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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593061

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is a global public health issue associated with increased risks of developing mental health disorders, especially in young people. We aimed to investigate the relationships between cannabis exposure and risks of receiving mental illness diagnoses or treatment as outcomes. METHODS: A population based, retrospective, open cohort study using patients recorded in 'IQVIA medical research data', a UK primary care database. Read codes were used to confirm patients with recorded exposure to cannabis use who were matched up to two unexposed patients. We examined the risk of developing three categories of mental ill health: depression, anxiety or serious mental illness (SMI). RESULTS: At study entry, the exposed cohort had an increased likelihood of having experienced mental ill health [odds ratio (OR) 4.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.99-4.27] and mental ill health-related prescription (OR 2.95; 95% CI 2.86-3.05) compared to the unexposed group. During the study period we found that exposure to cannabis was associated with an increased risk of developing any mental disorder [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.73; 95% CI 2.59-2.88], also noted when examining by subtype of disorder: anxiety (aHR 2.46; 95% CI 2.29-2.64), depression (aHR 2.34; 95% CI 2.20-2.49) and SMI (aHR 6.41; 95% CI 5.42-7.57). These results remained robust in sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: These findings point to the potential need for a public health approach to the management of people misusing cannabis. However, there is a gross under-recording of cannabis use in GP records, as seen by the prevalence of recorded cannabis exposure substantially lower than self-reported survey records.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 144-154, 2021 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487991

RESUMEN

The bodily self is key to emotional embodiment, which is important for social functioning and emotion regulation. There is a paucity of research systematically assessing how basic and bodily self-disturbances relate to multimodal hallucinations. This study hypothesised that participants with greater hallucination-proneness would report greater degrees of basic and bodily self-disturbance and would demonstrate more ambiguous and less discrete mapping of emotional embodiment. Stage one screened non-clinical participants' degree of hallucination-proneness. Stage two participants completed seven further questionnaires. Hierarchical linear regression modelled the influence of hallucination-proneness and covariates on measures of basic and bodily self-disturbance and sensed presence. Stage two participants also completed a computerised body mapping task (EmBODY) which assessed emotional embodiment. Topographical maps were generated to compare patterns of embodiment between high and low hallucination-proneness groups. 55 respondents participated in stage two, with 18 participants from the high or low hallucination-proneness groups completing EmBODY. In the hierarchical regression analyses, the addition of a measure of hallucination proneness in the final step only increased predictive power where the dependent variable assessed sensed presence (p = 0.035 and p = 0.009, respectively). The EmBODY data revealed that participants with low hallucination-proneness consistently reported more bodily activation across 14 emotional states, whereas the high hallucination-proneness group reported more deactivation. In conclusion, hallucination-proneness was most strongly associated with sensed presence experiences. Patterns of embodiment appeared similar between the two groups, despite consistent differences in activation and deactivation. These findings are exploratory and need to be confirmed in a larger sample.

4.
Schizophr Res ; 233: 80-88, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246091

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with premature mortality, partly through increased suicide rates. AIMS: To examine (1) if persecutory ideas, auditory hallucinations, and probable cases of psychosis are associated with suicidal thoughts or attempts cross-sectionally and prospectively, and (2) if such links are mediated by specific affective factors (depression, impulsivity, mood instability). METHOD: We analysed the 2000, 2007, and 2014 British Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys (APMS) separately. Measures of psychosis provided independent variables for multi-stage logistic regressions, with suicidal thoughts and attempts as dependent variables. We also conducted analyses to assess mediation by affective variables, and longitudinal analyses on a subset of the 2000 dataset. RESULTS: In every dataset, persecutory ideas, auditory hallucinations and probable psychosis were associated cross-sectionally with lifetime suicidal attempts and thoughts, even after controlling for confounders, with a single exception (persecutory ideation and suicide attempts were unconnected in APMS 2014). Cross-sectional associations between auditory hallucinations and suicidal phenomena were moderated by persecutory ideation. In the 2000 follow-up, initial persecutory ideas were associated with later suicidal thoughts (O.R. 1.77, p < 0.05); there were no other longitudinal associations. In the 2007 and 2014 datasets, mood instability mediated the effects of psychotic phenomena on suicidality more strongly than impulsivity; depression was also an important mediator. There were appreciable direct effects of positive symptoms on suicidal thoughts and behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: Improving psychotic symptoms and ameliorating co-morbid distress may in itself be effective in reducing suicidal risk in schizophrenia. Given their potential mediating role, mood instability and depression may also be targets for intervention.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 180, 2021 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298223
6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 137: 419-425, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774536

