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1.
MMWR Surveill Summ ; 68(10): 1-11, 2019 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697657

RESUMEN

PROBLEM/CONDITION: A 2017 report quantified the higher percentage of potentially excess (or preventable) deaths in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas. In that report, CDC compared national, regional, and state estimates of potentially excess deaths among the five leading causes of death in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties for 2010 and 2014. This report enhances the geographic detail by using the six levels of the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) urban-rural classification scheme for counties and extending estimates of potentially excess deaths by annual percent change (APC) and for additional years (2010-2017). Trends were tested both with linear and quadratic terms. PERIOD COVERED: 2010-2017. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death among persons aged <80 years. CDC's NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties was used to categorize the deaths according to the urban-rural county classification level of the decedent's county of residence (1: large central metropolitan [most urban], 2: large fringe metropolitan, 3: medium metropolitan, 4: small metropolitan, 5: micropolitan, and 6: noncore [most rural]). Potentially excess deaths were defined as deaths among persons aged <80 years that exceeded the number expected if the death rates for each cause in all states were equivalent to those in the benchmark states (i.e., the three states with the lowest rates). Potentially excess deaths were calculated separately for the six urban-rural county categories nationally, the 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services public health regions, and the 50 states and District of Columbia. RESULTS: The number of potentially excess deaths among persons aged <80 years in the United States increased during 2010-2017 for unintentional injuries (APC: 11.2%), decreased for cancer (APC: -9.1%), and remained stable for heart disease (APC: 1.1%), chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) (APC: 1.7%), and stroke (APC: 0.3). Across the United States, percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan counties in all years during 2010-2017. When assessed by the six urban-rural county classifications, percentages of potentially excess deaths in the most rural counties (noncore) were consistently higher than in the most urban counties (large central metropolitan) for the study period. Potentially excess deaths from heart disease increased most in micropolitan counties (APC: 2.5%) and decreased most in large fringe metropolitan counties (APC: -1.1%). Potentially excess deaths from cancer decreased in all county categories, with the largest decreases in large central metropolitan (APC: -16.1%) and large fringe metropolitan (APC: -15.1%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes increased, with the largest increases occurring in large central metropolitan (APC: 18.3%), large fringe metropolitan (APC: 17.1%), and medium metropolitan (APC: 11.1%) counties. Potentially excess deaths from CLRD decreased most in large central metropolitan counties (APC: -5.6%) and increased most in micropolitan (APC: 3.7%) and noncore (APC: 3.6%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from stroke exhibited a quadratic trend (i.e., decreased then increased), except in micropolitan counties, where no change occurred. Percentages of potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions and across states by urban-rural county classification during 2010-2017. INTERPRETATION: Nonmetropolitan counties had higher percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes than metropolitan counties during 2010-2017 nationwide, across public health regions, and in the majority of states. The gap between the most rural and most urban counties for potentially excess deaths increased during 2010-2017 for three causes of death (cancer, heart disease, and CLRD), decreased for unintentional injury, and remained relatively stable for stroke. Urban and suburban counties (large central metropolitan and large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) experienced increases in potentially excess deaths from unintentional injury during 2010-2017, leading to a narrower gap between the already high (approximately 55%) percentage of excess deaths in noncore and micropolitan counties. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths by urban-rural county classification might help public health departments and decision-makers identify and monitor public health problems and focus interventions to reduce potentially excess deaths in these areas.

