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2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6564, 2024 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503816

RESUMEN

This study aimed to identify the risk factors for placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) in women who had at least one previous cesarean delivery and a placenta previa or low-lying. The PACCRETA prospective population-based study took place in 12 regional perinatal networks from 2013 through 2015. All women with one or more prior cesareans and a placenta previa or low lying were included. Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) was diagnosed at delivery according to standardized clinical and histological criteria. Of the 520,114 deliveries, 396 fulfilled inclusion criteria; 108 were classified with PAS at delivery. Combining the number of prior cesareans and the placental location yielded a rate ranging from 5% for one prior cesarean combined with a posterior low-lying placenta to 63% for three or more prior cesareans combined with placenta previa. The factors independently associated with PAS disorders were BMI ≥ 30, previous uterine surgery, previous postpartum hemorrhage, a higher number of prior cesareans, and a placenta previa. Finally, in this high-risk population, the rate of PAS disorders varies greatly, not only with the number of prior cesareans but also with the exact placental location and some of the women's individual characteristics. Risk stratification is thus possible in this population.


Asunto(s)
Placenta Accreta , Placenta Previa , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Placenta Previa/epidemiología , Placenta Previa/etiología , Placenta , Placenta Accreta/epidemiología , Placenta Accreta/etiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Retrospectivos
5.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 286: 112-117, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37243999

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Obstetrics is a constraining specialty due to heavy workloads and repeated stressful situations. French maternity wards are facing many difficulties to recruit, as a consequence of the conversion of a significant number of Obstetrician-Gynecologists (OB-GYNs) to exclusive daily private practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of OB-GYNs in order to identify burnout risk factors, develop prevention strategies and therefore ensure patient safety. STUDY DESIGN: A Google forms questionnaire assessing QOL and life/work balance was distributed by e-mail to 1397 members of the National College of French OB-GYNs (CNGOF). This was a declarative multicenter cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: Four hundred sixty-one responses were collected (response rate 30%). A burnout episode was reported by 31.3% of respondents. Main burnout risk factors were limited staff on the on-call schedule (p = 0.008) and low salary (p < 0.001). On-call work was considered to have a negative personal life impact by 57.8% of the sample; 34.1% wanted to stop this practice and 81.3% believed that financial compensation would help reinforce its attractiveness. Medico-legal risks influenced the daily practices of 70% of respondents and 86.8% had been personally affected by media coverage of obstetrical violence. CONCLUSIONS: This report confirms a high burnout rate within a stressful profession, with major impacts from on-call activity, insufficient salary relative to the arduousness of this practice, high exposure to medico-legal actions and media attention. Revising shift duration to a maximum 12 h, better control over global workload, higher salary and renewed social recognition are urgent priorities.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología , Obstetricia , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Transversales , Obstetras , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Actitud del Personal de Salud
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 241, 2023 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37046229