RESUMEN

There is a gap in the literature investigating the impact of obstetric complications on subsequent mental ill health outcomes. The aim of this study was to establish the association between post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) and mental ill health. We conducted a retrospective open cohort study utilizing linked primary care (The Health Improvement Network (THIN)) and English secondary care (Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)) databases, from January 1, 1990 to January 31, 2018. A total of 42,327 women were included: 14,109 of them were exposed to PPH during the study period and 28,218 unexposed controls were matched for age and date of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mental illness among women with and without exposure to PPH were estimated after controlling for covariates. Women who had had PPH were at an increased risk of developing postnatal depression (adjusted HR: 1·10, 95%CI: 1·01-1·21) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (adjusted HR: 1·17, 95%CI: 0·73-1·89) compared to women unexposed to PPH. When restricting the follow-up to the first year after childbirth, the adjusted HR for PTSD was 3·44 (95% CI 1·31-9·03). No increase in the overall risk was observed for other mental illnesses, including depression (adjusted HR: 0·94, 95%CI: 0·87-1·01), severe mental illness (adjusted HR: 0·65, 95%CI: 0·40-1·08, p = 0·239) and anxiety (adjusted HR: 0·99, 95%CI: 0·90-1·09). PPH is associated with a significant increase in the risk of developing postnatal depression and PTSD in the first year after delivery. Active monitoring for mental illness should form an integral part of the follow-up in women who suffered a PPH.


Asunto(s)
Hemorragia Posparto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Hemorragia Posparto/epidemiología , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Atención Secundaria de Salud
7.
BJPsych Bull ; : 1-7, 2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431098

RESUMEN

Can delusions, in the context of psychosis, enhance a person's sense of meaningfulness? The case described here suggests that, in some circumstances, they can. This prompts further questions into the complexities of delusion as a lived phenomenon, with important implications for the clinical encounter. While assumptions of meaninglessness are often associated with concepts of 'disorder', 'harm' and 'dysfunction', we suggest that meaning can nonetheless be found within what is commonly taken to be incomprehensible or even meaningless. A phenomenological and value-based approach appears indispensable for clinicians facing the seemingly paradoxical coexistence of harmfulness and meaningfulness.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 426-433, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422818

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To date, the lifetime prevalence of Bipolar Disorder (BD) and BD patients' access to mental health care in England has not been systematically studied. METHODS: We used data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2014 (N = 7546). The Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ) was used to screen for BD. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical variables and use of mental health services were investigated. Weighted regression modelling established factors associated with being in receipt of care for mental health problems over the last year. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of BD in the community in England was 1.7%. Approximately 40% had not received mental health care in the last year, and only 16.9% had received BD specific treatment. 14.6% had asked for a specific form of help but not received it. Psychopathology differed between individuals who successfully sought care and those who didn't. Obtaining care was independently associated with female sex (p<0.0001, odds ratio(OR):4.65 (Confidence Interval (CI):2.18-10.30), unemployment (p = 0.02, OR: 2.65 (C.I: 1.23-5.88) and suicidal ideation (p = 0.04, OR: 3.36, (C.I: 1.04-10.89). LIMITATIONS: The MDQ is less sensitive than some of the longer measures, especially in the general population. Some between-group comparisons may have suffered from limited power. CONCLUSIONS: The lifetime prevalence of BD in England was similar to rates worldwide. Most people with BD had not received any specific treatment for the condition in the last year, while 1 in 7 had requested specific help but did not receive it. Secondary mental health services in England for BD appear suboptimal.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar , Adulto , Trastorno Bipolar/epidemiología , Trastorno Bipolar/terapia , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 460-469, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011525