2.
Lancet HIV ; 6(12): e860-e868, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635991

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inconclusive results have been reported in studies evaluating the association between HIV infection and subclinical atherosclerosis. Unsolved issues include whether the increased atherosclerosis burden observed in some studies is attributed to greater prevalence of traditional risk factors or HIV infection. Therefore, we evaluated the association of HIV infection with subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by carotid artery intima-media thickness, while controlling for the effects of traditional risk factors as operationalised by the Framingham risk score (FRS). METHODS: We did a cross-sectional evaluation of data derived from the baseline assessment of the Comparative HIV and Aging Research in Taizhou (CHART) cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study being done in Zhejiang province, China. HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals aged 18 years and older were recruited between Feb 1, and Dec 10, 2017, and were frequency-matched for age and sex in a 1:2 ratio. Subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as carotid artery intima-media thickness of 780 µm or higher. Logistic regression was used to assess the associations of HIV-positive serostatus and FRS with subclinical atherosclerosis. FINDINGS: 480 of 1425 (36·1%, 95% CI 33·6-38·6) HIV-positive and 784 of 2850 (27·5%, 95% CI 25·9-29·2) HIV-negative individuals had subclinical atherosclerosis (p<0·0001), and these patterns remained significant (adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1·72, 95% CI 1·47-2·01) in the adjusted model. After stratifying by age, higher prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was observed in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative individuals across the age groups 18-29 years (41 [16·0%] of 256 vs 13 [2·5%] of 512, p<0·0001), 30-44 years (128 [24·0%] of 533 vs 153 [14·4%] of 1066, p<0·0001), and 45-59 years (182 [46·6%] of 391 vs 294 [37·6%] of 782, p=0·0032), but not 60-75 years (163 [66·5%] of 245 vs 324 [66·1%] of 490, p=0·912). Significant negative interaction between HIV-positive serostatus and age on subclinical atherosclerosis was observed (p<0·0001). ORs adjusted for age, sex, and FRS were 8·84 (95% CI 4·50-17·34) for the age group 18-29 years, 2·09 (1·59-2·74) for 30-44 years, 1·54 (1·19-1·98) for 45-59 years, and 1·04 (0·75-1·44) for 60-75 years. Among HIV-positive individuals, none of the HIV-specific variables were significantly associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness estimates except for being antiretroviral therapy naive. INTERPRETATION: HIV infection is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of classic risk factors. The association is stronger at younger ages, suggesting early onset of subclinical atherosclerosis among young adults. These findings highlight the need to modify HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines to incorporate cardiovascular evaluation in China. FUNDING: China National Science and Technology Major Projects on Infectious Diseases, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Shanghai Municipal Health and Family Planning Commission.

3.
Med Care ; 57(11): 882-889, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567863

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the potential health and budgetary impacts of implementing a pharmacist-involved team-based hypertension management model in the United States. RESEARCH DESIGN: In 2017, we evaluated a pharmacist-involved team-based care intervention among 3 targeted groups using a microsimulation model designed to estimate cardiovascular event incidence and associated health care spending in a cross-section of individuals representative of the US population: implementing it among patients with: (1) newly diagnosed hypertension; (2) persistently (≥1 year) uncontrolled blood pressure (BP); or (3) treated, yet persistently uncontrolled BP-and report outcomes over 5 and 20 years. We describe the spending thresholds for each intervention strategy to achieve budget neutrality in 5 years from a payer's perspective. RESULTS: Offering this intervention could prevent 22.9-36.8 million person-years of uncontrolled BP and 77,200-230,900 heart attacks and strokes in 5 years (83.8-174.8 million and 393,200-922,900 in 20 years, respectively). Health and economic benefits strongly favored groups 2 and 3. Assuming an intervention cost of $525 per enrollee, the intervention generates 5-year budgetary cost-savings only for Medicare among groups 2 and 3. To achieve budget neutrality in 5 years across all groups, intervention costs per person need to be around $35 for Medicaid, $180 for private insurance, and $335 for Medicare enrollees. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting a pharmacist-involved team-based hypertension model could substantially improve BP control and cardiovascular outcomes in the United States. Net cost-savings among groups 2 and 3 make a compelling case for Medicare, but favorable economics may also be possible for private insurers, particularly if innovations could moderately lower the cost of delivering an effective intervention.