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While the World Health Organisation (WHO) warned about mistreatment, disrespect and/or abuse during childbirth as early as 2014. This same year a social media movement with #payetonuterus brought to light the problematic of obstetrical violence in French speaking countries, and more specifically on issues of disrespect. The experience of care is an integral part of the quality of care, and perception on inadequate support during labour and loss of control in labour are some of the most frequently reported risk factors for childbirth-related post-traumatic stress disorder (CB-PTSD). Therefore, it seems crucial to study the associations between disrespect during childbirth and the mental well-being of mothers. METHODS: We performed a multicentered cohort study using auto-questionnaires within a French perinatal network. The main outcome was women's report of disrespect during childbirth measured by the Behavior of the Mother's Caregivers - Satisfaction Questionnaire (BMC-SQ) 3 days and 2 months after childbirth. CB-PTSD and Postpartum Depression (PPD) were assessed 2 months after childbirth using respectively the Post-Traumatic Checklist Scale (PCLS) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS: This study followed 123 mothers from childbirth to 2 months postpartum. Among them, 8.13% (n = 10/123) reported disrespect during childbirth at 3 days after childbirth. With retrospect, 10.56% (n = 13/123) reported disrespect during childbirth at 2 months postpartum, i.e. an increase of 31%. Some 10.56% (n = 13/123) of mothers suffered from postpartum depression, and 4.06% (n = 5/123) were considered to have CB-PTSD at 2 months after childbirth. Reported disrespect during childbirth 3 days after birth was significantly associated with higher CB-PTSD 2 months after birth (R2 = 0.11, F(1,117) = 15.14, p < 0.001 and ß = 9.11, p = 0.006), PPD at 2 months after childbirth was positively associated to reported disrespect in the birth room, 3 days after birth (R2 = 0.04, F(1, 117) = 6.28, p = 0.01 and ß = 3.36, p = 0.096). Meanwhile, PPD and CB-PTSD were significantly associated 2 months after childbirth (R2 = 0.41, F=(1,117) = 82.39, p < 0.01 and ß = 11.41, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Disrespect during childbirth was associated with poorer mental health during the postpartum period. Given the high prevalence of mental health problems and the increased susceptibility to depression during the postpartum period, these correlational results highlight the importance of gaining a deeper awareness of healthcare professionals about behaviours or attitudes which might be experienced as disrespectful during childbirth.


Asunto(s)
Depresión Posparto , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión Posparto/epidemiología , Depresión Posparto/etiología , Depresión Posparto/psicología , Salud Mental , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Parto/psicología , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología
8.
Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol ; 51(5): 284-288, 2023 05.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931598

RESUMEN

Although the 2022 Monkeypox virus epidemic mostly affects males, particularly men having sex with men, transmission to women may also occur. In case of MPXV infection in pregnancy, transmission to the fetus can result in very severe disease. Thus, caregivers should be aware of the measures to be taken according to the available evidence, in case of exposure or in case of symptoms particularly skin rash compatible with this diagnosis in a pregnant woman. Pregnant women should have access to vaccination, vaccinia immunoglobulin or antiviral medications as required.


Asunto(s)
Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , /tratamiento farmacológico , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Vacunación , Antivirales/uso terapéutico
9.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 162(2): 676-683, 2023 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36762575

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The first trimester combined risk of trisomy 21 is obtained by multiplying the risk related to maternal age by the likelihood ratios of nuchal translucency, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (ß-hCG) and placenta associated plasma protein-A. Beyond five multiples of the median (MoM) of ß-hCG, the risk of trisomy 21 is truncated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the evolution of the first trimester combined risk of trisomy 21 in individuals with first-trimester free-ß-hCG levels between 5 and 10 MoM. METHODS: We conducted a non-interventional cohort study from a 6-year database of combined first-trimester trisomy 21 screening of all individuals who underwent the screening in a French specialized medical analysis center. We included all pregnant individuals who had a serum-free ß-hCG between 5 and 10 MoM. Patients for whom the status of the fetus, with or without trisomy 21, was not identified by the outcome of the pregnancy or by a karyotype result were excluded from the study. The discriminatory capacity of free-ß-hCG above 5 MoM was studied by a receiver operating characteristic curve. We used an orthogonal polynomial regression to represent the evolution of likelihood ratios according to free-ß-hCG in MoM. RESULTS: Among 413 216 combined first-trimester screens of trisomy 21, 2239 (0.5%) screens met the inclusion criteria. In the selected population, 801 (35.8%) were excluded from the study because of missing fetal or neonatal status, and 46 (3.2%) fetuses out of 1438 included were diagnosed with trisomy 21. For free ß-hCG values between 5 and 10 MoM, the area under the curve is 0.56 (0.46-0.65). The scatterplot of the likelihood ratio of ß-hCG showed an increasing parabolic pattern: the likelihood of trisomy 21 increases with the free-ß-hCG threshold. CONCLUSION: To override the truncated risk of trisomy 21 in case of free ß-hCG values between 5 and 10 MoM, the study has allowed us to estimate the adjusted risk of trisomy 21, enabling health professionals to offer appropriate prenatal counseling.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Down , Embarazo , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Primer Trimestre del Embarazo , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Estudios de Cohortes , Diagnóstico Prenatal , Proteína Plasmática A Asociada al Embarazo/análisis , Gonadotropina Coriónica Humana de Subunidad beta , Gonadotropina Coriónica , Biomarcadores , Trisomía , Medida de Translucencia Nucal
10.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 160(3): 900-905, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986606

