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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5741, 2021 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593793

RESUMEN

Twisted two-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures have unlocked a new means for manipulating the properties of quantum materials. The resulting mesoscopic moiré superlattices are accessible to a wide variety of scanning probes. To date, spatially-resolved techniques have prioritized electronic structure visualization, with lattice response experiments only in their infancy. Here, we therefore investigate lattice dynamics in twisted layers of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), formed by a minute twist angle between two hBN monolayers assembled on a graphite substrate. Nano-infrared (nano-IR) spectroscopy reveals systematic variations of the in-plane optical phonon frequencies amongst the triangular domains and domain walls in the hBN moiré superlattices. Our first-principles calculations unveil a local and stacking-dependent interaction with the underlying graphite, prompting symmetry-breaking between the otherwise identical neighboring moiré domains of twisted hBN.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1641, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712611

RESUMEN

Quasi-periodic moiré patterns and their effect on electronic properties of twisted bilayer graphene have been intensely studied. At small twist angle θ, due to atomic reconstruction, the moiré superlattice morphs into a network of narrow domain walls separating micron-scale AB and BA stacking regions. We use scanning probe photocurrent imaging to resolve nanoscale variations of the Seebeck coefficient occurring at these domain walls. The observed features become enhanced in a range of mid-infrared frequencies where the hexagonal boron nitride substrate is optically hyperbolic. Our results illustrate the capabilities of the nano-photocurrent technique for probing nanoscale electronic inhomogeneities in two-dimensional materials.

3.
Science ; 371(6529): 617-620, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542134

RESUMEN

Collective electronic modes or lattice vibrations usually prohibit propagation of electromagnetic radiation through the bulk of common materials over a frequency range associated with these oscillations. However, this textbook tenet does not necessarily apply to layered crystals. Highly anisotropic materials often display nonintuitive optical properties and can permit propagation of subdiffractional waveguide modes, with hyperbolic dispersion, throughout their bulk. Here, we report on the observation of optically induced electronic hyperbolicity in the layered transition metal dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide (WSe2). We used photoexcitation to inject electron-hole pairs in WSe2 and then visualized, by transient nanoimaging, the hyperbolic rays that traveled along conical trajectories inside of the crystal. We establish here the signatures of programmable hyperbolic electrodynamics and assess the role of quantum transitions of excitons within the Rydberg series in the observed polaritonic response.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17866, 2020 10 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082406

RESUMEN

The shape of the cell is connected to its function; however, we do not fully understand underlying mechanisms by which global shape regulates a cell's functional capabilities. Using theory, experiments and simulation, we investigated how physiologically relevant cell shape changes affect subcellular organization, and consequently intracellular signaling, to control information flow needed for phenotypic function. Vascular smooth muscle cells going from a proliferative and motile circular shape to a contractile fusiform shape show changes in the location of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, inter-organelle distances, and differential distribution of receptors in the plasma membrane. These factors together lead to the modulation of signals transduced by the M3 muscarinic receptor/Gq/PLCß pathway at the plasma membrane, amplifying Ca2+ dynamics in the cytoplasm, and the nucleus resulting in phenotypic changes, as determined by increased activity of myosin light chain kinase in the cytoplasm and enhanced nuclear localization of the transcription factor NFAT. Taken together, our observations show a systems level phenomenon whereby global cell shape affects subcellular organization to modulate signaling that enables phenotypic changes.


