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1.
Integr Zool ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289300

RESUMEN

The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates is a growing public health concern and has serious implications for wildlife. What is the role of wildlife has been become one of the hot issues in disseminating antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Here, fifty-four P.mirabilis isolates from 12 different species were identified. Among them, 25 isolates were determined to be MDR by profile of antimicrobial susceptibility, 10 MDR P.mirabilis isolates were subjected to comparative genomic analysis by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Comprehensive analysis showed that chromosome of P.mirabilis isolates mainly carries multidrug-resistance complex elements harboring resistance to carbapenems genes blaOXA-1, blaNDM-1 and blaTEM-1. Class I integron is the insertion hotspot of IS26, it can be inserted into type I integron at different sites, thus forming a variety of multiple drug resistance decision sites. At the same time, Tn21, Tn7, SXT / R391 Mobile elements cause widespread spread of this drug resistance genes. In conclusion, P.mirabilis isolates from wildlife showed higher resistance to commonly used clinic drugs comparing to those from human. Therefore, wild animals carrying multidrug resistance (MDR) clinical isolates should be paid attention to by the public health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(5): 392-398, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087225

RESUMEN

Purpose: he purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the bond strength of resin sealant to hypomineralized enamel. Methods: Sound (S) and hypomineralized (H) enamel specimens were subjected to three different treatments: (1) etch only (E); (2) 5.25 percent NaOCl treatment (60 seconds) after (Post) etching; and (3) 5.25 percent NaOCl treatment (60 seconds) before (Pre) etching. A sealant rod was bonded for microshear bond strength (µSBS) testing. DIAGNOdent™ and spectrophotometry were used to detect changes in surface organic content and verify the amount of organic material removed. Results: Ninety S and 90 H specimens were randomly grouped into SE, SPost, SPre, HE, HPost, HPre groups. The average µSBS of hypomineralized enamel in etch only (HE) and NaOCl pre-etch (HPre) were significantly lower (9.2 MPa). NaOCl after etching significantly increased the µSBS of hypominineralized enamel (HPost) to 14.5 MPa, similar to sound enamel. DIAGNOdent™ readings were significantly lower in NaOCl Post versus E and NaOCl Pre, suggesting lower surface organic content. Spectrophotometry confirmed that NaOCI significantly removed more organic material in hypomineralized enamel. Conclusion: Applying 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite for 60 seconds after etching (32 percent phosphoric acid) increased the bond strength of resin sealant to hypomineralized enamel comparable to that of sound enamel, as a result of surface organic content removal.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Dentales , Hipoclorito de Sodio , Esmalte Dental , Humanos
3.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 30(4): 514-522, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012376

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have concerns with fluoride/silver content in silver diammine fluoride (SDF). AIM: To compare parental acceptance of SDF and dental fear between children with and without ASD. DESIGN: Three hundred parents were enrolled. Demographics, dental history, and dental fear were recorded. Subjects viewed an educational video and completed survey about SDF acceptance including the following: (a) overall acceptance, (b) aesthetic concerns by tooth location, (c) fluoride/silver concerns, and (d) its use as a general anaesthesia (GA) alternative. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were used. RESULTS: Significantly, more children with ASD had dental fear (ASD: 56% vs neurotypical: 26%). No differences in acceptance existed between the two groups overall or with respect to aesthetics, fluoride/silver content, or as an alternative to GA. Overall acceptance is >60%. Regardless of group, parents of older children were less likely to accept SDF as an alternative to GA (OR = 0.67 [95% CI: 0.50-0.90]). CONCLUSION: Parents of children with ASD had similar acceptance of SDF use compared to parents of neurotypical children. Children with ASD had higher levels of dental fear. Parents of younger children are more likely to accept SDF as an alternative to GA in both groups.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Caries Dental , Amoníaco , Cariostáticos , Niño , Fluoruros , Fluoruros Tópicos , Humanos , Padres , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario , Compuestos de Plata
4.
Toxicology ; 429: 152338, 2020 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785310

