Health and Legal Status Survey to estimate the association of serious psychological distress with neighborhood-level social cohesion among foreign-born Brazilian adults. We find that serious psychological distress is inversely related to neighborhood social cohesion (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46, 0.94). Annual earnings were also negatively associated with distress (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93, 0.99). Our findings suggest that neighborhood social ties may buffer against serious psychological distress for Brazilian migrants in New England.

6.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(7): 1106-1114, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747029

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Young adults are at high risk for using flavored tobacco, including menthol and underrepresented populations, such as Latino and African American young adults, are at particular risk. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to identify sociodemographic correlates of menthol use among young adult smokers and examine the potential role of experienced discrimination in explaining any associations. METHODS: We conducted a probabilistic multimode household survey of young adults (aged 18-26) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties in California in 2014 (n = 1,350). We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between menthol cigarette use and experienced discrimination among young adult smokers as well as with respect to sociodemographic, attitudinal, and behavioral predictors. Interactions between experienced discrimination and race/ethnicity, sex and LGB identity were also modeled. RESULTS: Latino and non-Hispanic Black young adult smokers were more likely to report current menthol use than non-Hispanic Whites, while those with college education were less likely to do so. Experienced discrimination mediated the relationship between race and menthol use for Asian/Pacific Islander and Multiracial young adult smokers with odds of use increasing by 32 and 42% respectively for each additional unit on the experienced discrimination scale. Conclusions/Importance: Latino and African American young adult smokers have disproportionately high menthol use rates; however, discrimination only predicted higher use for Asian/Pacific Islander and Multiracial young adult smokers. Limits on the sale of menthol cigarettes may benefit all nonwhite race/ethnic groups as well as those with less education.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Mentol , Racismo/psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos de Población Continentales/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , San Francisco/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
7.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 18(2): 237-256, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28708013

RESUMEN

Tobacco and marijuana use among U.S. young adults is a top public health concern, and racial/ethnic minorities may be at particular risk. Past research examining cultural variables has focused on the individual in relation to the mainstream U.S. culture; however, an individual can also experience within-group stress, or intragroup marginalization. We used the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey to validate an abbreviated measure of intragroup marginalization and identify associations between intragroup marginalization and tobacco and marijuana use among ethnic minority young adults (N = 1,058). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify factors within the abbreviated scale, and logistic regressions were conducted to examine relationships between intragroup marginalization and tobacco and marijuana use. Two factors emerged from the abbreviated scale. The first factor encompassed items related to belonging and membership, capturing whether individuals experienced marginalization due to not fitting in because of physical appearance or behavior. The second factor encompassed whether individuals shared similar hopes and dreams to their friends and family members. Factor 1 (membership) was associated with increased odds of marijuana use (OR = 1.34, p < .05) and lower odds of using cigars (OR = 0.79, p < .05), controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results suggest that young adults may use marijuana as a means to build connection and belonging to cope with feeling marginalized. Health education programs focused on ethnic minority young adults are needed to help them effectively cope with intragroup marginalization without resorting to marijuana use.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Marginación Social/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/etnología , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Grupos Minoritarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría , San Francisco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/etnología , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 192: 51-58, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212756

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual minority young adults have higher smoking rates than the general young adult population, but reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The current study aimed to: 1) identify real-time predictors of smoking among sexual minority and heterosexual smokers and 2) examine between-group differences in these predictors. METHODS: We conducted an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study in the San Francisco Bay Area, California in 2016-2017. Data from 84 young adult smokers (44% identified as sexual minority, including 29 bisexual and 8 gay/lesbian) with 6498 EMA assessments were analyzed. Both internal and external predictors and interaction terms between each predictor and sexual group were examined using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: Common correlates of smoking were found for both groups (e.g., craving, absence of smoking bans, presence of other smokers, outside location, and seeing triggers). Unique factors for sexual minority smokers were being at a bar (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.06-2.90) and the number of other smokers present (aOR = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.04-1.20), while the presence of a smoking family member reduced the odds of smoking in this group (aOR = 0.13, 95%CI = 0.02-0.85). In interaction models, the number of other smokers exerted a greater influence on sexual minority participants compared to their heterosexual counterparts (aOR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.01-1.20), while craving (aOR = 0.84, 95%CI = 0.75-0.93) and presence of a smoking family member (aOR = 0.11, 95%CI = 0.01-0.82) had weaker influences. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights unique situational factors associated with smoking among sexual minority young adults and differences in these factors by sexual identity. Future interventions targeting sexual minorities should address bar attendance and specific triggers.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Bisexualidad/psicología , Femenino , Predicción , Identidad de Género , Homosexualidad Femenina/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Am J Prev Med ; 53(3S1): S78-S85, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818250