Asunto(s)
Señalización del Calcio/fisiología , Forma de la Célula/fisiología , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Orgánulos/metabolismo , Fracciones Subcelulares/metabolismo , Animales , Línea Celular , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia , Músculo Liso Vascular/citología , Ratas
5.
Nature ; 571(7763): 85-89, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189959

RESUMEN

Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is the key to realizing time-reversal-invariant topological phases of matter1,2. SOC was predicted by Kane and Mele3 to stabilize a quantum spin Hall insulator; however, the weak intrinsic SOC in monolayer graphene4-7 has precluded experimental observation in this material. Here we exploit a layer-selective proximity effect-achieved via a van der Waals contact with a semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenide8-21-to engineer Kane-Mele SOC in ultra clean bilayer graphene. Using high-resolution capacitance measurements to probe the bulk electronic compressibility, we find that SOC leads to the formation of a distinct, incompressible, gapped phase at charge neutrality. The experimental data agree quantitatively with a simple theoretical model in which the new phase results from SOC-driven band inversion. In contrast to Kane-Mele SOC in monolayer graphene, the inverted phase is not expected to be a time-reversal-invariant topological insulator, despite being separated from conventional band insulators by electric-field-tuned phase transitions where crystal symmetry mandates that the bulk gap must close22. Our electrical transport measurements reveal that the inverted phase has a conductivity of approximately e2/h (where e is the electron charge and h Planck's constant), which is suppressed by exceptionally small in-plane magnetic fields. The high conductivity and anomalous magnetoresistance are consistent with theoretical models that predict helical edge states within the inverted phase that are protected from backscattering by an emergent spin symmetry that remains robust even for large Rashba SOC. Our results pave the way for proximity engineering of strong topological insulators as well as correlated quantum phases in the strong spin-orbit regime in graphene heterostructures.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(13): 137701, 2019 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012609

RESUMEN

We report fabrication of graphene devices in a Corbino geometry consisting of concentric circular electrodes with no physical edge connecting the inner and outer electrodes. High device mobility is realized using boron nitride encapsulation together with a dual-graphite gate structure. Bulk conductance measurement in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime outperforms previously reported Hall bar measurements, with improved resolution observed for both the integer and fractional QHE states. We identify apparent phase transitions in the fractional sequence in both the lowest and first excited Landau levels (LLs) and observe features consistent with electron solid phases in higher LLs.

7.
Sci Adv ; 5(3): eaau3826, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899781

RESUMEN

For more than two decades, there have been reports on an unexpected metallic state separating the established superconducting and insulating phases of thin-film superconductors. To date, no theoretical explanation has been able to fully capture the existence of such a state for the large variety of superconductors exhibiting it. Here, we show that for two very different thin-film superconductors, amorphous indium oxide and a single crystal of 2H-NbSe2, this metallic state can be eliminated by adequately filtering external radiation. Our results show that the appearance of temperature-independent, metallic-like transport at low temperatures is sufficiently described by the extreme sensitivity of these superconducting films to external perturbations. We relate this sensitivity to the theoretical observation that, in two dimensions, superconductivity is only marginally stable.

8.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaat3672, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588488

RESUMEN

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are interesting for understanding the fundamental physics of two-dimensional (2D) materials as well as for applications to many emerging technologies, including spin electronics. Here, we report the discovery of long-range magnetic order below T M = 40 and 100 K in bulk semiconducting TMDs 2H-MoTe2 and 2H-MoSe2, respectively, by means of muon spin rotation (µSR), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The µSR measurements show the presence of large and homogeneous internal magnetic fields at low temperatures in both compounds indicative of long-range magnetic order. DFT calculations show that this magnetism is promoted by the presence of defects in the crystal. The STM measurements show that the vast majority of defects in these materials are metal vacancies and chalcogen-metal antisites, which are randomly distributed in the lattice at the subpercent level. DFT indicates that the antisite defects are magnetic with a magnetic moment in the range of 0.9 to 2.8 µB. Further, we find that the magnetic order stabilized in 2H-MoTe2 and 2H-MoSe2 is highly sensitive to hydrostatic pressure. These observations establish 2H-MoTe2 and 2H-MoSe2 as a new class of magnetic semiconductors and open a path to studying the interplay of 2D physics and magnetism in these interesting semiconductors.

