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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593834

RESUMEN

Topical antibiotic preparations, such as fusidic acid (FA) or mupirocin, are used in the prevention and treatment of superficial skin infections caused by staphylococci. Previous genomic epidemiology work has suggested an association between the widespread use of topical antibiotics and the emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in some settings. In this study, we provide experimental proof of co-selection for multidrug resistance in S. aureus following exposure to FA or mupirocin. Through targeted mutagenesis and phenotypic analyses, we confirmed that fusC carriage confers resistance to FA, and mupA carriage confers high-level resistance to mupirocin in multiple S. aureus genetic backgrounds. In vitro experiments demonstrated that carriage of fusC and mupA confer a competitive advantage in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of FA and mupirocin, respectively. Further, we used a porcine skin colonisation model to show that clinically relevant concentrations of topical antibiotics can co-select for presence of unrelated antimicrobial resistance determinants, such as mecA, blaZ, and qacA, in fusC or mupA harbouring S. aureus These findings provide valuable insights on the role of acquired FA or mupirocin resistance in co-selecting for broader antibiotic resistance in S. aureus, prompting greater need for judicious use of topical antibiotics.

2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109042, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461002

RESUMEN

The development of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is a growing public health concern. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from the Australian commercial egg layer industry. S. enterica subspecies enterica (n=307) isolated from Australian commercial layer flock environments (2015-2018) were obtained from reference, research and State Government laboratories from six Australian states. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution. Antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types (STs) were identified in significant isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three main serotypes were detected, S. Typhimurium (n=61, 19.9%), S. Senftenburg (n=45, 14.7%) and S. Agona (n=37, 12.1%). AST showed 293/307 (95.4%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents and all isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to streptomycin (2.3%, n=7), sulfisoxazole (2.0%, n=6), chloramphenicol (1.3%, n=4) and tetracycline (1.0%, n=3). Very low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to ampicillin (2/307; 0.7%) and cefoxitin (2/307; 0.7%). Two isolates (S. Havana and S. Montevideo), exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline and possessed corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA4, aac(6')-Iaa, sul1, tetB). One S. Typhimurium isolate was resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and possessed both tetA and blaTEM-1B. WGS also identified these isolates as belonging to ST4 (S. Montevideo), ST578 (S. Havana) and ST19 (S. Typhimurium). The absence of resistance to highest priority critically important antimicrobials as well as the extremely low level of AMR generally among Australian commercial egg layer Salmonella isolates likely reflect Australia's conservative antimicrobial registration policy in food-producing animals and low rates of antimicrobial use within the industry.

3.
mBio ; 11(6)2020 Dec 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293382

RESUMEN

Antistaphylococcal penicillins such as oxacillin are the key antibiotics in the treatment of invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections; however, mec gene-independent resistance adaptation can cause treatment failure. Despite its clinical relevance, the basis of this phenomenon remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the genomic adaptation to oxacillin at an unprecedented scale using a large collection of 503 clinical mec-negative isolates and 30 in vitro-adapted isolates from independent oxacillin exposures. By combining comparative genomics, evolutionary convergence, and genome-wide association analysis, we found 21 genetic loci associated with low-level oxacillin resistance, underscoring the polygenic nature of this phenotype. Evidence of adaptation was particularly strong for the c-di-AMP signal transduction pathways (gdpP and dacA) and in the clpXP chaperone-protease complex. The role of mutations in gdpP in conferring low-level oxacillin resistance was confirmed by allele-swapping experiments. We found that resistance to oxacillin emerges at high frequency in vitro (median, 2.9 × 10-6; interquartile range [IQR], 1.9 × 10-6 to 3.9 × 10-6), which is consistent with a recurrent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increase across the global phylogeny of clinical isolates. Nevertheless, adaptation in clinical isolates appears sporadically, with no stably adapted lineages, suggesting a high fitness cost of resistance, confirmed by growth assessment of mutants in rich media. Our data provide a broader understanding of the emergence and dynamics of oxacillin resistance adaptation in S. aureus and a framework for future surveillance of this clinically important phenomenon.IMPORTANCE The majority of Staphylococcus aureus strains causing human disease are methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and can be treated with antistaphylococcal penicillins (such as oxacillin). While acquisition of the mec gene represents the main resistance mechanism to oxacillin, S. aureus can acquire low-level resistance through adaptive mutations in other genes. In this study, we used genomic approaches to understand the basis of S. aureus adaption to oxacillin and its dynamic at the population level. By combining a genome analysis of clinical isolates from persistent MSSA infections, in vitro selection of oxacillin resistance, and genome-wide association analysis on a large collection of isolates, we identified 21 genes linked to secondary oxacillin resistance. Adaptive mutations in these genes were easy to select when S. aureus was exposed to oxacillin, but they also came at a substantial cost in terms of bacterial fitness, suggesting that this phenotype emerges preferentially in the setting of sustained antibiotic exposure.