Asunto(s)
Presupuestos , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/economía , Costos de la Atención en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/economía , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/economía , Simulación por Computador , Ahorro de Costo , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Estudios Transversales , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud/métodos , Humanos , Farmacéuticos/economía , Estados Unidos
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e37, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093261

RESUMEN

Objective: Between 2006 and 2016, 70% of all deaths worldwide were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs kill nearly 40 million people a year globally, with almost three-quarters of NCD deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess mortality rates and trends due to deaths from NCDs in the Caribbean region. Methods: The study examines age-standardized mortality rates and 10-year trends due to death from cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes in two territories of the United States of America (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and in 20 other English- or Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries or territories, for the most recent, available 10 years of data ranging from 1999 to 2014. For the analysis, the SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software packages were used. Results: These four NCDs accounted for 39% to 67% of all deaths in these 22 countries and territories, and more than half of the deaths in 17 of them. Heart disease accounted for higher percentages of deaths in most of the Caribbean countries and territories (13%-25%), followed by cancer (8%-25%), diabetes (4%-21%), and cerebrovascular disease (1%-13%). Age-standardized mortality rates due to cancer and heart disease were higher for males than for females, but there were no significant mortality trends in the region for any of the NCDs. Conclusions: The reasons for the high mortality of NCDs in these Caribbean countries and territories remain a critical public health issue that warrants further investigation.

5.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(11): 19895-19910, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963578

RESUMEN

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a new class of RNAs, and many studies have identified thousands of circRNAs in tumor cells. Fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 3B (FNDC3B) circular RNA (circFNDC3B, circBase ID: hsa_circ_0006156) circularizes with exons 5 and 6. Gibson Assembly DNA technology was used to construct a circFNDC3B expression vector without a splice site and restriction enzyme site. We showed that circFNDC3B increased migration and invasion in gastric cancer (GC). Ectopic expression of circFNDC3B reduced the level of E-cadherin protein to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in GC. RNA immunoprecipitation assays and RNA pull-down assays confirmed that circFNC3B increased CD44 expression, which was associated with cell adhesion, via the formation of a ternary complex of circFNDC3B-IGF2BP3-CD44 mRNA. These results indicated that circFNDC3B was associated with the degree of malignancy to highlight the specific characteristics of cell invasion.

6.
Circulation ; 139(16): 1957-1973, 2019 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986104

RESUMEN

The Healthy People Initiative has served as the leading disease prevention and health promotion roadmap for the nation since its inception in 1979. Healthy People 2020 (HP2020), the initiative's current iteration, sets a national prevention agenda with health goals and objectives by identifying nationwide health improvement priorities and providing measurable objectives and targets from 2010 to 2020. Central to the overall mission and vision of Healthy People is an emphasis on achieving health equity, eliminating health disparities, and improving health for all population groups. The Heart Disease and Stroke (HDS) Work Group of the HP2020 Initiative aims to leverage advances in biomedical science and prevention research to improve cardiovascular health across the nation. The initiative provides a platform to foster partnerships and empower professional societies and nongovernmental organizations, governments at the local, state, and national levels, and healthcare professionals to strengthen policies and improve practices related to cardiovascular health. Disparities in cardiovascular disease burden are well recognized across, for example, race/ethnicity, sex, age, and geographic region, and improvements in cardiovascular health for the entire population are only possible if such disparities are addressed through efforts that target individuals, communities, and clinical and public health systems. This article summarizes criteria for creating and tracking the 50 HDS HP2020 objectives in 3 areas (prevention, morbidity/mortality, and systems of care), reports on progress toward the 2020 targets for these objectives based on the most recent data available, and showcases examples of relevant programs led by participating agencies. Although most of the measurable objectives have reached the 2020 targets ahead of time (n=14) or are on track to meet the targets (n=7), others may not achieve the decade's targets if the current trends continue, with 3 objectives moving away from the targets. This summary illustrates the utility of HP2020 in tracking measures of cardiovascular health that are of interest to federal agencies and policymakers, professional societies, and other nongovernmental organizations. With planning for Healthy People 2030 well underway, stakeholders such as healthcare professionals can embrace collaborative opportunities to leverage existing progress and emphasize areas for improvement to maximize the Healthy People initiative's positive impact on population-level health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , /estadística & datos numéricos , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Programas de Gobierno , Prioridades en Salud , Humanos , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50554