RESUMEN

An impaired gut-liver axis is a potential factor that contributes to alcoholic liver disease. Specifically, ethanol decreases intestinal integrity and causes gut dysbiosis. Butyrate, a fermentation byproduct of gut microbiota, is negatively altered following acute ethanol exposure. This study aimed to determine whether kaempferol could protect against alcoholic liver injury (AALI) in mice by regulating tight junction (TJ) proteins and butyrate receptors and transporters in intestines. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were randomly divided into five treatment groups: control, ethanol administered (5 g/kg), and the low-, medium- and high-dosage kaempferol (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) treatments. Intestinal expression was evaluated for the TJ proteins ZO-1 and occludin and the butyrate receptor GPR109A and butyrate transporter SLC58A proteins, in addition to plasma ALT and AST levels and pathomorphological changes in liver and intestinal tissues. The expression of the TJ proteins ZO-1 and occludin, butyrate receptors, and butyrate transporters in the ileum and proximal colon decreased in AALI mice, while plasma ALT and AST levels markedly increased. Kaempferol supplementation reversed these effects. These results suggest that kaempferol could serve as a prophylactic treatment against AALI in mice by increasing the expression of butyrate receptors, transporters, and TJ proteins in the intestinal mucosa.


Asunto(s)
Butiratos/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Quempferoles/farmacología , Hepatopatías Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Quempferoles/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Ocludina/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Proteína de la Zonula Occludens-1/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 852, 2019 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696871

RESUMEN

Dental caries, although preventable, remains one of the most prevalent chronic disease worldwide. Most studies focused on the relationship between sugar intake and caries. However, examining multidimensional dietary patterns is becoming increasingly important. Here, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns from ages 6 to 12 months and early childhood caries (ECC) at age 2 to 3-years. Infant dietary data was collected from caregivers and dietary pattern trajectories from 6 to 12 months derived. Oral examinations were carried out by trained calibrated dentists at ages 2 and 3 years. Associations between dietary pattern and ECC were estimated using generalized estimating equation. We found a 3.9 fold lower prevalence of decayed surfaces among children with high Guidelines dietary pattern scores at 6-months (IRR 0.26; CI [0.12-0.53]; p-value < 0.001) and 100% reduction of decayed surfaces with increased intakes of Guidelines dietary pattern foods from 6 to 12-month (IRR 2.4 × 10-4; CI [4.2 × 10-7-0.13]; p-value = 0.01). Suggesting that following the Guideline dietary pattern, which corresponds most closely to current World Health Organization weaning guidelines, at 6 months and an increase in pattern score between 6 and 12 months were protective against ECC development compared to Predominantly breastmilk, Easy-to-prepare foods and Noodles (in soup) and seafood dietary patterns.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactancia Materna , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Singapur/epidemiología
6.
Support Care Cancer ; 26(1): 155-174, 2018 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28735355

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. REVIEW METHOD: A literature search was conducted in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE for articles published between 1 January 2009 and 30 June 2016. Each study was assessed by 2 reviewers and the body of evidence for each intervention was assigned an evidence level. RESULTS: After examination of the abstracts and full-text articles, 59 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. The weighted prevalence of dental infections and pericoronitis during cancer therapy was 5.4 and 5.3%, respectively. The frequency of dental-related infections during intensive chemotherapy after complete, partial, and minimal pre-cancer dental evaluation/treatment protocols ranged from 0 to 4%. Protocols involving third molars extractions had the highest complications (40%). CONCLUSIONS: In view of the low prevalence of infections and the potential for complications after third molar extractions, it is suggested that partial dental evaluation/treatment protocols prior to intensive chemotherapy; whereby minor caries (within dentin), asymptomatic third molars or asymptomatic teeth without excessive probing depth (<8 mm), mobility (mobility I or II) or with periapical lesions of <5 mm were observed; is a viable option when there is insufficient time for complete dental evaluation/treatment protocols. The use of chlorhexidine, fluoride mouth rinses as well as composite resin, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC), and amalgam restorations over conventional GIC in post head and neck radiation patients who are compliant fluoride users is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica/métodos , Neoplasias/fisiopatología , Neoplasias/terapia , Enfermedades Dentales/terapia , Humanos , Enfermedades Dentales/microbiología , Enfermedades Dentales/prevención & control
7.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 27(6): 551-557, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260237