9.
Nature ; 557(7706): 530-533, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795255

RESUMEN

Plasmon polaritons are hybrid excitations of light and mobile electrons that can confine the energy of long-wavelength radiation at the nanoscale. Plasmon polaritons may enable many enigmatic quantum effects, including lasing 1 , topological protection2,3 and dipole-forbidden absorption 4 . A necessary condition for realizing such phenomena is a long plasmonic lifetime, which is notoriously difficult to achieve for highly confined modes 5 . Plasmon polaritons in graphene-hybrids of Dirac quasiparticles and infrared photons-provide a platform for exploring light-matter interaction at the nanoscale6,7. However, plasmonic dissipation in graphene is substantial 8 and its fundamental limits remain undetermined. Here we use nanometre-scale infrared imaging to investigate propagating plasmon polaritons in high-mobility encapsulated graphene at cryogenic temperatures. In this regime, the propagation of plasmon polaritons is primarily restricted by the dielectric losses of the encapsulated layers, with a minor contribution from electron-phonon interactions. At liquid-nitrogen temperatures, the intrinsic plasmonic propagation length can exceed 10 micrometres, or 50 plasmonic wavelengths, thus setting a record for highly confined and tunable polariton modes. Our nanoscale imaging results reveal the physics of plasmonic dissipation and will be instrumental in mitigating such losses in heterostructure engineering applications.

10.
Science ; 358(6363): 648-652, 2017 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982799

RESUMEN

The distinct Landau level spectrum of bilayer graphene (BLG) is predicted to support a non-abelian even-denominator fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state similar to the [Formula: see text] state first identified in GaAs. However, the nature of this state has remained difficult to characterize. Here, we report transport measurements of a robust sequence of even-denominator FQH in dual-gated BLG devices. Parallel field measurement confirms the spin-polarized nature of the ground state, which is consistent with the Pfaffian/anti-Pfaffian description. The sensitivity of the even-denominator states to both filling fraction and transverse displacement field provides new opportunities for tunability. Our results suggest that BLG is a platform in which topological ground states with possible non-abelian excitations can be manipulated and controlled.

11.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 948, 2017 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038518

RESUMEN

The high magnetic field electronic structure of bilayer graphene is enhanced by the spin, valley isospin, and an accidental orbital degeneracy, leading to a complex phase diagram of broken symmetry states. Here, we present a technique for measuring the layer-resolved charge density, from which we directly determine the valley and orbital polarization within the zero energy Landau level. Layer polarization evolves in discrete steps across 32 electric field-tuned phase transitions between states of different valley, spin, and orbital order, including previously unobserved orbitally polarized states stabilized by skew interlayer hopping. We fit our data to a model that captures both single-particle and interaction-induced anisotropies, providing a complete picture of this correlated electron system. The resulting roadmap to symmetry breaking paves the way for deterministic engineering of fractional quantum Hall states, while our layer-resolved technique is readily extendable to other two-dimensional materials where layer polarization maps to the valley or spin quantum numbers.The phase diagram of bilayer graphene at high magnetic fields has been an outstanding question, with orders possibly between multiple internal quantum degrees of freedom. Here, Hunt et al. report the measurement of the valley and orbital order, allowing them to directly reconstruct the phase diagram.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(10): 2148-2152, 2017 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448150

RESUMEN

Defects in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) may lead to unintentional doping, charge-carrier trapping, and nonradiative recombination. These effects impair electronic and optoelectronic technologies. Here we show that charged defects in MoS2 monolayers can be effectively screened when they are in contact with an ionic liquid (IL), leading to an increase in photoluminescence (PL) yield by up to two orders of magnitude. The extent of this PL enhancement by the IL correlates with the brightness of each pretreated sample. We propose the existence of two classes of nonradiative recombination centers in monolayer MoS2: (i) charged defects that relate to unintentional doping and may be electrostatically screened by ILs and (ii) neutral defects that remain unaffected by the presence of ILs.