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is effective for treating adult depression. However, it remains unclear whether rTMS is an effective treatment for adolescent depression. This systematic review examines the existing literature on the effectiveness and acceptability of rTMS in the treatment of adolescent depression. METHODS: After protocol registration (PROSPERO), we searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, WoS and CENTRAL databases and the grey literature. We included studies that used rTMS in adolescents aged 12-25 years old who had a clinical diagnosis of depression. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were identified, which included 8 open-trial studies (N = 142 participants) and six studies which performed further post-hoc/follow-up analyses on these open-trial datasets. All studies suffered from multiple biases but reported that rTMS treatment reduced depression scores in adolescents. A single study on theta burst stimulation also found a positive effect. No study to date includes a sham control. Reported side effects of rTMS included scalp pain, headache and dizziness. LIMITATIONS: Study methodologies precluded a meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature signals that rTMS could reduce adolescent depressive symptoms. However, sham controlled randomized trials are needed. These findings suggest that rTMS may be a promising treatment option for adolescents with depression.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Dolor , Proyectos de Investigación , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
10.
Schizophr Res ; 223: 319-326, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962885

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depersonalization and derealization are currently considered diagnostically distinct from first-rank symptoms (FRS) seen in schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses. Nevertheless, the lived experiences of these symptoms can be very similar phenomenologically. AIMS: To investigate the interrelationships between depersonalization, derealization and FRS in individuals with different types of psychotic and non-psychotic diagnoses. METHODS: The Chicago Follow-up Study was a prospective longitudinal research program designed to study psychopathology and recovery in psychiatric disorders consisting of 555 participants, who were recruited at index hospitalization and studied over six follow-up timepoints at approximately 2, 4.5, 7.5, 10, 15, and 20 years later. The primary clinical indices were depersonalization, derealization and Schneiderian FRS that were measured at index hospitalization and at each subsequent follow-up. RESULTS: 62.8% of participants had at least four follow-ups. There were significant differences in the course and chronicity of depersonalization, derealization and first-rank symptoms across the three diagnostic groups. For the whole sample, derealization was significantly associated with FRS at 2-, 4.5- and 7.5-year follow-up timepoints whereas depersonalization was related to FRS from 10-year follow-up to 20-year follow-up. In participants with schizophrenia, overall depersonalization was more often associated with passivity phenomena whereas derealization was more often associated with overall delusions. There was also a significant effect of time on the associations between depersonalization, derealization and FRS across follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Depersonalization and derealization should be viewed as transdiagnostic phenomena that are associated with FRS psychopathology along a continuum, although they are more closely associated with schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Despersonalización/epidemiología , Trastornos Disociativos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Estudios Prospectivos , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología
11.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(6): 1409-1417, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740661

RESUMEN

Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVH) are often associated with high levels of distress and disability in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In around 30% of individuals with distressing AVH and diagnosed with schizophrenia, traditional antipsychotic drugs have little or no effect. Thus, it is important to develop mechanistic models of AVH to inform new treatments. Recently a small number of studies have begun to explore the use of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) for the treatment of AVH in individuals with schizophrenia. rtfMRI-NF protocols have been developed to provide feedback about brain activation in real time to enable participants to progressively achieve voluntary control over their brain activity. We offer a conceptual review of the background and general features of neurofeedback procedures before summarizing and evaluating existing mechanistic models of AVH to identify feasible neural targets for the application of rtfMRI-NF as a potential treatment. We consider methodological issues, including the choice of localizers and practicalities in logistics when setting up neurofeedback procedures in a clinical setting. We discuss clinical considerations relating to the use of rtfMRI-NF for AVH in individuals distressed by their experiences and put forward a number of questions and recommendations about best practice. Lastly, we conclude by offering suggestions for new avenues for neurofeedback methodology and mechanistic targets in relation to the research and treatment of AVH.