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlation between standard laboratory indicators at admission and severe maternal complications due to placental abruption (PA) with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) after 24 weeks. METHODS: Retrospective study in three French tertiary referral hospitals. Correlation of laboratory indicators at admission (platelet count, prothrombin, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen) and severe maternal complications (massive transfusion, multiple organ failure, hysterectomy, or maternal deaths) in patients with PA and IUFD. RESULTS: Over 12 years, we identified 27/344 (7.8%) pregnant women presenting PA with IUFD. No patient had coagulopathy at admission. Fifteen individuals (55.5%) underwent delivery by cesarean section before or during labor. Fifteen individuals (55.5%) presented severe complications, and 17/27 (63%) lost more than 1 L of blood during delivery. Fibrinogen level was shown to be the laboratory indicator most correlated with severe complications (r = -0.52, P = 0.01). The receiver operating characteristic curve of fibrinogen less than 1.9 g/L in the prediction of severe complications (area under the curve = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.97) showed both a sensitivity and specificity of 83% (95% CI 54%-96%). CONCLUSIONS: In cases of IUFD with PA, fibrinogen levels at admission had a prognostic value for the prediction of severe maternal complications.


Asunto(s)
Desprendimiento Prematuro de la Placenta , Hemostáticos , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Fibrinógeno , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cesárea , Placenta , Muerte Fetal/etiología , Mortinato
11.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 51(10): 102496, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309342

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the effectiveness of cervicoisthmic cerclage on the live birth rate, measured before and after performing this cerclage in a series of 62 patients with a history of late miscarriage and/or premature delivery. STUDY DESIGN: All patients who underwent cervicoisthmic cerclage in one of the 3 university hospitals of the Hospices Civils de Lyon, between January 1, 2010, and April 1, 2019, and with a history of at least one late miscarriage or spontaneous premature birth, were included. Obstetrical and neonatal data for all pregnancies before and after cervicoisthmic cerclage were collected from medical records, completed by a phone call to patients in case of missing data. RESULTS: We included 62 patients with a total of 224 pregnancies before and 95 pregnancies after cervicoisthmic cerclage. Forty-one (66%) cerclages were performed vaginally, 12 (19%) by laparotomy and 9 (15%) by laparoscopy. The live birth rate among all pregnancies evolving beyond 14 weeks was 23% before and 86% after cerclage (p < 0.01). The rate of delivery beyond 32 weeks was 13% before and 81% after cerclage, with a median term of delivery of 21 weeks and 37 weeks respectively. Twenty-two (35%) patients had at least one live birth before cerclage and 43 (69%) patients after cerclage. Five (8%) postoperative complications occurred (2 grade I, 2 grade II and 1 grade III). CONCLUSION: The markedly high live birth rate when compared to before the cerclage strongly suggests a major role for the technique of cervicoisthmic cerclage in patients with a heavy obstetrical history.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Espontáneo , Cerclaje Cervical , Nacimiento Prematuro , Incompetencia del Cuello del Útero , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Humanos , Incompetencia del Cuello del Útero/cirugía , Cerclaje Cervical/métodos , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Aborto Espontáneo/epidemiología , Tasa de Natalidad
12.
J Integr Complement Med ; 28(7): 569-578, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394895