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Between 2006 and 2016, 70% of all deaths worldwide were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs kill nearly 40 million people a year globally, with almost three-quarters of NCD deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess mortality rates and trends due to deaths from NCDs in the Caribbean region. Methods. The study examines age-standardized mortality rates and 10-year trends due to death from cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes in two territories of the United States of America (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and in 20 other English- or Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries or territories, for the most recent, available 10 years of data ranging from 1999 to 2014. For the analysis, the SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software packages were used. Results. These four NCDs accounted for 39% to 67% of all deaths in these 22 countries and territories, and more than half of the deaths in 17 of them. Heart disease accounted for higher percentages of deaths in most of the Caribbean countries and territories (13%-25%), followed by cancer (8%-25%), diabetes (4%-21%), and cerebrovascular disease (1%-13%). Age-standardized mortality rates due to cancer and heart disease were higher for males than for females, but there were no significant mortality trends in the region for any of the NCDs. Conclusions. The reasons for the high mortality of NCDs in these Caribbean countries and territories remain a critical public health issue that warrants further investigation.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Entre los años 2006 y 2016, las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) ocasionaron un 70 % de todas las muertes mundiales. Las ENT son responsables de la muerte de aproximadamente 40 millones de personas al año a nivel mundial, de las cuales casi tres cuartas partes tienen lugar en países de ingresos medianos y bajos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las tasas de mortalidad y las tendencias relacionadas con las defunciones por ENT en el Caribe. Métodos. En el estudio se examinan las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad y las tendencias a lo largo de diez años relacionadas con la muerte por cáncer, cardiopatías, enfermedades cerebrovasculares y diabetes en dos territorios de Estados Unidos (Puerto Rico e Islas Vírgenes), así como en otros veinte países o territorios de habla inglesa o neerlandesa, empleando la información disponible más reciente que corresponde a los diez años comprendidos entre 1999 y el 2014. Para el análisis, se utilizaron los programas informáticos JointPoint y SEER*Stat. Resultados. Estas cuatro ENT representan entre el 39 % y el 67 % del total de muertes en estos 22 países y territorios, y más de la mitad de las muertes en 17 de ellos. Las cardiopatías representan porcentajes mayores de muertes en la mayor parte de los países y territorios del Caribe (13 %-25 %), seguidos por el cáncer (8 %-25 %), la diabetes (4 %-21 %) y las enfermedades cerebrovasculares (1 %-13 %). Las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad relacionadas con el cáncer y las cardiopatías son mayores en hombres que en mujeres, si bien no hubo en la región tendencias significativas relacionadas con la mortalidad en lo que concierne a ninguna ENT. Conclusiones. Las causas de la elevada mortalidad por ENT en estos países y territorios del Caribe siguen siendo un grave problema de salud pública que justifica una investigación en profundidad.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. No período de 2006 a 2016, 70% das mortes na população mundial foram decorrentes de doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs). Cerca de 40 milhões de pessoas morrem por DNTs por ano em todo o mundo, com quase 75% das mortes ocorrendo nos países de baixa e média renda. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as taxas e as tendências de mortalidade por DNTs no Caribe. Métodos. Foram examinadas as taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por idade e as tendências ao longo de 10 anos da mortalidade por câncer, doença cardíaca, doença cerebrovascular e diabetes em dois territórios dos Estados Unidos (Porto Rico e Ilhas Virgens Americanas) e em 20 países ou territórios do Caribe de língua inglesa ou holandesa, com base nos últimos dados de 10 anos para o período de 1999 a 2014. Os softwares SEER*Stat e Joinpoint foram usados na análise. Resultados. As quatro DNTs estudadas representaram 39% a 67% das causas de mortes nos 22 países e territórios, e foram responsáveis por mais da metade das mortes em 17 deles. A mortalidade na maioria dos países e territórios do Caribe foi maior por doença cardíaca (13% a 25%), seguida do câncer (8% a 25%), diabetes (4% a 21%) e doença cerebrovascular (1% a 13%). As taxas de mortalidade padronizadas pela idade por câncer e doença cardíaca foram maiores nos homens que nas mulheres, mas não se verificaram, na região, tendências de mortalidade significativas para qualquer uma das DNTs. Conclusões. A elevada mortalidade por DNTs nos países e territórios do Caribe é ainda um sério problema de saúde pública e os motivos devem ser investigados mais a fundo.