4.
J Med Microbiol ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270005

RESUMEN

Saliva has recently been proposed as a suitable specimen for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Use of saliva as a diagnostic specimen may present opportunities for SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing in remote and low-resource settings. Determining the stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva over time is an important step in determining optimal storage and transport times. We undertook an in vitro study to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in contrived saliva samples. The contrived saliva samples comprised 10 ml pooled saliva spiked with gamma-irradiated SARS-CoV-2 to achieve a concentration of 2.58×104 copies ml SARS-CoV-2, which was subsequently divided into 2 ml aliquots comprising: (i) neat saliva; and a 1 : 1 dilution with (ii) normal saline; (iii) viral transport media, and (iv) liquid Amies medium. Contrived samples were made in quadruplicate, with two samples of each stored at either: (i) room temperature or (ii) 4 °C. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all SARS-CoV-2 spiked samples at time point 0, day 1, 3 and 7 at both storage temperatures using the N gene RT-PCR assay and time point 0, day 1 and day 7 using the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, USA) RT-PCR assay. The ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in saliva over a 1 week period is an important finding that presents further opportunities for saliva testing as a diagnostic specimen for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-4, 2020 Dec 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371910

RESUMEN

We characterized 57 isolates from a 2-phase clonal outbreak of New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-producing Eschericha coli, involving 9 Israeli hospitals; all but 1 isolate belonged to sequence-type (ST) 410. Most isolates in the second phase harbored blaKPC-2 in addition to blaNDM-5. Genetic sequencing revealed most dual-carbapenemase-producing isolates to be monophyletically derived from a common ancestor.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19386, 2020 11 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168910

RESUMEN

New treatments for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea are required to address rising antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to examine the efficacy of a 14-day course of mouthwash twice daily compared to standard treatment (antibiotic) for the treatment of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. The OMEGA2 trial was a parallel-group and open-labelled randomised controlled trial among men with untreated oropharyngeal gonorrhoea that was conducted between September 2018 and February 2020 at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia. Men were randomised to the intervention (rinsing, gargling and spraying mouthwash twice daily for 14 days) or control (standard treatment) arm and followed for 28 days. Participants in both arms were advised to abstain from sex and kissing with anyone for 14 days after enrolment. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected at baseline, Day 14 and Day 28 and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and culture. The primary outcome was the detection of oropharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae by NAAT at Day 14 after treatment. This trial was registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618001380280). This trial stopped early due to a high failure rate in the mouthwash arm. Twelve men were randomly assigned to either mouthwash (n = 6) or standard treatment (n = 6). Of the 11 men who returned at Day 14, the cure rate for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in the mouthwash arm was 20% (95% CI 1-72%; 1/5) and in the standard treatment arm was 100% (95% CI 54-100%; 6/6). A 14-day course of mouthwash failed to cure a high proportion of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea cases.