RESUMEN

Introduction: Preoperative anxiety before cesarean section is a major issue. Nonpharmacologic anxiety control is believed to be more suitable in pregnant women. Auricular acupuncture (AA) is an inexpensive, easy-to-use, and validated intervention to reduce anxiety in different surgical settings. We evaluated the effect of AA on preoperative cesarean section anxiety. Methods: In a prospective, blind, controlled trial, pregnant women with a scheduled cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive AA with needle, AA without needle (sham), or usual care (no intervention). Anxiety level was assessed by using a visual analogue scale for anxiety (VAS-A; 0-minimal anxiety, 100-maximal anxiety) at three time points: inclusion (pre-induction room-T0), when entering the operating room (T1), and before incision (T2). The primary outcome was the VAS-A variation (percentage changes) between T0 and T1 in the AAe group compared with that in the sham AA group. The secondary outcomes were the VAS-A variation between T0 and T1 in the AA group compared with that in the control group, and the variation between T0 and T2 compared between the three groups, the effect of AA on parasympathetic tone, and the incidence of adverse effects. Results: In women immediately before anesthesia for cesarean section, the AA produced a 19% decrease of anxiety, compared with a 21% anxiety increase in sham AA, which is significantly different. The effect of AA was more present in women with low initial anxiety. The proportion of patients reaching clinically significant anxiety reduction (>33% from the initial level) was 2.5 times higher in the AA group (p = 0.02) compared with the sham group. No differences in anxiety variations were found compared with the no-intervention group. No effect of AA was noted on parasympathetic tone. Conclusion: Compared with sham, AA decreased maternal anxiety level when arriving in the operation room and just before the beginning of the cesarean section, with a trend toward improvement compared with usual care.


Asunto(s)
Acupuntura Auricular , Anestesia Raquidea , Ansiedad/terapia , Cesárea/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos
13.
Crit Care Resusc ; 24(3): 242-250, 2022 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38046204

RESUMEN

Objective: Pregnancy is a risk factor for acute respiratory failure (ARF) following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We hypothesised that SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the respiratory tract might be higher in pregnant intensive care unit (ICU) patients with ARF than in non-pregnant ICU patients with ARF as a consequence of immunological adaptation during pregnancy. Design: Single-centre, retrospective observational case-control study. Setting: Adult level 3 ICU in a French university hospital. Participants: Eligible participants were adults with ARF associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Main outcome measure: The primary endpoint of the study was viral load in pregnant and non-pregnant patients. Results: 251 patients were included in the study, including 17 pregnant patients. Median gestational age at ICU admission amounted to 28 + 3/7 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 26 + 1/7 to 31 + 5/7 weeks). Twelve patients (71%) had an emergency caesarean delivery due to maternal respiratory failure. Pregnancy was independently associated with higher viral load (-4.6 ± 1.9 cycle threshold; P < 0.05). No clustering or over-represented mutations were noted regarding SARS-CoV-2 sequences of pregnant women. Emergency caesarean delivery was independently associated with a modest but significant improvement in arterial oxygenation, amounting to 32 ± 12 mmHg in patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation. ICU mortality was significantly lower in pregnant patients (0 v 35%; P < 0.05). Age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score, and acute respiratory distress syndrome were independent risk factors for ICU mortality, while pregnancy status and virological variables were not. Conclusions: Viral load was substantially higher in pregnant ICU patients with COVID-19 and ARF compared with non-pregnant ICU patients with COVID-19 and ARF. Pregnancy was not independently associated with ICU mortality after adjustment for age and disease severity.