Asunto(s)
Mortalidad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Diabetes Mellitus , Región del Caribe , Guyana , Suriname , Mortalidad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Región del Caribe , Mortalidad , Guyana , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Región del Caribe
8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(12): e004873, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF)-a serious and costly condition-is increasingly prevalent. We estimated the US burden including emergency department (ED) visits, inpatient hospitalizations and associated costs, and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 2006 to 2014 data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National (nationwide) Inpatient Sample, and the National Vital Statistics System. International Classification of Disease codes identified HF and comorbidities. Burden was estimated separately for ED visits, hospitalizations, and mortality. In addition, criteria were applied to identify total unique acute events. Rates of primary HF (primary diagnosis or underlying cause of death) and comorbid HF (comorbid diagnosis or contributing cause of death) were calculated, age standardized to the 2010 US population. In 2014, there were an estimated 1 068 412 ED visits, 978 135 hospitalizations, and 83 705 deaths with primary HF. There were 4 071 546 ED visits, 3 370 856 hospitalizations, and 230 963 deaths with comorbid HF. Between 2006 and 2014, the total unique acute event rate for primary HF declined from 536 to 449 per 100 000 (relative percent change of -16%; P for trend, <0.001) but increased for comorbid HF from 1467 to 1689 per 100 000 (relative percentage change, 15%; P for trend, <0.001). HF-related mortality decreased significantly from 2006 to 2009 but did not change meaningfully after 2009. For hospitalizations with primary HF, the estimated mean cost was $11 552 in 2014, totaling an estimated $11 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Given substantial healthcare and mortality burden of HF, rising healthcare costs, and the aging US population, continued improvements in HF prevention, management, and surveillance are important.


Asunto(s)
Costo de Enfermedad , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/economía , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Costos de Hospital , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte , Comorbilidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/economía , Femenino , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/mortalidad , Costos de Hospital/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Admisión del Paciente/economía , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Circulation ; 138(17): e595-e616, 2018 10 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354656

RESUMEN

Objective To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? Methods Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. Results Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. 2) systolic BP lowering to a target of <130 mm Hg may reduce the risk of several important outcomes including risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major cardiovascular events. No class of medications (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or beta blockers) was significantly better than thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics as a first-line therapy for any outcome.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Cardiología/normas , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Anciano , American Heart Association , Antihipertensivos/efectos adversos , Comorbilidad , Consenso , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos
10.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 20(10): 1377-1391, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194806

RESUMEN

Application of the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline expands the number of US adults requiring blood pressure (BP) management. The authors use 2011-2014 NHANES data to describe the population groups most affected by the new guideline, compared with the previous JNC-7 guideline, and describe the previous interaction with the health care sector among those adults recommended new or intensified pharmacologic treatment and/or lifestyle modification. The 2017 Hypertension Guideline reclassifies 32.3 million US adults as newly hypertensive and recommends BP-related treatment of 133.7 million adults, including 57.8 million with uncontrolled BP recommended to initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment and 50.5 million newly recommended lifestyle modification alone. An estimated 13.1 million (22.7%) adults recommended to initiate or intensify pharmacologic treatment, and 20.6 million (40.8%) adults newly recommended lifestyle modification alone report not having established health care linkages. Among the adults newly recommended lifestyle modification alone, the odds of reclassification from no recommended intervention, under JNC-7, to recommended lifestyle modification alone were lower for adults with established linkages to care (aOR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.67-0.91]) compared to those without, decreased with increasing age, were greater for men (1.72 [1.52-1.94]) compared to women and were greater for obese adults (1.23 [1.00-1.53]) compared with normal or underweight adults. Application of the 2017 Hypertension Guideline increases the number and alters the distribution of US adults in need of initiating or intensifying BP treatment. This includes identifying millions of US adults who previously had limited interaction with health care and are now recommended new or intensified pharmacologic treatment and/or lifestyle modification.