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco contributes to multiple cancers, and it is largely preventable. As overall smoking prevalence in California declines, smoking has become concentrated among high-risk groups. Targeting social/cultural groups (i.e., "peer crowds") that share common values, aspirations, and activities in social venues like bars and nightclubs may reach high-risk young adult smokers. Lack of population data on young adult peer crowds limits the ability to assess the potential reach of such interventions. METHODS: This multimodal population-based household survey included young adults residing in San Francisco and Alameda counties. Data were collected in 2014 and analyzed in 2016. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed smoking by sociodemographic factors, attitudes, self-rated health, peer crowd affiliation, and bar/nightclub attendance. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence was 15.1% overall; 35.3% of respondents sometimes or frequently attended bars. In controlled analyses, bar attendance (AOR=2.13, 95% CI=1.00, 4.53) and binge drinking (AOR=3.17, 95% CI=1.59, 6.32) were associated with greater odds of smoking, as was affiliation with "Hip Hop" (AOR=4.32, 95% CI=1.48, 12.67) and "Country" (AOR=3.13, 95% CI=1.21, 8.09) peer crowds. Multivariable models controlling for demographics estimated a high probability of smoking among bar patrons affiliating with Hip Hop (47%) and Country (52%) peer crowds. CONCLUSIONS: Bar attendance and affiliation with certain peer crowds confers significantly higher smoking risk. Interventions targeting Hip Hop and Country peer crowds could efficiently reach smokers, and peer crowd-tailored interventions have been associated with decreased smoking and binge drinking. Targeted interventions in bars and nightclubs may be an efficient way to address these cancer risks.


Asunto(s)
Borrachera/prevención & control , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Grupo Paritario , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Uso de Tabaco/prevención & control , Adulto , Borrachera/complicaciones , Borrachera/epidemiología , Borrachera/psicología , California/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Música/psicología , Neoplasias/etiología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Productos de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Adulto Joven
10.
Tob Control ; 26(e1): e79-e84, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417380

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine occupational differences in workplace exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among young adults in California. METHODS: Data are taken from the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multimode cross-sectional household survey of young adults, aged 18-26, in Alameda and San Francisco Counties. Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS 'indoors' or 'outdoors' at their workplace in the previous 7 days and also reported their current employment status, industry and occupation. Sociodemographic characteristics and measures of health perception and behaviour were included in the final model. RESULTS: Young adults employed in service (p<0.001), construction and maintenance (p<0.01), and transportation and material moving (p<0.05) sectors were more likely to report workplace SHS exposure while those reporting very good or excellent self-rated health were less likely (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite California's clean indoor air policy, 33% of young adults in the San Francisco Bay Area still reported workplace SHS exposure in the past week, with those in lower income occupations and working in non-office environments experiencing the greatest exposure. Closing the gaps that exempt certain types of workplaces from the Smoke-Free Workplace Act may be especially beneficial for young adults.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo , Adolescente , Adulto , California , Estudios Transversales , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Política de Salud , Estado de Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , San Francisco , Adulto Joven
11.
Prev Med ; 90: 11-6, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346757

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: California may vote on marijuana legalization in 2016. Young adults have the highest rates of marijuana use, but little is known about the correlates of use in this age group, including factors that may be affected by policy change. We investigated whether there are differences in marijuana use by sociodemographic characteristics, psychological distress, loneliness and social support, controlling for risk factors such as alcohol and cigarette use as well as perceived harm of marijuana. METHODS: Bivariate and multivariable analysis of past 30day marijuana use using the 2014 San Francisco Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multi-mode survey of (N=1324) young adults (aged 18-26years) residing in Alameda and San Francisco Counties, stratified by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: 291 (27%) sample participants reported current marijuana use. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites (referent) Asian/Pacific Islander respondents were less likely to use marijuana (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.80) while multiracial participants were twice as likely (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-4.85). Psychological distress was not related to marijuana use, but social support (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08-1.88) and loneliness (AOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86) were. Perceived harm of marijuana was inversely related to marijuana use (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70), while smoking cigarettes (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.28-6.84) and binge drinking (AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) were positively related. CONCLUSIONS: Legalization policies should include public education campaigns addressing potential harms of marijuana use particularly targeting multiracial young adults who also engage in other risk behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and binge drinking.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana/etnología , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Borrachera , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Grupos de Población Continentales , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Soledad , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , San Francisco/epidemiología , San Francisco/etnología , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
12.
Health Educ Behav ; 43(6): 641-647, 2016 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26706863