14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(6): 839.e1-839.e24, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Placenta accreta spectrum is a life-threatening condition that has increased dramatically in recent decades along with cesarean rates worldwide. Cesarean hysterectomy is widely practiced in women with placenta accreta spectrum; however, the maternal outcomes after cesarean hysterectomy have not been thoroughly compared with the maternal outcomes after alternative approaches, such as conservative management. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the severe maternal outcomes between women with placenta accreta spectrum treated with cesarean hysterectomy and those treated with conservative management (leaving the placenta in situ). STUDY DESIGN: From a source population of 520,114 deliveries in 176 hospitals (PACCRETA study), we designed an observational cohort of women with placenta accreta spectrum who had either a cesarean hysterectomy or a conservative management (the placenta left in situ) during cesarean delivery. Clinicians prospectively identified women meeting the inclusion criteria and included them at delivery. Data collection started only after the women had received information and agreed to participate in the study in the immediate postpartum period. The primary outcome was the transfusion of >4 units of packed red blood cells within 6 months after delivery. Secondary outcomes were other maternal complications within 6 months. We used propensity score weighting to account for potential indication bias. RESULTS: Here, 86 women had conservative management and 62 women had cesarean hysterectomy for placenta accreta spectrum during cesarean delivery. The primary outcome occurred in 14 of 86 women in the conservative management group (16.3%) and 36 of 61 (59.0%) in the cesarean hysterectomy group (risk ratio in propensity score weighted model, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.45). The rates of hysterectomy, total estimated blood loss exceeding 3000 mL, any blood product transfusion, adjacent organ injury, and nonpostpartum hemorrhage-related severe maternal morbidity were lower with conservative management than with cesarean hysterectomy (all adjusted, P≤.02); but, the rates of arterial embolization, endometritis, and readmission within 6 months of discharge were higher with conservative management than with cesarean hysterectomy. CONCLUSION: Among women with placenta accreta spectrum who underwent cesarean delivery, conservative management was associated with a lower risk of transfusion of >4 units of packed red blood cells within 6 months than cesarean hysterectomy.


Asunto(s)
Placenta Accreta , Cesárea , Tratamiento Conservador , Femenino , Humanos , Histerectomía , Placenta Accreta/epidemiología , Placenta Accreta/cirugía , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Placenta ; 112: 97-104, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329973

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women with covid-19 are more likely to experience preterm birth. The virus seems to be associated with a wide range of placental lesions, none of them specific. METHOD: We collected cases of Covid-19 maternal infection during pregnancy associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, for which we received the placenta. We studied clinical data and described pathological findings of placenta and post-mortem examination of fetuses. We performed an immunohistochemical study and RT-PCR of SARS-Cov-2 on placenta samples. RESULTS: We report 5 cases of poor fetal outcome, 3 fetal deaths and 2 extreme premature neonates, one with growth restriction, without clinical and biological sign of SARS-Cov-2 infection. All placenta presented massive perivillous fibrin deposition and large intervillous thrombi associated with strong SARS-Cov-2 expression in trophoblast and SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in amniotic fluid or on placenta samples. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis was present in 4/5 cases. Placental ultrasound was abnormal and the sFLT1-PIGF ratio was increased in one case. Timing between mothers' infection and the poor fetal outcome was ≤10 days in 4 cases. The massive placental damage are directly induced by the virus whose receptors are expressed on trophoblast, leading to trophoblast necrosis and massive inflammation in villous chamber, in a similar way it occurs in diffuse alveolar damage in adults infected by SARS-Cov-2. DISCUSSION: SARS-Cov-2 can be associated to a rare set of placental lesions which can lead to fetal demise, preterm birth, or growth restriction. Stronger surveillance of mothers infected by SARS-Cov-2 is required.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , Enfermedades Placentarias/etiología , Nacimiento Prematuro/etiología , Mortinato , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/patología , Femenino , Muerte Fetal/etiología , Francia , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Muerte Perinatal/etiología , Placenta/patología , Placenta/virología , Enfermedades Placentarias/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Placentarias/patología , Enfermedades Placentarias/virología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/patología , Resultado del Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro/patología , Nacimiento Prematuro/virología , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Trofoblastos/patología , Trofoblastos/virología
16.
Birth ; 48(3): 328-337, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Quality care during childbirth requires that health care providers have not only excellent skills but also appropriate and considerate attitudes and behavior. Few studies have examined the proportion of women in Western countries expressing dissatisfaction with such inappropriate or inconsiderate behavior. This study evaluated this proportion in a sample presumably representative of French maternity units. METHODS: This prospective multicenter study, using data from a selfadministered questionnaire, took place in 25 French maternity units during one week in September 2018. The primary outcome measure was mothers' self-reported dissatisfaction with blatantly inappropriate behavior (ie, inappropriate attitude, inadequate respect for privacy, insufficient gentleness of care, and/or inappropriate language) by health care workers in the delivery room. The secondary outcome was their self-reported dissatisfaction with these workers' inconsiderate behavior (ie, unclear and inappropriate information, insufficient participation in decision-making, or deficient consideration of pain). RESULTS: Of 803 potentially eligible women, 627 completed the questionnaire after childbirth; 5.62% (35/623, 95% CI: 3.94-7.73) reported dissatisfaction with blatantly inappropriate behaviors and 9.79% (61/623, 95% CI: 7.57-12.40) with inconsiderate behaviors. The main causes of dissatisfaction reported by women in this survey were the inadequate consideration of their pain and the failure to share decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the women were satisfied with how health care workers behaved towards them in the delivery room. Nonetheless, health care staff must be aware of women's demands for greater consideration of their expressions of pain and of their voice in decisions.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Parto , Niño , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Satisfacción del Paciente , Atención Perinatal , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 588814, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178700