Asunto(s)
Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , American Heart Association , American Medical Association/organización & administración , Femenino , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 20(10): 1395-1410, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251346

RESUMEN

Hypertension affects about one in three US adults, from recent surveillance, or four in nine based on the 2017 ACC/AHA Hypertension Guideline; about half of them have their blood pressure controlled, and nearly one in six are unaware of their hypertension status. National estimates of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in the United States are traditionally based on measured BP from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); however, at the state level, only self-reported hypertension awareness and treatment are available from BRFSS. We used national- and state-level representative samples of adults (≥20 years) from NHANES 2011-2014 and BRFSS 2013 and 2015, respectively. The authors generated multivariable logistic regression models using NHANES to predict the probability of hypertension and undiagnosed hypertension and then applied the fitted model parameters to BRFSS to generate state-level estimates. The predicted prevalence of hypertension was highest in Mississippi among adults (42.4%; 95% CI: 41.8-43.0) and among women (42.6%; 41.8-43.4) and highest in West Virginia among men (43.4%; 42.2-44.6). The predicted prevalence was lowest in Utah 23.7% (22.8-24.6), 26.4% (25.0-27.7), and 21.0% (20.0-22.1) for adults, men, and women, respectively. Hypertension predicted prevalence was higher in most Southern states and higher among men than women in all states except Mississippi and DC. The predicted prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension ranged from 4.1% (3.4-4.8; Kentucky) to 6.5% (5.5-7.5; Hawaii) among adults, from 5.0% (4.0-5.9; Kentucky) to 8.3% (6.9-9.7; Hawaii) among men, and from 3.3% (2.5-4.1; Kentucky) to 4.8% (3.4-6.1; Vermont) among women. Undiagnosed hypertension was more prevalent among men than women in all states and DC.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/fisiología , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Análisis de Varianza , Concienciación , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Determinación de la Presión Sanguínea/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales/métodos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(19): 2176-2198, 2018 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146534

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? METHODS: Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. RESULTS: Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. 2) systolic BP lowering to a target of <130 mm Hg may reduce the risk of several important outcomes including risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major cardiovascular events. No class of medications (i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or beta blockers) was significantly better than thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics as a first-line therapy for any outcome.


Asunto(s)
Comités Consultivos/normas , American Heart Association , Cardiología/normas , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Hipertensión/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Adulto , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Cardiología/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Informe de Investigación/normas , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Hypertension ; 71(6): e116-e135, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically and perform meta-analyses to address these questions: 1) Is there evidence that self-measured blood pressure (BP) without other augmentation is superior to office-based measurement of BP for achieving better BP control or for preventing adverse clinical outcomes that are related to elevated BP? 2) What is the optimal target for BP lowering during antihypertensive therapy in adults? 3) In adults with hypertension, how do various antihypertensive drug classes differ in their benefits and harms compared with each other as first-line therapy? METHODS: Electronic literature searches were performed by Doctor Evidence, a global medical evidence software and services company, across PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to 2015 using key words and relevant subject headings for randomized controlled trials that met eligibility criteria defined for each question. We performed analyses using traditional frequentist statistical and Bayesian approaches, including random-effects Bayesian network meta-analyses. RESULTS: Our results suggest that: 1) There is a modest but significant improvement in systolic BP in randomized controlled trials of self-measured BP versus usual care at 6 but not 12 months, and for selected patients and their providers self-measured BP may be a helpful adjunct to routine office care. 2) systolic BP lowering to a target of <130 mm Hg may reduce the risk of several important outcomes including risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and major cardiovascular events. No class of medications (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, or beta blockers) was significantly better than thiazides and thiazide-like diuretics as a first-line therapy for any outcome.


