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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e052600, 2021 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593504

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Men generally seek healthcare less often than women and, other than traditional gender norms, less is known about the explanation. The aim was to identify knowledge gaps and factors influencing men regarding sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRHC) in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We searched PubMed and SveMed+ for peer-reviewed articles published between January 2010 and May 2020. The analyses identified factors influencing men's experiences of and access to SRHC. RESULTS: The majority of the 68 articles included focused on pregnancy, birth, infertility and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. During pregnancy and childbirth, men were treated as accompanying partners rather than individuals with their own needs. The knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers were crucial for their ability to provide SRHC and for the experiences of men. Organisational obstacles, such as women-centred SRHC and no assigned healthcare profession for men's sexual and reproductive health issues, hindered men's access to SRHC. Lastly, the literature rarely discussed the impact of health policies on men's access to SRHC. CONCLUSIONS: The literature lacked the perspectives of specific groups of men such as migrants, men who have sex with men and transmen, as well as the experiences of men in SRHC related to sexual function, contraceptive use and gender-based violence. These knowledge gaps, taken together with the lack of a clear entry point for men into SRHC, indicate the necessity of an improved health and medical education of healthcare providers, as well as of health system interventions.


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Masculina , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Hombres , Embarazo , Conducta Sexual
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1140, 2021 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health insurance (HI) has increasingly been accepted as a mechanism to facilitate access to healthcare in low and middle-income countries. However, health insurance members, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, have reported a low responsiveness in health systems. This study aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of healthcare services from the perspective of insured and uninsured elderly in rural Tanzania. METHOD: An explanatory qualitative study was conducted in the rural districts of Igunga and Nzega, located in western-central Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions were carried out with 78 insured and uninsured elderly men and women who were purposely selected because they were 60 years of age or older and had utilised healthcare services in the past 12 months prior to the study. The interview questions were inspired by the domains of health systems' responsiveness. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Elderly participants appreciated that HI had facilitated the access to healthcare and protected them from certain costs. But they also complained that HI had failed to provide equitable access due to limited service benefits and restricted use of services within schemes. Although elderly perspectives varied widely across the domains of responsiveness, insured individuals generally expressed dissatisfaction with their healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: The national health insurance policy should be revisited in order to improve its implementation and expand the scope of service coverage. Strategic decisions are required to improve the healthcare infrastructure, increase the number of healthcare workers, ensure the availability of medicines and testing facilities at healthcare centers, and reduce long administrative procedures related to HI. A continuous training plan for healthcare workers focused on patients´ communication skills and care rights is highly recommended.


Asunto(s)
Seguro de Salud , Pacientes no Asegurados , Anciano , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Tanzanía/epidemiología
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e048922, 2021 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686550

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Strengthening first-line mental healthcare services for youth remains a priority for the Swedish government. The government is currently investigating how different sectors involved can be strengthened, but evidence is scarce. Youth clinics play a key role in these discussions, being one of the most trusted services for youth. However, analysis of organisational functions and coordination with other services is important to strengthen youth clinics' role in first-line mental healthcare. This study investigates these challenges and aims to analyse the integration of mental healthcare within youth clinics to identify strategies to strengthen first-line mental healthcare for youth in Sweden. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study adopts a health policy and systems approach. In the first phase, a formative realist evaluation is conducted to ascertain what works in terms of integrating mental healthcare services within youth clinics, for what type of youth subpopulations and under what circumstances. National-level stakeholders will be interviewed to elicit the programme theory that explains how the intervention is supposed to work. The programme theory will then be tested in three-five cases. The cases will be comprised of youth clinics and their stakeholders. Quantitative and qualitative information will be gathered, including via visual methodologies and questionnaires. The second phase includes a concept mapping study, engaging stakeholders and young people to build consensus on strategies to strengthen the integration of mental healthcare into youth clinics. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Swedish Ethical Review Authority has approved the study (2019-02910 and 2020-04720). The results will be published in open-access peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Adolescente , Servicios de Salud Mental , Adolescente , Atención a la Salud , Política de Salud , Humanos , Suecia
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1618, 2021 09 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482819