RESUMEN

The orderly radial migration of cortical neurons from their birthplace in the germinal zones to their final destination in the cortical plate is a prerequisite for the functional assembly of microcircuits in the neocortex. Rodent and primate corticogenesis differ both quantitatively and qualitatively, particularly with respect to the generation of neurons of the supragranular layers. Marked area differences in the outer subventricular zone progenitor cell density impact the radial glia scaffold compactness which is likely to induce area differences in radial migration strategy. Here, we describe specific features of radial migration in the non-human primate, including the absence of the premigratory multipolar stage found in rodents. Ex vivo approaches in the embryonic macaque monkey visual cortex, show that migrating neurons destined for supragranular and infragranular layers exhibit significant differences in morphology and velocity. Migrating neurons destined for the supragranular layers show a more complex bipolar morphology and higher motility rates than do infragranular neurons. There are area differences in the gross morphology and membrane growth behavior of the tip of the leading process. In the subplate compartment migrating neurons destined for the supragranular layers of presumptive area 17 exhibit radial constrained trajectories and leading processes with filopodia, which contrast with the meandering trajectories and leading processes capped by lamellipodia observed in the migrating neurons destined for presumptive area 18. Together these results present evidence that migrating neurons may exhibit autonomy and in addition show marked area-specific differences. We hypothesize that the low motility and high radial trajectory of area 17 migrating neurons contribute to the unique structural features of this area.

18.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 49(7): 101826, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505805

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the course over time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in French women from the beginning of the pandemic until mid-April, the risk profile of women with respiratory complications, and short-term pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We collected a case series of pregnant women with COVID-19 in a research network of 33 French maternity units between March 1 and April 14, 2020. All cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by a positive result on real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests of a nasal sample and/or diagnosed by a computed tomography chest scan were included and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were COVID-19 requiring oxygen (oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation) and critical COVID-19 (requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO). Demographic data, baseline comorbidities, and pregnancy outcomes were also collected. RESULTS: Active cases of COVID-19 increased exponentially during March 1-31, 2020; the numbers fell during April 1-14, after lockdown was imposed on March 17. The shape of the curve of active critical COVID-19 mirrored that of all active cases. By April 14, among the 617 pregnant women with COVID-19, 93 women (15.1 %; 95 %CI 12.3-18.1) had required oxygen therapy and 35 others (5.7 %; 95 %CI 4.0-7.8) had had a critical form of COVID-19. The severity of the disease was associated with age older than 35 years and obesity, as well as preexisting diabetes, previous preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. One woman with critical COVID-19 died (0.2 %; 95 %CI 0-0.9). Among the women who gave birth, rates of preterm birth in women with non-severe, oxygen-requiring, and critical COVID-19 were 13/123 (10.6 %), 14/29 (48.3 %), and 23/29 (79.3 %) before 37 weeks and 3/123 (2.4 %), 4/29 (13.8 %), and 14/29 (48.3 %) before 32 weeks, respectively. One neonate (0.5 %; 95 %CI 0.01-2.9) in the critical group died from prematurity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can be responsible for significant rates of severe acute, potentially deadly, respiratory distress syndromes. The most vulnerable pregnant women, those with comorbidities, may benefit particularly from prevention measures such as a lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adulto , COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Edad Materna , Ventilación no Invasiva , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Oxígeno/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
19.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 246: 29-34, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927407

