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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16189, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004948

RESUMEN

Oral mucositis (OM) is a common complication of cancer therapy, however OM management remains unsatisfactory. There is a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of probiotics in OM due to positive findings of its use in intestinal mucositis. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of the probiotic combination Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 strains in chemotherapy-induced OM. Mice were divided into 4 groups. PBS/water and PBS/LR groups comprised of mice injected with PBS intraperitoneally (i.p.), and were given water or the mixture of L. reuteri (LR) DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in water respectively. The 5-FU/water and 5-FU/LR groups comprised of mice injected with 5-FU i.p., and were given water or L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in water respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed that the oral epithelia of the 5-FU/water and 5-FU/LR groups were thinner compared to PBS/water and PBS/LR groups. However, epithelial damage was significantly reduced in the 5-FU/LR compared to 5-FU/water group. Additionally, the 5-FU/LR group showed reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in the oral mucosa. We further showed that L. reuteri reduced oxidative stress through the nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) signalling. There was no evidence of translocation of L. reuteri systemically. This study demonstrated for the first time that L. reuteri protected oral mucosa against damage induced by chemotherapy.

2.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(5): 392-398, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087225

RESUMEN

Purpose: he purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the bond strength of resin sealant to hypomineralized enamel. Methods: Sound (S) and hypomineralized (H) enamel specimens were subjected to three different treatments: (1) etch only (E); (2) 5.25 percent NaOCl treatment (60 seconds) after (Post) etching; and (3) 5.25 percent NaOCl treatment (60 seconds) before (Pre) etching. A sealant rod was bonded for microshear bond strength (µSBS) testing. DIAGNOdent™ and spectrophotometry were used to detect changes in surface organic content and verify the amount of organic material removed. Results: Ninety S and 90 H specimens were randomly grouped into SE, SPost, SPre, HE, HPost, HPre groups. The average µSBS of hypomineralized enamel in etch only (HE) and NaOCl pre-etch (HPre) were significantly lower (9.2 MPa). NaOCl after etching significantly increased the µSBS of hypominineralized enamel (HPost) to 14.5 MPa, similar to sound enamel. DIAGNOdent™ readings were significantly lower in NaOCl Post versus E and NaOCl Pre, suggesting lower surface organic content. Spectrophotometry confirmed that NaOCI significantly removed more organic material in hypomineralized enamel. Conclusion: Applying 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite for 60 seconds after etching (32 percent phosphoric acid) increased the bond strength of resin sealant to hypomineralized enamel comparable to that of sound enamel, as a result of surface organic content removal.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Dentales , Hipoclorito de Sodio , Esmalte Dental , Humanos
3.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 25(2): 73-8, 2015 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24602187

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of data on molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in Asia, but this is not an indication that MIH is rare in the Asian population. Early identification of MIH is important as affected teeth frequently display post-eruptive enamel loss which would result in rapid caries progression. AIM: This objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of MIH in Singaporean children. DESIGN: Patients were recruited from 30 schools across Singapore. All children were examined by a single dentist, and the judgement criteria used were based on the 2003 European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria. RESULTS: A total of 1083 children; average age of 7.7 ± 0.3 years were examined. One hundred and thirty-five children (12.5%) had MIH. A significantly higher proportion of children of the Malay ethnicity had MIH, compared to Chinese children (P = 0.02). Post-eruptive enamel breakdown and the presence of atypical restorations were correlated with increasing number of MIH teeth/child (Rho= 0.599, P < 0.001) and the cumulative enamel opacity colour score (Rho = 0.601, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the role of ethnicity in MIH occurrence and that MIH severity may be influenced by the number of MIH teeth/child and the cumulative enamel opacity colour score.