12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(7): 638-646, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105619

RESUMEN

In this Personal View, we discuss the history and concept of self-disturbance in relation to the pathophysiology and subjective experience of schizophrenia in terms of three approaches: the perceptual anomalies approach of the early Heidelberg School of Psychiatry, the ipseity model, and the predictive coding framework. Despite the importance of these approaches, there has been a notable absence of efforts to compare them and consider how they might be integrated. This Personal View compares the three approaches and offers suggestions as to how they might work together, which represents a novel position. We view self-disturbances as transformations of self that form the inseparable background against which psychotic symptoms emerge. Integrating computational psychiatric approaches with those used by phenomenologists in the first two listed approaches, we argue that delusions and hallucinations are inferences produced under extraordinary conditions and are both statistically and experientially as real for patients as other mental events. Such inferences still approximate Bayes-optimality, given the personal, neurobiological, and environmental circumstances, and might be the only ones available to minimise prediction error. The added contribution we hope to make focuses on how the dialogue between neuroscience and phenomenology might improve clinical practice. We hope this Personal View will act as a timely primer and bridging point for the different approaches of computational psychiatry and phenomenological psychopathology for interested clinicians.


Asunto(s)
Neurociencias , Psiquiatría , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Concienciación , Alucinaciones , Humanos , Psicopatología , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Autoimagen , Teoría de la Mente
13.
J Affect Disord ; 261: 91-102, 2020 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606606

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronotherapy (sleep deprivation, sleep phase shifting and/or the use of bright light) combines non-invasive and non-pharmacological interventions that may act rapidly against depressive symptoms. However, to date no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine their effectiveness. METHODS: We carried out meta-analysis of 16 studies (four randomised controlled trials and 12 open-label case series) with between-subject comparisons between experimental and control conditions for RCTs and within-subject comparisons between baseline and follow-up for all studies. RESULTS: Overall chronotherapy was generally superior to other therapies such as psychotherapy, antidepressants, exercise or light therapy alone after 5-7 days. For RCTs, chronotherapy was favoured (Hedge's g = 0.62, 95% CI 0.23-1.01) compared to control treatments such as antidepressants and exercise. 33.0% of patients were responders after 5-7 days in the chronotherapy group and 1.5% of patients in the control condition (OR = 7.58, 95% CI 2.03-28.28). For the case series, large effect sizes were found by 5-7 days (g = 1.78, 95% CI 1.49-2.07). In the case series, 61.6% of patients were classed as responders. LIMITATIONS: The number of RCTs included in this meta-analysis was small, and the potential for risk of bias could not be ascertained accurately. One specific limitation is that studies nearly all included in-patients and the results may not be generalisable to out-patients, and nearly all the subjects lacked credibility ratings before receiving treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Chronotherapy appears to be effective and well-tolerated in depressed patients. Nevertheless, further clinical and cost effectiveness studies are needed.


Asunto(s)
Cronoterapia/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Terapia Combinada , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Fototerapia , Psicoterapia , Privación de Sueño
14.
Schizophr Bull ; 45(45 Suppl 1): S56-S66, 2019 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715542

RESUMEN

Schizophrenia-spectrum psychoses are highly complex and heterogeneous disorders that necessitate multiple lines of scientific inquiry and levels of explanation. In recent years, both computational and phenomenological approaches to the understanding of mental illness have received much interest, and significant progress has been made in both fields. However, there has been relatively little progress bridging investigations in these seemingly disparate fields. In this conceptual review and collaborative project from the 4th Meeting of the International Consortium on Hallucination Research, we aim to facilitate the beginning of such dialogue between fields and put forward the argument that computational psychiatry and phenomenology can in fact inform each other, rather than being viewed as isolated or even incompatible approaches. We begin with an overview of phenomenological observations on the interrelationships between auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVH) and delusional thoughts in general, before moving on to review several theoretical frameworks and empirical findings in the computational modeling of AVH. We then relate the computational models to the phenomenological accounts, with a special focus on AVH and delusions that involve the senses of agency and ownership of thought (delusions of thought interference). Finally, we offer some tentative directions for future research, emphasizing the importance of a mutual understanding between separate lines of inquiry.