7.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 99(2): 115238, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171384

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented global demand on laboratory supplies required for testing. Sample pooling has been investigated by laboratories as a strategy to preserve testing capacity. We evaluate the performance of Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay for testing samples in pools of 4 and 6. Clinical samples containing SARS-CoV-2, and confirmed negative clinical samples were used to create sample pools. Clinical samples had 'neat' Xpert® E gene cycle threshold values ranging between 20 and 28 and all were detected qualitatively when contained in pools of 4 or 6 samples. For these samples, pooling had a median change in cycle threshold value of 2.0 in pools of 4, and of 2.9 in pools of 6. With the use of Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR assay, pooling of 4 or 6 samples may be an effective strategy to increase testing capacity.

8.
Microb Genom ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180013

RESUMEN

Complete genomes of microbial pathogens are essential for the phylogenomic analyses that increasingly underpin core public health laboratory activities. Here, we announce a BioProject (PRJNA556438) dedicated to sharing complete genomes chosen to represent a range of pathogenic bacteria with regional importance to Australia and the Southwest Pacific; enriching the catalogue of globally available complete genomes for public health while providing valuable strains to regional public health microbiology laboratories. In this first step, we present 26 complete high-quality bacterial genomes. Additionally, we describe here a framework for reconstructing complete microbial genomes and highlight some of the challenges and considerations for accurate and reproducible genome reconstruction.

9.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(12)2020 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020158

RESUMEN

In Australia, cases of shigellosis usually occur in returned travelers from regions of shigellosis endemicity or in men who have sex with men. Resistance to multiple antibiotics has significantly increased in Shigella sonnei isolates and represents a significant public health concern. We investigate an outbreak of multidrug-resistant S. sonnei in Victoria, Australia. We undertook whole-genome sequencing of 54 extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing S. sonnei isolates received at the Microbiological Diagnostic Unit Public Health Laboratory between January 2019 and March 2020. The population structure and antimicrobial resistance profiles were identified by genomic analyses, with 73 previously characterized Australian S. sonnei isolates providing context. Epidemiological data, including age and sex of the shigellosis cases, were also collected. There was a significant increase in cases of ESBL S. sonnei from July 2019. Most of the ESBL S. sonnei isolates (65%) fell within a single cluster that was predominantly comprised of male cases that were characterized by the presence of the bla CTX-M-27 gene conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. These isolates were also multidrug resistant, including resistance to azithromycin and co-trimoxazole and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Our data uncovered a prolonged clonal outbreak of ESBL S. sonnei infection that was likely first introduced by returned travelers and has subsequently been circulating locally in Australia. The emergence of a local outbreak of ESBL S. sonnei with a multidrug-resistant profile, including reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, represents a significant public health threat.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4376, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873808

RESUMEN

Genomic sequencing has significant potential to inform public health management for SARS-CoV-2. Here we report high-throughput genomics for SARS-CoV-2, sequencing 80% of cases in Victoria, Australia (population 6.24 million) between 6 January and 14 April 2020 (total 1,333 COVID-19 cases). We integrate epidemiological, genomic and phylodynamic data to identify clusters and impact of interventions. The global diversity of SARS-CoV-2 is represented, consistent with multiple importations. Seventy-six distinct genomic clusters were identified, including large clusters associated with social venues, healthcare and cruise ships. Sequencing sequential samples from 98 patients reveals minimal intra-patient SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity. Phylodynamic modelling indicates a significant reduction in the effective viral reproductive number (Re) from 1.63 to 0.48 after implementing travel restrictions and physical distancing. Our data provide a concrete framework for the use of SARS-CoV-2 genomics in public health responses, including its use to rapidly identify SARS-CoV-2 transmission chains, increasingly important as social restrictions ease globally.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Genoma Viral , Genómica/métodos , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Epidemiología Molecular , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , Estudios Retrospectivos , Viaje
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1930-1933, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959759

RESUMEN

There has been increased interest in using metagenomic next-generation sequencing as an unbiased approach for diagnosing infectious diseases. We describe a 61-year-old man on fingolimod therapy for multiple sclerosis with an extensive travel history who presented with 7 months of fevers, night sweats, and weight loss. Peripheral blood tests showed pancytopenia and abnormal acute phase reactants. A bone marrow aspirate showed the presence of numerous intracellular and extracellular amastigotes consistent with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Metagenomic sequencing of the bone marrow aspirate confirmed Leishmania infantum, a species widely reported in the Mediterranean region. This correlated with acquisition of VL infection during the patient's most recent epidemiological exposure in southern Italy 12 months prior. This case demonstrates the potential application of metagenomic sequencing for identification and speciation of Leishmania in cases of VL; however, further assessment is required using other more readily obtained clinical samples such as blood.