13.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1616-1622, 2017 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28145719

RESUMEN

MoTe2 is an exfoliable transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) that crystallizes in three symmetries: the semiconducting trigonal-prismatic 2H- or α-phase, the semimetallic and monoclinic 1T'- or ß-phase, and the semimetallic orthorhombic γ-structure. The 2H-phase displays a band gap of ∼1 eV making it appealing for flexible and transparent optoelectronics. The γ-phase is predicted to possess unique topological properties that might lead to topologically protected nondissipative transport channels. Recently, it was argued that it is possible to locally induce phase-transformations in TMDs, through chemical doping, local heating, or electric-field to achieve ohmic contacts or to induce useful functionalities such as electronic phase-change memory elements. The combination of semiconducting and topological elements based upon the same compound might produce a new generation of high performance, low dissipation optoelectronic elements. Here, we show that it is possible to engineer the phases of MoTe2 through W substitution by unveiling the phase-diagram of the Mo1-xWxTe2 solid solution, which displays a semiconducting to semimetallic transition as a function of x. We find that a small critical W concentration xc ∼ 8% stabilizes the γ-phase at room temperature. This suggests that crystals with x close to xc might be particularly susceptible to phase transformations induced by an external perturbation, for example, an electric field. Photoemission spectroscopy, indicates that the γ-phase possesses a Fermi surface akin to that of WTe2.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(4): 046802, 2016 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494491

RESUMEN

We report on an experimental measurement of Coulomb drag in a double quantum well structure consisting of bilayer-bilayer graphene, separated by few layer hexagonal boron nitride. At low temperatures and intermediate densities, a novel negative drag response with an inverse sign is observed, distinct from the momentum and energy drag mechanisms previously reported in double monolayer graphene. By varying the device aspect ratio, the negative drag component is suppressed and a response consistent with pure momentum drag is recovered. In the momentum drag dominated regime, excellent quantitative agreement with the density and temperature dependence predicted for double bilayer graphene is found.

15.
Science ; 342(6158): 614-7, 2013 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24179223

RESUMEN

Heterostructures based on layering of two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride represent a new class of electronic devices. Realizing this potential, however, depends critically on the ability to make high-quality electrical contact. Here, we report a contact geometry in which we metalize only the 1D edge of a 2D graphene layer. In addition to outperforming conventional surface contacts, the edge-contact geometry allows a complete separation of the layer assembly and contact metallization processes. In graphene heterostructures, this enables high electronic performance, including low-temperature ballistic transport over distances longer than 15 micrometers, and room-temperature mobility comparable to the theoretical phonon-scattering limit. The edge-contact geometry provides new design possibilities for multilayered structures of complimentary 2D materials.

16.
Nature ; 497(7451): 598-602, 2013 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23676673

RESUMEN

Electrons moving through a spatially periodic lattice potential develop a quantized energy spectrum consisting of discrete Bloch bands. In two dimensions, electrons moving through a magnetic field also develop a quantized energy spectrum, consisting of highly degenerate Landau energy levels. When subject to both a magnetic field and a periodic electrostatic potential, two-dimensional systems of electrons exhibit a self-similar recursive energy spectrum. Known as Hofstadter's butterfly, this complex spectrum results from an interplay between the characteristic lengths associated with the two quantizing fields, and is one of the first quantum fractals discovered in physics. In the decades since its prediction, experimental attempts to study this effect have been limited by difficulties in reconciling the two length scales. Typical atomic lattices (with periodicities of less than one nanometre) require unfeasibly large magnetic fields to reach the commensurability condition, and in artificially engineered structures (with periodicities greater than about 100 nanometres) the corresponding fields are too small to overcome disorder completely. Here we demonstrate that moiré superlattices arising in bilayer graphene coupled to hexagonal boron nitride provide a periodic modulation with ideal length scales of the order of ten nanometres, enabling unprecedented experimental access to the fractal spectrum. We confirm that quantum Hall features associated with the fractal gaps are described by two integer topological quantum numbers, and report evidence of their recursive structure. Observation of a Hofstadter spectrum in bilayer graphene means that it is possible to investigate emergent behaviour within a fractal energy landscape in a system with tunable internal degrees of freedom.