Asunto(s)
American Heart Association , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Cardiología , Hipertensión , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Adulto , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Estados Unidos
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 249: 908-915, 2018 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145117

RESUMEN

Effect of reaction variables of in situ transesterification on the biodiesel production, and the characteristic differences of biodiesel obtained from aerobic granular sludge (AG) and algae-bacteria granular consortia (AAG) were investigated. The results indicated that the effect of variables on the biodiesel yield decreased in the order of methanol quantity > catalyst concentration > reaction time, yet the parameters change will not significantly affect biodiesel properties. The maximum biodiesel yield of AAG was 66.21 ±â€¯1.08 mg/g SS, what is significant higher than that of AG (35.44 ±â€¯0.92 mg/g SS). Although methyl palmitate was the dominated composition of biodiesel obtained from both granules, poly-unsaturated fatty acid in the AAG showed a higher percentage (21.86%) than AG (1.2%) due to Scenedesmus addition. Further, microbial analysis confirmed that the composition of biodiesel obtained from microbial granules was also determined by bacterial community, and Xanthomonadaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were the dominant bacteria of AG and AAG, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Bacterias , Reactores Biológicos , Esterificación , Scenedesmus , Aguas del Alcantarillado
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(45): 1248-1251, 2017 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145353

RESUMEN

Adherence to prescribed medications is associated with improved clinical outcomes for chronic disease management and reduced mortality from chronic conditions (1). Conversely, nonadherence is associated with higher rates of hospital admissions, suboptimal health outcomes, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased health care costs (2). In the United States, 3.8 billion prescriptions are written annually (3). Approximately one in five new prescriptions are never filled, and among those filled, approximately 50% are taken incorrectly, particularly with regard to timing, dosage, frequency, and duration (4). Whereas rates of nonadherence across the United States have remained relatively stable, direct health care costs associated with nonadherence have grown to approximately $100-$300 billion of U.S. health care dollars spent annually (5,6). Improving medication adherence is a public health priority and could reduce the economic and health burdens of many diseases and chronic conditions (7).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/uso terapéutico , Difusión de Innovaciones , Humanos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(13)2017 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155655

RESUMEN

Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Initiatives that advance the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases support the goals of global health security in several ways. First, in addressing health needs that typically require long-term care, these programs can strengthen health delivery and health monitoring systems, which can serve as necessary platforms for emergency preparedness in low-resource environments. Second, by improving population health, the programs might help to reduce susceptibility to infectious outbreaks. Finally, in aiming to reduce the economic burden associated with premature illness and death from noncommunicable diseases, these initiatives contribute to the objectives of international development, thereby helping to improve overall country capacity for emergency response.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Salud Global , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Vigilancia en Salud Pública , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Epidemiología/educación , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Sistema de Registros , Nivel de Atención , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(35): 933-939, 2017 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880858

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prominent decline in U.S. stroke death rates observed for more than 4 decades has slowed in recent years. CDC examined trends and patterns in recent stroke death rates among U.S. adults aged ≥35 years by age, sex, race/ethnicity, state, and census region. METHODS: Trends in the rates of stroke as the underlying cause of death during 2000-2015 were analyzed using data from the National Vital Statistics System. Joinpoint software was used to identify trends in stroke death rates, and the excess number of stroke deaths resulting from unfavorable changes in trends was estimated. RESULTS: Among adults aged ≥35 years, age-standardized stroke death rates declined 38%, from 118.4 per 100,000 persons in 2000 to 73.3 per 100,000 persons in 2015. The annual percent change (APC) in stroke death rates changed from 2000 to 2015, from a 3.4% decrease per year during 2000-2003, to a 6.6% decrease per year during 2003-2006, a 3.1% decrease per year during 2006-2013, and a 2.5% (nonsignificant) increase per year during 2013-2015. The last trend segment indicated a reversal from a decrease to a statistically significant increase among Hispanics (APC = 5.8%) and among persons in the South Census Region (APC = 4.2%). Declines in stroke death rates failed to continue in 38 states, and during 2013-2015, an estimated 32,593 excess stroke deaths might not have occurred if the previous rate of decline could have been sustained. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Prior declines in stroke death rates have not continued in recent years, and substantial variations exist in timing and magnitude of change by demographic and geographic characteristics. These findings suggest the importance of strategically identifying opportunities for prevention and intervening in vulnerable populations, especially because effective and underused interventions to prevent stroke incidence and death are known to exist.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Estadísticas Vitales , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
J Nutr ; 147(5): 896-907, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381527