Asunto(s)
Leishmania infantum/aislamiento & purificación , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Metagenómica , Médula Ósea/parasitología , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Italia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniasis Visceral/parasitología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Viaje
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927479

RESUMEN

Healthcare workers are at increased risk of occupational transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We report two instances of healthcare workers contracting SARS-CoV-2 despite no known breach of personal protective equipment. Additional specific equipment cleaning was initiated. Viral genomic sequencing supported this transmission hypothesis and our subsequent response.

14.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(9): 1169-1178, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755529

RESUMEN

Introduction. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic of 2020 has resulted in unparalleled requirements for RNA extraction kits and enzymes required for virus detection, leading to global shortages. This has necessitated the exploration of alternative diagnostic options to alleviate supply chain issues.Aim. To establish and validate a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT- LAMP) assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal swabs.Methodology. We used a commercial RT-LAMP mastermix from OptiGene in combination with a primer set designed to detect the CDC N1 region of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) gene. A single-tube, single-step fluorescence assay was implemented whereby 1 µl of universal transport medium (UTM) directly from a nasopharyngeal swab could be used as template, bypassing the requirement for RNA purification. Amplification and detection could be conducted in any thermocycler capable of holding 65 °C for 30 min and measure fluorescence in the FAM channel at 1 min intervals.Results. Assay evaluation by assessment of 157 clinical specimens previously screened by E-gene RT-qPCR revealed assay sensitivity and specificity of 87 and 100%, respectively. Results were fast, with an average time-to-positive (Tp) for 93 clinical samples of 14 min (sd±7 min). Using dilutions of SARS-CoV-2 virus spiked into UTM, we also evaluated assay performance against FDA guidelines for implementation of emergency-use diagnostics and established a limit-of-detection of 54 Tissue Culture Infectious Dose 50 per ml (TCID50 ml-1), with satisfactory assay sensitivity and specificity. A comparison of 20 clinical specimens between four laboratories showed excellent interlaboratory concordance; performing equally well on three different, commonly used thermocyclers, pointing to the robustness of the assay.Conclusion. With a simplified workflow, The N1 gene Single Tube Optigene LAMP assay (N1-STOP-LAMP) is a powerful, scalable option for specific and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 and an additional resource in the diagnostic armamentarium against COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Amplificación de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Nasofaringe/virología , Pandemias , ARN Viral , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Transcripción Reversa , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
15.
Med J Aust ; 213(6): 276-279, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772375

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To design and evaluate 3D-printed nasal swabs for collection of samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing. DESIGN: An iterative design process was employed. Laboratory evaluation included in vitro assessment of mock nasopharyngeal samples spiked with two different concentrations of gamma-irradiated SARS-CoV-2. A prospective clinical study compared SARS-CoV-2 and human cellular material recovery by 3D-printed swabs and standard nasopharyngeal swabs. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Royal Melbourne Hospital, May 2020. Participants in the clinical evaluation were 50 hospital staff members attending a COVID-19 screening clinic and two inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. INTERVENTION: In the clinical evaluation, a flocked nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected with the Copan ESwab and a mid-nasal sample from the other nostril was collected with the 3D-printed swab. RESULTS: In the laboratory evaluation, qualitative agreement with regard to SARS-CoV-2 detection in mock samples collected with 3D-printed swabs and two standard swabs was complete. In the clinical evaluation, qualitative agreement with regard to RNase P detection (a surrogate measure of adequate collection of human cellular material) in samples collected from 50 hospital staff members with standard and 3D-printed swabs was complete. Qualitative agreement with regard to SARS-CoV-2 detection in three pairs of 3D-printed mid-nasal and standard swab samples from two inpatients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 was also complete. CONCLUSIONS: Using 3D-printed swabs to collect nasal samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing is feasible, acceptable to patients and health carers, and convenient.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/instrumentación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico del Sistema Respiratorio/instrumentación , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Impresión Tridimensional , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nasofaringe/virología , Pandemias
16.
J Infect Dis ; 222(8): 1280-1288, 2020 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761124