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Assess the impact of implementation by simple distribution of a "colour code" protocol for emergency caesareans on the course over time of the "decision-delivery interval" (DDI) and neonatal outcome. DESIGN: Observational study in 26 maternity units of the AURORE perinatal network, conducted between October 1, 2017, and April 30, 2018. Each maternity ward́ was supposed to prospectively include 20 consecutive cases of caesareans performed either as an emergency, that is, as a code orange, or an extreme emergency, that is, code red. We compared the DDIs observed in 2017 to those in 2007 according to the degree of emergency, the maternity unit level of care, and their adherence to the protocol. Neonatal outcome in 2007 and 2017, assessed from laboratory and clinical indicators, was also compared, overall and according to the degree of emergency. RESULTS: The DDI was significantly lower in 2017 (n = 478) than in 2007 (n = 447), regardless of the degree of emergency and the level of care (p < 0.0001). In 2017, all code red caesareans were performed in less than 15 min in level 3 maternity units compared with 73 % (p = 0.039) in 2007. Fewer than 20 % of the caesareans in the 2007 study period were performed in less than 15 min in level 1 and 2 maternity units. Today, this is the case for 83 % of these caesareans in level 2 units (p < 0.001) and 36 % in level 1 (p = 0.01). In 2017, code orange caesareans were performed in less than 30 min in 96 % of cases in level 3 units, 67 % in level 2, and 33 % in level 1, compared respectively with 67 % (p = 0.015), 25 % (p < 0.0001) and 16 % (p = 0.0003) in 2007. We did not observe any difference in the neonatal outcome between 2007 and 2017 or as a function of the DDI expected based on the caesarean colour code. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the colour code protocols was associated with an improved DDI and better adherence to the recommendations in all 26 maternity units in this perinatal network.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea/estadística & datos numéricos , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Urgencias Médicas , Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Desprendimiento Prematuro de la Placenta/cirugía , Adulto , Certificación , Distocia/cirugía , Eclampsia/cirugía , Extracción Obstétrica , Femenino , Sufrimiento Fetal/cirugía , Francia , Frecuencia Cardíaca Fetal , Humanos , Preeclampsia/cirugía , Embarazo , Prolapso , Cordón Umbilical , Rotura Uterina/cirugía
20.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 46(2): 225-232, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708272

RESUMEN

Tridimensional rectosonography (3-D RSG) is a transvaginal ultrasonography procedure combining intrarectal contrast with tridimensional technology. The objectives of this study were to assess the diagnostic performances of 3-D RSG in deep infiltrating rectosigmoid endometriosis using surgery and pathology as the gold standard, and to compare its results with those of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients referred for endometriosis with symptoms suggesting deep infiltrating intestinal endometriosis (DIE) were included if they agreed to undergo a 3-D RSG and MRI and if there was a surgical indication related to endometriosis. The study was a non-randomized monocentric prospective cohort study (Canadian task force classification Level II-2). From May 2012 to May 2017, 101 patients were included. Sixty patients (59.4%) had bowel involvement of the rectum (n = 21, 20.8%) or of the sigmoid (n = 39, 38.6%) confirmed in surgery and/or in pathologic testing. In the diagnosis of rectosigmoid DIE, 3-D RSG sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and κ index were 93%, 95%, 97%, 91%, 94% and 0.88, respectively. For MRI they were 87%, 90%, 93%, 82%, 88% and 0.76, respectively. The accuracy was not significantly different between 3-D RSG and MRI (p = 0.181). In conclusion, 3-D RSG is an effective technique to diagnose rectosigmoid endometriosis and seems to have similar diagnostic performances to MRI for this indication.


Asunto(s)
Endometriosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagenología Tridimensional , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Enfermedades del Recto/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades del Sigmoide/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Estudios Prospectivos , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adulto Joven
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