Asunto(s)
Deluciones/fisiopatología , Alucinaciones/fisiopatología , Modelos Teóricos , Trastornos Psicóticos/fisiopatología , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Pensamiento/fisiología , Humanos
15.
Schizophr Bull ; 45(45 Suppl 1): S67-S77, 2019 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715544

RESUMEN

Recent psychiatric research and treatment initiatives have tended to move away from traditional diagnostic categories and have focused instead on transdiagnostic phenomena, such as hallucinations. However, this emphasis on isolated experiences may artificially limit the definition of such phenomena and ignore the rich, complex, and dynamic changes occurring simultaneously in other domains of experience. This article reviews the literature on a range of experiential features associated with psychosis, with a focus on their relevance for hallucinations. Phenomenological research on changes in cognition, perception, selfhood and reality, temporality, interpersonal experience, and embodiment are discussed, along with their implications for traditional conceptualizations of hallucinations. We then discuss several phenomenological and neurocognitive theories, as well as the potential impact of trauma on these phenomena. Hallucinations are suggested to be an equifinal outcome of multiple genetic, neurocognitive, subjective, and social processes; by grouping them together under a single, operationalizable definition, meaningful differences in etiology and phenomenology may be ignored. It is suggested that future research efforts strive to incorporate a broader range of experiential alterations, potentially expanding on traditional definitions of hallucinations. Relevance for clinical practice, including emphasizing phenomenologically responsive techniques and developing targeted new therapies, is discussed.


Asunto(s)
Alucinaciones/fisiopatología , Modelos Teóricos , Trastornos Psicóticos/fisiopatología , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Alucinaciones/etiología , Humanos , Trastornos Psicóticos/complicaciones , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 264: 281-289, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660570

RESUMEN

The role of inner speech in the experience of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and delusions remains unclear. This exploratory study tested for differences in inner speech (assessed via self-report questionnaire) between 89 participants with psychosis and 37 non-clinical controls. We also tested for associations of inner speech with, i) state/trait AVH, ii) AVH-severity; iii) patients' relations with their voices, and; iv) delusion-severity. Persons with psychosis had greater levels of dialogic inner speech, other people in inner speech, and evaluative/motivational inner speech than non-clinical controls. Those with state, but not trait AVH had greater levels of dialogic and evaluative/motivational inner speech than non-clinical controls. After controlling for delusions, there was a positive relation between AVH-severity and both evaluative/motivational inner speech and other people in inner speech. Participants with greater levels of dialogic inner speech reported better relations both with and between their voices. There was no association between delusion-severity and inner speech. These results highlight the importance of better understanding relations between inner speech and AVH, provide avenues for future research, and underscore the need for research into the interrelatedness of inner speech, voices and delusions, and the complexities involved in disentangling these experiences.


Asunto(s)
Deluciones/diagnóstico , Deluciones/psicología , Alucinaciones/diagnóstico , Alucinaciones/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Trastorno Bipolar/epidemiología , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Deluciones/epidemiología , Femenino , Alucinaciones/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Autoinforme , Habla , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Voz , Adulto Joven
17.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 22(5): 373-390, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697644

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The predictive processing framework has attracted much interest in the field of schizophrenia research in recent years, with an increasing number of studies also carried out in healthy individuals with nonclinical psychosis-like experiences. The current research adopted a continuum approach to psychosis and aimed to investigate different types of prediction error responses in relation to psychometrically defined schizotypy. METHODS: One hundred and two healthy volunteers underwent a battery of behavioural tasks including (a) a force-matching task, (b) a Kamin blocking task, and (c) a reversal learning task together with three questionnaires measuring domains of schizotypy from different approaches. RESULTS: Neither frequentist nor Bayesian statistical methods supported the notion that alterations in prediction error responses were related to schizotypal traits in any of the three tasks. CONCLUSIONS: These null results suggest that deficits in predictive processing associated with clinical states of psychosis are not always present in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits.