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Robust serological assays are essential for long-term control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many recently released point-of-care (PoCT) serological assays have been distributed with little premarket validation. METHODS: Performance characteristics for 5 PoCT lateral flow devices approved for use in Australia were compared to a commercial enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) and a recently described novel surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT). RESULTS: Sensitivities for PoCT ranged from 51.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.1%-60.4%) to 67.9% (95% CI, 59.4%-75.6%), and specificities from 95.6% (95% CI, 89.2%-98.8%) to 100.0% (95% CI, 96.1%-100.0%). ELISA sensitivity for IgA or IgG detection was 67.9% (95% CI, 59.4%-75.6%), increasing to 93.8% (95% CI, 85.0%-98.3%) for samples >14 days post symptom onset. sVNT sensitivity was 60.9% (95% CI, 53.2%-68.4%), rising to 91.2% (95% CI, 81.8%-96.7%) for samples >14 days post symptom onset, with specificity 94.4% (95% CI, 89.2%-97.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Performance characteristics for COVID-19 serological assays were generally lower than those reported by manufacturers. Timing of specimen collection relative to onset of illness or infection is crucial in reporting of performance characteristics for COVID-19 serological assays. The optimal algorithm for implementing serological testing for COVID-19 remains to be determined, particularly in low-prevalence settings.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Algoritmos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Australia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina A/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Pruebas de Neutralización/métodos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Pruebas Serológicas/normas
17.
Hepatology ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780526

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We conducted haplotype analysis of complete hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomes following deep sequencing from 368 patients across multiple phases of chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection from 4 major genotypes (A to D), analysing 4110 haplotypes to identify viral variants associated with treatment outcome and disease progression. RESULTS: Between 18.2% and 41.8% of nucleotides and between 5.9% and 34.3% of amino acids were 100% conserved in all genotypes and phases examined, depending on the region analysed. HBeAg loss by week 192 was associated with different haplotype populations at baseline. Haplotype populations differed across the HBV genome and CHB history, this being most pronounced in the precore/core gene. Mean number of haplotypes (frequency) per patient was higher in immune active HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis Phase II (11.8) and HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis Phase IV (16.2) compared to subjects in the "immune tolerant" HBeAg-positive chronic infection Phase I (4.3, p<0.0001). Haplotype frequency was lowest in genotype B (6.2, p<0.0001) compared to the other genotypes (A = 11.8, C = 11.8, D = 13.6). Haplotype genetic diversity increased over the course of CHB history, being lowest in Phase I, increasing in Phase II and was highest in Phase IV in all genotypes except genotype C. HBeAg loss by week 192 of tenofovir therapy was associated with different haplotype populations at baseline. CONCLUSION: Despite a previously unrecognised degree of HBV haplotype diversity and heterogeneity across the phases of CHB natural history, novel highly conserved sequences in key genes and regulatory regions were identified in multiple HBV genotypes that should be further investigated as targets for new antiviral therapies and predictors of treatment response.