RESUMEN

Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes. Young adults completed cross-sectional surveys between 2012 and 2014 in bars in seven U.S. cities (N = 5,503). The SPI is a 13-item scale that includes personality items and information on how frequently participants attend bars and how late they stay out. Three step-by-step multinomial regression models were run using the SPI as a predictor of smoking status (nondaily and daily smoking vs. nonsmoking): (1) SPI as the sole predictor, (2) SPI and demographics, and (3) SPI, demographics, and tobacco-related attitude variables. Next, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis to examine if the number of items in SPI could be reduced and retain its strong relationship with smoking. Higher scores on the SPI were related to an increased probability of being a Nondaily Smoker (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval [1.04, 1.14], p < .001) or Daily Smoker (odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [1.07, 1.22], p < .0001) compared to a Nonsmoker, controlling for demographics and other tobacco-related attitudes. The SPI and reduced SPI were independently related to young adult tobacco use. The measure's brevity, ease of use, and strong association with tobacco use may make it useful to tobacco and other prevention researchers.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Actitud , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Fumar/psicología , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Femenino , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Psicometría , Análisis de Regresión , Restaurantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
13.
J Urban Health ; 91(6): 1175-88, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25331821

RESUMEN

Tobacco smoking is estimated to be the largest preventable cause of mortality in the USA, but little is known about the relationship between neighborhood social environment and current smoking behavior or how this may differ by population and geography. We investigate how neighborhood social cohesion and disorder are associated with smoking behavior among legal and unauthorized Brazilian migrant adults using data from the 2007 Harvard-UMASS Boston Metropolitan Immigrant Health and Legal Status Survey (BM-IHLSS), a probabilistic household survey of adult Brazilian migrants. We employ logistic regression to estimate associations between neighborhood social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and current smoking. We find that neighborhood-level social cohesion is associated with lower likelihood of being a current smoker (O.R. = .836; p < .05), and neighborhood disorder, measured as crime experienced in the neighborhood, is not associated with current smoking. Neighborhood population density, age, being male, and residing with someone who smokes are each positively associated with current smoking (p < .10). The health of participants' parents at the age of 35, being married, and individual earnings are associated with a reduction in the probability of being a current smoker (p < .05). Migrant legal status and length of residence in the USA are not associated with current smoking. Our findings suggest that neighborhood social cohesion may be protective against smoking. Alternatively, neighborhood disorder does not appear to be related to current smoking among Brazilian migrants.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Fumar/etnología , Medio Social , Adulto , Boston/epidemiología , Brasil/etnología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Clase Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Health Place ; 18(3): 683-93, 2012 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22401803

RESUMEN

We estimate cross-sectional associations of neighborhood-level disorder, socioeconomic characteristics and social capital with individual-level systemic inflammation, measured as high C-reactive protein (CRP), using Boston Metropolitan Immigrant Health & Legal Status Survey (BM-IHLSS) data-a sample of relatively young, healthy foreign-born Brazilian adults. Logistic regression analyses suggest high CRP is positively associated with neighborhood disorder and negatively related to neighborhood social capital. Although we find no significant associations between other neighborhood socioeconomic variables and high CRP; males, those who were born in an urban area and those who had been graduated from high school were less likely to have had high CRP. Unauthorized Brazilian adults, those who smoked cigarettes daily and those who had a higher body mass index were more likely to have had high CRP. Our findings suggest that investigating sociogeographic stressors and social support may be important for understanding physiological dysregulation even among relatively healthy U.S. sub-populations.


Asunto(s)
Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Características de la Residencia , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica/epidemiología , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Boston/epidemiología , Brasil/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Clase Social
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