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) remains the long-established approach for treating anxious children, treatment under GA presents with increased risks, costs and parental acceptability issues. Interim therapeutic restoration (ITR) has been proposed as an alternative approach. AIM: To compare the incidence and types of failures between children managed with the ITR approach and those managed under GA within 12 months of treatment completion. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of children who received dental treatment utilizing the ITR approach was compared to children treated under GA. Age, gender and dental disease matching was done. Statistical analyses were carried out with Independent t-test and chi-square analyses. RESULTS: A total of 132 children (GA = 66, ITR = 66) were included, and the groups did not differ in terms of initial age, sex, dmft and initial behaviour score. ITR group had a significantly higher rate (P < 0.001; 95% CI: [0.21 to 0.97]) of restorative failure and visits required when compared to the GA group. There were no difference for incidence of pain (P = 0.55; 95% CI: [-0.074 to 0.10]) and behaviour scores (P = 0.46) between the two groups at the 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: ITR approach may be a viable alternative to the GA approach when treating paediatric dental patients.


Asunto(s)
Anestesia Dental , Anestesia General , Atención Dental para Niños/métodos , Caries Dental/cirugía , Restauración Dental Provisional , Niño , Preescolar , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Restauración Dental Provisional/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicaciones Posoperatorias , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30867, 2016 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491308

RESUMEN

Ameloblastoma is a locally invasive benign neoplasm derived from odontogenic epithelium and presents with diverse phenotypes yet to be characterized molecularly. High recurrence rates of 50-80% with conservative treatment in some sub-types warrants radical surgical resections resulting in high morbidity. The objective of the study was to characterize the transcriptome of ameloblastoma and identify relevant genes and molecular pathways using normal odontogenic tissue (human "dentome") for comparison. Laser capture microdissection was used to obtain neoplastic epithelial tissue from 17 tumors which were examined using the Agilent 44 k whole genome microarray. Ameloblastoma separated into 2 distinct molecular clusters that were associated with pre-secretory ameloblast and odontoblast. Within the pre-secretory cluster, 9/10 of samples were of the follicular type while 6/7 of the samples in the odontoblast cluster were of the plexiform type (p < 0.05). Common pathways altered in both clusters included cell-cycle regulation, inflammatory and MAPkinase pathways, specifically known cancer-driving genes such as TP53 and members of the MAPkinase pathways. The pre-secretory ameloblast cluster exhibited higher activation of inflammatory pathways while the odontoblast cluster showed greater disturbances in transcription regulators. Our results are suggestive of underlying inter-tumor molecular heterogeneity of ameloblastoma sub-types and have implications for the use of tailored treatment.


Asunto(s)
Ameloblastoma/patología , Tumores Odontogénicos/patología , Transcriptoma , Ameloblastoma/genética , Ameloblastoma/metabolismo , Análisis por Conglomerados , Humanos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por Mitógenos/genética , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo , Odontoblastos/citología , Odontoblastos/metabolismo , Tumores Odontogénicos/genética , Tumores Odontogénicos/metabolismo , Análisis de Secuencia por Matrices de Oligonucleótidos , Fenotipo , ARN Neoplásico/genética , ARN Neoplásico/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Neoplásico/metabolismo , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/genética , Proteína p53 Supresora de Tumor/metabolismo
9.
Sci Rep ; 6: 24236, 2016 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27066764

RESUMEN

Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT) is a locally aggressive developmental cystic neoplasm thought to arise from the odontogenic epithelium. A high recurrence rate of up to 30% has been found following conservative treatment. Aggressive tumor resection can lead to the need for extensive reconstructive surgery, resulting in significant morbidity and impacting quality of life. Most research has focused on candidate-genes with a handful of studies employing whole transcriptome approaches. There is also the question of which reference tissue is most biologically-relevant. This study characterizes the transcriptome of KCOT using whole genome microarray and compare it with gene expression of different odontogenic tissues ("dentome"). Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate the neoplastic epithelial tissue in 20 cases. KCOT gene expression was compared with the "dentome" and relevant pathways were examined. Cluster analysis revealed 2 distinct molecular subtypes of KCOT. Several inflammatory pathways were activated in both subtypes. The AKT pathway was activated in one subtype while MAP kinase pathway was activated in the other. Additionally, PTCH1 expression was downregulated in both clusters suggesting involvement in KCOT tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the transcriptome of KCOT and highlights pathways that could be of diagnostic and prognostic value.