18.
mSystems ; 5(4)2020 Aug 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817384

RESUMEN

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) is an emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogen. Strain-level investigations are beginning to reveal the molecular mechanisms used by VREfm to colonize regions of the human bowel. However, the role of commensal bacteria during VREfm colonization, in particular following antibiotic treatment, remains largely unknown. We employed amplicon 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics in a murine model system to try and investigate functional roles of the gut microbiome during VREfm colonization. First-order taxonomic shifts between Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes within the gut microbial community composition were detected both in response to pretreatment using ceftriaxone and to subsequent VREfm challenge. Using neural networking approaches to find cooccurrence profiles of bacteria and metabolites, we detected key metabolome features associated with butyric acid during and after VREfm colonization. These metabolite features were associated with Bacteroides, indicative of a transition toward a preantibiotic naive microbiome. This study shows the impacts of antibiotics on the gut ecosystem and the progression of the microbiome in response to colonization with VREfm. Our results offer insights toward identifying potential nonantibiotic alternatives to eliminate VREfm through metabolic reengineering to preferentially select for Bacteroides IMPORTANCE This study demonstrates the importance and power of linking bacterial composition profiling with metabolomics to find the interactions between commensal gut bacteria and a specific pathogen. Knowledge from this research will inform gut microbiome engineering strategies, with the aim of translating observations from animal models to human-relevant therapeutic applications.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(Supplement_2): S120-S126, 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725232

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever has been endemic on the island nation of Samoa (2016 population, 195 979) since the 1960s and has persisted through 2019, despite economic development and improvements in water supply and sanitation. METHODS: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from the 2 hospitals with blood culture capability and matched patient demographic and clinical data from January 2008 through December 2019 were analyzed. Denominators to calculate incidence by island, region, and district came from 2011 and 2016 censuses and from 2017-2019 projections from Samoa's Bureau of Statistics. Data were analyzed to describe typhoid case burden and incidence from 2008 to 2019 by time, place, and person. RESULTS: In sum, 53-193 blood culture-confirmed typhoid cases occurred annually from 2008 to 2019, without apparent seasonality. Typhoid incidence was low among children age < 48 months (17.6-27.8/105), rose progressively in ages 5-9 years (54.0/105), 10-19 years (60.7-63.4/105), and 20-34 years (61.0-79.3/105), and then tapered off; 93.6% of cases occurred among Samoans < 50 years of age. Most typhoid cases and the highest incidence occurred in Northwest Upolu, but Apia Urban Area (served by treated water supplies) also exhibited moderate incidence. The proportion of cases from short-cycle versus long-cycle transmission is unknown. Samoan S. Typhi are pansusceptible to traditional first-line antibiotics. Nevertheless, enhanced surveillance in 2019 detected 4 (2.9%) deaths among 140 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Typhoid has been endemic in Samoa in the period 2008-2019. Interventions, including mass vaccination with a Vi-conjugate vaccine coadministered with measles vaccine are planned.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 295(33): 11803-11821, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605922

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is among the leading causes of bacterial infections worldwide. The pathogenicity and establishment of S. aureus infections are tightly linked to its ability to modulate host immunity. Persistent infections are often associated with mutant staphylococcal strains that have decreased susceptibility to antibiotics; however, little is known about how these mutations influence bacterial interaction with the host immune system. Here, we discovered that clinical S. aureus isolates activate human monocytes, leading to cell-surface expression of immune stimulatory natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) ligands on the monocytes. We found that expression of the NKG2D ligand ULBP2 (UL16-binding protein 2) is associated with bacterial degradability and phagolysosomal activity. Moreover, S. aureus-induced ULBP2 expression was linked to altered host cell metabolism, including increased cytoplasmic (iso)citrate levels, reduced glycolytic flux, and functional mitochondrial activity. Interestingly, we found that the ability of S. aureus to induce ULBP2 and proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes depends on a functional ClpP protease in S. aureus These findings indicate that S. aureus activates ULBP2 in human monocytes through immunometabolic mechanisms and reveal that clpP inactivation may function as a potential immune evasion mechanism. Our results provide critical insight into the interplay between the host immune system and S. aureus that has evolved under the dual selective pressure of host immune responses and antibiotic treatment. Our discovery of an immune stimulatory pathway consisting of human monocyte-based defense against S. aureus suggests that targeting the NKG2D pathway holds potential for managing persistent staphylococcal infections.

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