17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 141(7): 1382-9, 2013 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23632097

RESUMEN

Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in many mammals including cattle, deer and brushtail possum. The aim of this study was to estimate the strength of association, using model selection (AICc) regression analyses, between the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB in New Zealand and annual costs of TB control, namely disease control in livestock, in wildlife or in a combination of the two. There was more support for curved (concave up) than linear models which related the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB to the annual control costs. The curved, concave-up, best-fitting relationships showed diminishing returns with no positive asymptote and implied TB eradication is feasible in New Zealand.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/economía , Reservorios de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Trichosurus , Tuberculosis Bovina/prevención & control , Animales , Bovinos , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/métodos , Modelos Estadísticos , Mycobacterium bovis , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Regulación de la Población , Análisis de Regresión , Tuberculosis/economía , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Tuberculosis/veterinaria , Tuberculosis Bovina/economía , Tuberculosis Bovina/epidemiología
18.
Adv Mater ; 24(16): 2207-11, 2012 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22431200

RESUMEN

The develpoment of a highly selective immobilization strategy for the self-assembly of quantum dots (QDs) from solution on lithographically defined, biochemically functionalized metal nanopatterns is presented. Nanosale control is achieved for the formation of predominantly single-particle structures consisting of a QD coupled to a metal nanoparticle, and assembled into an ordered nanoarray.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas del Metal/química , Nanotecnología/instrumentación , Impresión/instrumentación , Puntos Cuánticos , Soluciones
19.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 5(10): 722-6, 2010 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20729834

RESUMEN

Graphene devices on standard SiO(2) substrates are highly disordered, exhibiting characteristics that are far inferior to the expected intrinsic properties of graphene. Although suspending the graphene above the substrate leads to a substantial improvement in device quality, this geometry imposes severe limitations on device architecture and functionality. There is a growing need, therefore, to identify dielectrics that allow a substrate-supported geometry while retaining the quality achieved with a suspended sample. Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is an appealing substrate, because it has an atomically smooth surface that is relatively free of dangling bonds and charge traps. It also has a lattice constant similar to that of graphite, and has large optical phonon modes and a large electrical bandgap. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of high-quality exfoliated mono- and bilayer graphene devices on single-crystal h-BN substrates, by using a mechanical transfer process. Graphene devices on h-BN substrates have mobilities and carrier inhomogeneities that are almost an order of magnitude better than devices on SiO(2). These devices also show reduced roughness, intrinsic doping and chemical reactivity. The ability to assemble crystalline layered materials in a controlled way permits the fabrication of graphene devices on other promising dielectrics and allows for the realization of more complex graphene heterostructures.

20.
Soft Matter ; 6: 4788-4799, 2010 Aug 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23908673

RESUMEN

Many cell types have the ability to move themselves by crawling on extra-cellular matrices. Although cell motility is governed by actin and myosin filament assembly, the pattern of the movement follows the physical properties of the network ensemble average. The first step of motility, cell spreading on matrix substrates, involves a transition from round cells in suspension to polarized cells on substrates. Here we show that the spreading dynamics on 2D surfaces can be described as a hydrodynamic process. In particular, we show that the transition from isotropic spreading at early time to anisotropic spreading is reminiscent of the fingering instability observed in many spreading fluids. During cell spreading, the main driving force is the polymerization of actin filaments that push the membrane forward. From the equilibrium between the membrane force and the cytoskeleton, we derive a first order expression of the polymerization stress that reproduces the observed behavior. Our model also allows an interpretation of the effects of pharmacological agents altering the polymerization of actin. In particular we describe the influence of Cytochalasin D on the nucleation of the fingering instability.

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