Asunto(s)
Psicometría , Esquizofrenia/complicaciones , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatología , Trastorno de la Personalidad Esquizotípica/complicaciones , Trastorno de la Personalidad Esquizotípica/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Conducta , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Probabilidad , Trastornos Psicóticos/complicaciones , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 250: 44-49, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28142065

RESUMEN

People with schizophrenia have deficits in retrieving the source of memory information. Research has focused on two types of judgements: reality monitoring (discriminating internally-generated stimuli from external information) and internal source monitoring (distinguishing two different internal sources). The aim of the current study was to assess the relation between schizotypy and both types of source memory in healthy volunteers. One hundred and two participants completed two source memory tasks: one involved the completion of well-known word pairs (e.g. Fish and? ) and the other was an action based task (e.g. nod your head). At test participants needed to indicate whether the act had been performed or imagined by themselves, performed by the experimenter, or was new. The positive dimension of schizotypy was positively correlated with errors in internal source monitoring i.e. confusing participant performed and imagined acts. Furthermore, the same dimension of schizotypy was also positively associated with reality monitoring errors i.e. confusing participant performed/imagined with experimenter performed items. However, these relationships were not found in the word pair task. Our findings suggest that there might be overlap in the processes required to retrieve source information from memory, particularly for actions, and the occurrence of unusual experiences in healthy volunteers.


Asunto(s)
Juicio , Memoria/fisiología , Prueba de Realidad , Esquizofrenia , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Trastorno de la Personalidad Esquizotípica/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Adulto Joven
19.
Conscious Cogn ; 41: 83-92, 2016 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26896781

RESUMEN

This study investigated whether detachment-type dissociation, compartmentalisation-type dissociation or absorption was most strongly associated with psychosis-like experiences in the general population. Healthy participants (N=215) were tested with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, for detachment-related dissociative experiences); the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS: A, for dissociative compartmentalisation); the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS, for non-clinical 'functional' dissociative experience); and two measures of psychotic-like experiences, the 21-item Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI-21) and the Cardiff Anomalous Perceptions Scale (CAPS). In multiple regression analyses, DES and TAS but not HGSHS: A scores were found to be significantly associated with PDI-21 and CAPS overall scores. A post hoc hierarchical cluster analysis checking for cluster overlap between DES and CAPS items, and the TAS and CAPS items showed no overlap between items on the DES and CAPS and minimal overlap between TAS and CAPS items, suggesting the scales measure statistically distinct phenomena. These results show that detachment-type dissociation and absorption, but not compartmentalisation-type dissociation are significantly associated with psychosis-like experiences in a non-clinical population.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Disociativos/fisiopatología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometría/instrumentación , Trastornos Psicóticos/fisiopatología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Adulto Joven
20.
Schizophr Bull ; 40 Suppl 4: S255-64, 2014 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24936085

RESUMEN

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are complex experiences that occur in the context of various clinical disorders. AVH also occur in individuals from the general population who have no identifiable psychiatric or neurological diagnoses. This article reviews research on AVH in nonclinical individuals and provides a cross-disciplinary view of the clinical relevance of these experiences in defining the risk of mental illness and need for care. Prevalence rates of AVH vary according to measurement tool and indicate a continuum of experience in the general population. Cross-sectional comparisons of individuals with AVH with and without need for care reveal similarities in phenomenology and some underlying mechanisms but also highlight key differences in emotional valence of AVH, appraisals, and behavioral response. Longitudinal studies suggest that AVH are an antecedent of clinical disorders when combined with negative emotional states, specific cognitive difficulties and poor coping, plus family history of psychosis, and environmental exposures such as childhood adversity. However, their predictive value for specific psychiatric disorders is not entirely clear. The theoretical and clinical implications of the reviewed findings are discussed, together with directions for future research.


Asunto(s)
Alucinaciones/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Alucinaciones/psicología , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental , Prevalencia , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Medición de Riesgo
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