RESUMEN

Background: High intakes of trans-fatty acids (TFAs), especially industrially produced TFAs, can lead to unfavorable lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unknown how this relation might change in a population after significant reductions in TFA intake.Objective: This study, which used a new analytical method for measuring plasma TFA concentrations, clarified the association between plasma TFA and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations before and after the US FDA enacted TFA food-labeling regulations in 2006.Methods: Data were selected from the NHANES of 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Findings on 1383 and 2155 adults, respectively, aged ≥20 y, were evaluated. Multivariable linear regressions were used to examine the associations between plasma TFA concentration and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. The outcome measures were serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol.Results: The median plasma TFA concentration decreased from 80.6 µmol/L in 1999-2000 to 37.0 µmol/L in 2009-2010. Plasma TFA concentration continued to be associated with serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations after significant reductions in TFA intake in the population. For example, by comparing the lowest with the highest quintiles of TFA concentration in 1999-2000, adjusted mean (95% CI) LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased from 118 mg/dL (112, 123 mg/dL) to 135 mg/dL (130, 141 mg/dL) (P-trend < 0.001). The corresponding values for 2009-2010 were 102 mg/dL (97.4, 107 mg/dL) and 129 mg/dL (125, 133 mg/dL) for LDL cholesterol (P-trend < 0.001). Differences between the highest and lowest quintiles were consistent across age groups, sexes, races/ethnicities, and other covariates.Conclusions: Despite a 54% reduction in plasma TFA concentrations in US adults from 1999-2000 to 2009-2010, concentrations remained significantly associated with serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations. There does not appear to be a threshold under which the association between plasma TFA concentration and lipid profiles might become undetectable.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Grasas de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Conducta Alimentaria , Lípidos/sangre , Lipoproteínas/sangre , Ácidos Grasos Trans/efectos adversos , Adulto , LDL-Colesterol/sangre , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Grasas de la Dieta/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ácidos Grasos Trans/administración & dosificación , Ácidos Grasos Trans/sangre , Estados Unidos
20.
Diabetes Care ; 40(5): 640-646, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213373

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In 2014, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended behavioral counseling interventions for overweight or obese adults with the following known cardiovascular disease risk factors: impaired fasting glucose (IFG), hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome. We assessed the long-term cost-effectiveness (CE) of implementing the recommended interventions in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a disease progression model to simulate the 25-year CE of the USPSTF recommendation for eligible U.S. adults and subgroups defined by a combination of the risk factors. The baseline population was estimated using 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The cost and effectiveness of the intervention were obtained from systematic reviews. Incremental CE ratios (ICERs), measured in cost/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), were used to assess the CE of the intervention compared with no intervention. Future QALYs and costs (reported in 2014 U.S. dollars) were discounted at 3%. RESULTS: We estimated that ∼98 million U.S. adults (44%) would be eligible for the recommended intervention. Compared with no intervention, the ICER of the intervention would be $13,900/QALY. CE varied widely among subgroups, ranging from a cost saving of $302 per capita for those who were obese with IFG, hypertension, and dyslipidemia to a cost of $103,200/QALY in overweight people without these conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The recommended intervention is cost effective based on the conventional CE threshold. Considerable variation in CE across the recommended subpopulations suggests that prioritization based on risk level would yield larger total health gains per dollar spent.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/economía , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Consejo/economía , Adhesión a Directriz/economía , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Adulto , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Factores de Riesgo
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