Asunto(s)
Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental/epidemiología , Niño , Hipoplasia del Esmalte Dental/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Incisivo , Masculino , Diente Molar , Prevalencia , Singapur/epidemiología
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(9): 6248-56, 2014 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24734929

RESUMEN

Nanomaterials (NMs) such as titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) and hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) are widely used in food, personal care, and many household products. Due to their extensive usage, the risk of human exposure is increased and may trigger NMs specific biological outcomes as the NMs interface with the cells. However, the interaction of nano-TiO2 and nano-HA with cells, their uptake and subcellular distribution, and the cytotoxic effects are poorly understood. Herein, we characterized and examined the cellular internalization, inflammatory response and cytotoxic effects of nano-TiO2 and nano-HA using TR146 human oral buccal epithelial cells as an in vitro model. We showed both types of NMs were able to bind to the cellular membrane and passage into the cells in a dose dependent manner. Strikingly, both types of NMs exhibited distinct subcellular distribution profile with nano-HA displaying a higher preference to accumulate near the cell membrane compared to nano-TiO2. Exposure to both types of NMs caused an elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and expression of inflammatory transcripts with increasing NMs concentration. Although cells treated with nano-HA induces minimal apoptosis, nano-TiO2 treated samples displayed approximately 28% early apoptosis after 24 h of NMs exposure. We further showed that nano-TiO2 mediated cell death is independent of the classical p53-Bax apoptosis pathway. Our findings provided insights into the potential cellular fates of human oral epithelial cells as they interface with industrial grade nano-HA and nano-TiO2.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Durapatita/química , Nanopartículas del Metal , Mucosa Bucal/efectos de los fármacos , Titanio/química , Humanos , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Mucosa Bucal/citología , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Titanio/farmacología
5.
Int Dent J ; 64(2): 108-14, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410003

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a serious complication that results in significant morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. The guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis have been updated by the American Heart Association and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing practices among dentists in Singapore are unknown. AIM: To determine the specific infective endocarditis antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing practices of dentists in Singapore. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was sent through an email link and by postal mail. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 19.0. RESULTS: Responses were received from 458 dentists (34.3% response rate), of which 278 (65.9%) were general practitioners. The majority of respondents (39.8%) followed the American Heart Association 2007 guidelines and 30.2% followed cardiologists' recommendations. The accuracy of prescriptions for 13 cardiac conditions and 12 dental procedures were evaluated. The median number of accurate answers for cardiac conditions was eight for the American Heart Association 1999 guidelines, and four for the American Heart Association 2007 and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, respectively. The median number of accurate answers for dental procedures was generally high, both for dentists who followed the American Heart Association 1999 guidelines (median = 10) and American Heart Association 2007 (median = 9) guidelines. Majority of respondents (82.8%) felt that developing a local guideline would be beneficial to the local dental community. CONCLUSION: Dentists were accurate in their prescriptions of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures, but not for cardiac conditions. It may be helpful to attain a consensus among local cardiologists and dentists to unify the antibiotic prophylaxis prescription practices in Singapore.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica/estadística & datos numéricos , Endocarditis Bacteriana/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología/estadística & datos numéricos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Atención Dental para Enfermos Crónicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Odontólogos/psicología , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Odontología General/estadística & datos numéricos , Cardiopatías , Humanos , Práctica Privada/estadística & datos numéricos , Singapur , Especialidades Odontológicas/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Am J Med ; 123(12): 1128-33, 2010 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20961528

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: chronic indwelling central venous catheters are used commonly for a variety of indications. A predominant limitation of their use is catheter-related infections. Some clinicians believe that bacteremia from an invasive dental procedure could cause catheter-related infections and that antibiotic prophylaxis may prevent this complication. The topic is controversial, in large part because of the lack of clinical trial data supporting this notion. METHODS: we performed a systematic review to determine the level of evidence to support this practice. We retrieved studies, guidelines, recommendations, case reports, and editorials on prescribing prophylactic antibiotic therapy for indwelling central venous catheters before oral/dental procedures, using a search of PubMed, National Guideline Clearinghouse, and textbooks. RESULTS: there were no clinical trials and no documented cases of a catheter-related infection associated with an invasive dental procedure. Despite the lack of evidence, there are numerous recommendations and guidelines available in the literature that support the administration of "dental" prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: there is no evidence to support the administration of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent catheter-related infections associated with an invasive oral procedure in patients with chronic indwelling central venous catheters.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efectos adversos , Catéteres de Permanencia/efectos adversos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Infecciones/etiología , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Orales/efectos adversos , Humanos
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