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J Cancer Educ ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442861


The continuous development and use of genomic sequencing requires healthcare professionals to constantly integrate these advancements into their clinical practice. There is a documented lack of cancer genomics contents in the teaching and learning programs. We aimed to identify the core competencies in cancer genomics for non-genetic healthcare professionals. We performed a literature review in PubMed, SCOPUS, and Web of Science databases to retrieve articles published from 2000 to 2018, in English or Italian language. We included articles that reported the competencies for non-genetic healthcare professionals in cancer genomics. A web-based modified Delphi survey was conducted, aiming to define, through consensus, a set of core competencies that should be covered in the curricula. The international expert panel included specialists in genetics, genomics, oncology, and medical specialists. In the literature review, we retrieved nine articles, from which we identified core competencies for general physicians and nurses. The competencies were organized in three main domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practical abilities. In the second round of Delphi survey, consensus of 83.3% was reached for the definition of the core competencies. Thirty-seven items were defined as the competencies required for physicians and forty-two items for nurses. Through a consensus-based approach, a set of core competencies in cancer genomics for non-genetic healthcare professionals has been identified. Our findings could benchmark standards for curriculum development and future educational strategies.

BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380411


BACKGROUND: Several healthcare systems facing respiratory viral infections outbreaks, like COVID-19, have not been prepared to manage them. Public health mitigation solutions ranging from isolation of infected or suspected cases to implementation of national lockdowns have proven their effectiveness for the outbreak's control. However, the adjustment of public health measures is crucial during transition phases to avoid new outbreaks. To address the need for designing evidence-based strategies, we performed a systematic review to identify healthcare systems interventions, experiences and recommendations that have been used to manage different respiratory viral infections outbreaks in the past. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane were searched to retrieve eligible studies of any study design, published in English until 17 April 2020. Double-blinded screening process was conducted by titles/abstracts and subsequently eligible full texts were read and pertinent data were extracted. When applicable, quality assessment was conducted for the included articles. We performed a narrative synthesis of each implemented public health approaches. RESULTS: We included a total of 24 articles addressing the public health approaches implemented for respiratory viral infections outbreaks for COVID-19, influenza A H1N1, MERS and severe acute respiratory syndrome . The identified approaches are ascribable to two main categories: healthcare system strategies and healthcare provider interventions. The key components of an effective response on respiratory viral outbreaks included the implementation of evidence-based contextual policies, intrahospital management actions, community healthcare facilities, non-pharmaceutical interventions, enhanced surveillance, workplace preventive measures, mental health interventions and communication plans. CONCLUSION: The identified healthcare system strategies applied worldwide to face epidemics or pandemics are a useful knowledge base to inform decision-makers about control measures to be used in the transition phases of COVID-19 and beyond.

Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/fisiopatología , /metabolismo , Carga Viral , Humanos
Nutr Health ; : 260106020971858, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167749


BACKGROUND: Food insecurity, an issue also affecting developed countries, is associated with different negative outcomes. Particularly in pregnant women, a vulnerable population group, it has a double burden, as it affects both the woman and her child. Food insecurity has been associated with low birth weight and shorter gestational age, but there is less evidence on the association with fetal structural anomalies. AIM: To fill this gap, a study will be conducted to examine if pregnant women in a condition of food insecurity have a higher risk for fetal structural anomalies. METHODS: A case-control study will be conducted in three centers. Cases will be pregnant women (>18 years old) diagnosed with a fetal structural anomaly during the prenatal ultrasound examination of the II-III trimester, while controls will be pregnant women (>18 years old) with a negative result for fetal structural anomaly at the II-III trimester prenatal ultrasound examination. The exposure of interest will be food insecurity during the last 12 months, measured using the validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. A dedicated questionnaire will be given to women after they sign the informed consent form. SUMMARY: Finding a positive association between food insecurity in pregnant women and fetal structural anomalies could be the first step towards screening for it among pregnant women and designing policies that could mitigate this condition. Lowering food insecurity could prevent a certain number of fetal structural anomalies, leading to fewer negative pregnancy outcomes and health problems during childhood and adulthood.

Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143182


BACKGROUND: Omics technologies, enabling the measurements of genes (genomics), mRNA (transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics) and metabolites (metabolomics), are valuable tools for personalized decision-making. We aimed to identify the existing value assessment frameworks used by health technology assessment (HTA) doers for the evaluation of omics technologies through a systematic review. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science databases were searched to retrieve potential eligible articles published until 31 May 2020 in English. Additionally, through a desk research in HTA agencies' repositories, we retrieved the published reports on the practical use of these frameworks. RESULTS: Twenty-three articles were included in the systematic review. Twenty-two frameworks, which addressed genetic and/or genomic technologies, were described. Most of them derived from the ACCE framework and evaluated the domains of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility. We retrieved forty-five reports, which mainly addressed the commercial transcriptomic prognostics and next generation sequencing, and evaluated clinical effectiveness, economic aspects, and description and technical characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: A value assessment framework for the HTA evaluation of omics technologies is not standardized and accepted, yet. Our work reports that the most evaluated domains are analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility and economic aspects.

Eur J Public Health ; 2020 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361734


BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GTs) are genetic tests for a medical or non-medical trait that are sold directly to the public, usually ordered without the engagement of a healthcare professional. Our aim was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors toward DTC-GTs among European citizens. METHODS: We updated the most recent systematic review on citizens' perspectives toward DTC-GTs. Relevant English language studies were searched on PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar from October 2014 to April 2019. We extended our search on Scopus without publication date restriction, since it was not included in the former review. Eligible studies were conducted in European countries and reported original data. The quality of the studies was evaluated using a checklist developed by Kmet et al. RESULTS: We included six studies conducted in European countries between 2015 and 2018. The studies were performed among general population in the Netherlands, students in Italy and Greece, laypeople in Germany and older adults in Switzerland. The level of awareness, in overall low, differed by country and population group. Most of the participants were interested in undergoing a DTC-GT, mainly for knowing the risk predisposition to a common disease. Concerns were raised about tests' validity and utility and data privacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our review shows that European citizens, overall, have a low level of knowledge on DTC-GTs and a high interest in their purchase. This understanding might contribute to the development of educational programs in order to the increase of general public capabilities to make appropriate health decisions.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 29(5): e13255, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400912


OBJECTIVE: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth leading cancer worldwide with approximately 600,000 new cases per year. Several studies suggest that HNC survivors may have an increased risk of developing second primary cancers (SPCs). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed aiming to quantify the overall and site-specific risk of metachronous SPCs in HNC survivors. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus were searched to identify studies published until October 2019. Studies investigating the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of metachronous SPC were included. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate the overall and site-specific SIRs. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the study's quality. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistics and explored using meta-regression. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included in the systematic review. Studies differed by the definition of metachronous SPC used. For the meta-analyses, the studies were grouped according to these definitions. In the three groups, the overall risk of metachronous SPC was increased. The highest SPC risk was for oropharynx, oesophagus and lung. CONCLUSIONS: Head and neck cancer survivors are at increased overall risk of metachronous SPCs. The canonical upper aerodigestive sites, HNLE (head and neck, oesophagus and lung), were the SPC sites with the highest risk. IMPLICATION FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Our results emphasise the importance of targeted surveillance strategies aimed at early detection and tertiary preventive interventions.