Asunto(s)
Tumores Odontogénicos/patología , Transcriptoma , Análisis por Conglomerados , Epitelio/patología , Genotipo , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Análisis por Micromatrices , Microscopía , Tumores Odontogénicos/clasificación
10.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0124801, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849153

RESUMEN

The goal of the study was to characterize the transcriptome profiles of human ameloblasts and odontoblasts, evaluate molecular pathways and advance our knowledge of the human "dentome". Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate odontoblasts and ameloblasts from human tooth buds (15-20week gestational age) from 4 fetuses. RNA was examined using Agilent 41k whole genome arrays at 2 different stages of enamel formation, presecretory and secretory. Probe detection was considered against the array negative control to control for background noise. Differential expression was examined using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) 4.0 between different cell types and developmental stages with a false discovery rate of 20%. Pathway analysis was conducted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. We found that during primary tooth formation, odontoblasts expressed 14,802 genes, presecretory ameloblasts 15,179 genes and secretory ameloblasts 14,526 genes. Genes known to be active during tooth development for each cell type (eg COL1A1, AMELX) were shown to be expressed by our approach. Exploring further into the list of differentially expressed genes between the motile odontoblasts and non-motile presecretory ameloblasts we found several genes of interest that could be involved in cell movement (FN1, LUM, ASTN1). Furthermore, our analysis indicated that the Phospholipase C and ERK5 pathways, that are important for cell movement, were activated in the motile odontoblasts. In addition our pathway analysis identified WNT3A and TGFB1 as important upstream contributors. Recent studies implicate these genes in the development of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. The utility of laser capture microdissection can be a valuable tool in the examination of specific tissues or cell populations present in human tooth buds. Advancing our knowledge of the human dentome and related molecular pathways provides new insights into the complex mechanisms regulating odontogenesis and biomineralization. This knowledge could prove useful in future studies of odontogenic related pathologies.


Asunto(s)
Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Germen Dentario/embriología , Ameloblastos/citología , Ameloblastos/metabolismo , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser/métodos , Odontoblastos/citología , Odontoblastos/metabolismo , Odontogénesis , Análisis de Secuencia por Matrices de Oligonucleótidos , Germen Dentario/citología
11.
Int Dent J ; 64(2): 108-14, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24410003

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis is a serious complication that results in significant morbidity and mortality in susceptible patients. The guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis have been updated by the American Heart Association and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. The antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing practices among dentists in Singapore are unknown. AIM: To determine the specific infective endocarditis antibiotic prophylaxis prescribing practices of dentists in Singapore. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was sent through an email link and by postal mail. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 19.0. RESULTS: Responses were received from 458 dentists (34.3% response rate), of which 278 (65.9%) were general practitioners. The majority of respondents (39.8%) followed the American Heart Association 2007 guidelines and 30.2% followed cardiologists' recommendations. The accuracy of prescriptions for 13 cardiac conditions and 12 dental procedures were evaluated. The median number of accurate answers for cardiac conditions was eight for the American Heart Association 1999 guidelines, and four for the American Heart Association 2007 and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, respectively. The median number of accurate answers for dental procedures was generally high, both for dentists who followed the American Heart Association 1999 guidelines (median = 10) and American Heart Association 2007 (median = 9) guidelines. Majority of respondents (82.8%) felt that developing a local guideline would be beneficial to the local dental community. CONCLUSION: Dentists were accurate in their prescriptions of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures, but not for cardiac conditions. It may be helpful to attain a consensus among local cardiologists and dentists to unify the antibiotic prophylaxis prescription practices in Singapore.


Asunto(s)
Profilaxis Antibiótica/estadística & datos numéricos , Endocarditis Bacteriana/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Odontología/estadística & datos numéricos , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Atención Dental para Enfermos Crónicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Odontólogos/psicología , Prescripciones de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Odontología General/estadística & datos numéricos , Cardiopatías , Humanos , Práctica Privada/estadística & datos numéricos , Singapur , Especialidades Odontológicas/estadística & datos numéricos
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