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In national public health surveys including those assessing sexual and reproductive health, migrants generally tend to be underrepresented due to cultural, linguistic, structural and legal barriers, minimising the possibility to measure sexual rights' fulfilment in this group. This study aims to describe to what extent sexual rights of young migrants in Sweden are being fulfilled. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1773 young (16-29 years) migrants by post, online, and at language schools and other venues. Sexual rights were operationalised and categorised into five domains adapted from the Guttmacher-Lancet Commission's definition. These domains included the right to: 1) access sexual and reproductive healthcare, 2) access information and education about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health and rights, 3) have bodily integrity, 4) make free informed decisions about sexuality and sexual relations and 5) have a satisfying and safe sexual life. Descriptive analysis was used to assess the extent of fulfilment for each right. RESULTS: There were wide variations in the fulfilment of sexual rights between subgroups and among the five domains. Most respondents rated their sexual health as good/fair, however, 6.3% rated their sexual health as bad/very bad. While most of those who visited related services were satisfied, 17.4% of respondents refrained from visiting the services despite their needs. Around four in ten respondents did not know where to get information about sexuality and sexual health. One-fourth of respondents reported sexual violence. Another 12.7% were limited by family members or fellow countrymen regarding with whom they can have an intimate relationship. Most respondents were satisfied with their sexual life, except for 11.9%. Men, non-binary respondents, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, asexuals, those who were awaiting a decision regarding residence permit and those born in South Asia reported poor sexual health to a greater extent and fulfilment of their sexual rights to a lesser extent than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Timely and culturally adapted information about sexual rights, gender equalities, laws and available services in Sweden should be provided in appropriate languages and formats in order to raise awareness about sexual rights and improve access to available services. Tailored attention should be paid to specific vulnerable subgroups.


Asunto(s)
Salud Sexual , Migrantes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Reproductiva , Suecia
5.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1962039, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404337

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that migration increases vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, there is limited knowledge about what has been done or needs to be done to address migrants' vulnerability in receiving countries. OBJECTIVES: A scoping review was carried out to map the existing literature in this field, describe its characteristics, identify gaps in knowledge and determine whether a Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR)-perspective was applied. METHODS: We used the Arksey and O'Malley framework and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for scoping reviews and subsequent enhancements proposed by other authors. We searched three databases and grey literature to identify relevant publications. RESULTS: A total of 1,147 records were found across the three electronic databases and compiled. Of these, only 29 papers that met the inclusion criteria were included. The review shows that research in this field is dominated by studies from the USA that mostly include behavioural interventions for HIV and HBV prevention among migrants from Latin America and Asian countries, respectively. None of the interventions integrated an SRHR perspective. The intervention effects varied across studies and measured outcomes. The observed effects on knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, behavioural intentions and skills were largely positive, but reported effects on testing and sexual risk behaviours were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for good quality research, particularly in parts of the world other than the USA that will address all STIs and specifically target the most vulnerable subgroups of migrants. Further research requires greater scope and depth, including the need to apply an SRHR perspective and incorporate biomedical and structural interventions to address the interacting causes of migrants' vulnerability to HIV/STIs.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Migrantes , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Salud Reproductiva , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380193

RESUMEN

While there have been increased calls for strengthening community health systems (CHSs), key priorities for this field have not been fully articulated. This paper seeks to fill this gap, presenting a collaboratively defined research agenda, accompanied by a 'manifesto' on strengthening research and practice in the CHS. The CHS research agenda domains were developed through a modified concept mapping process with a team of 33 experts on the CHS including policy-makers, implementers and researchers from institutions in six countries: Uganda, Guatemala, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Zambia. The process began remotely with brainstorming research priorities and concluded in a one-week workshop that was held in Zambia where priorities for strengthening CHS were discussed, grouped into domains, interpreted, and drafted into a collective declaration. Eight domains of research priorities for CHSs were identified: clarifying the purpose and values of the CHS, ensure inclusivity; design, implementation and monitoring of strategies to strengthen the CHS; social, political and historical contexts of CHS; community health workers (CHWs); social accountability; the interface between the CHS and the broader health system; governance and stewardship; and finally, the ethical methodologies for researching the CHS. By harnessing a set of diverse and rich experiences and perspectives on CHS through a structured process, a multifaceted research agenda and manifesto that transcend context, disciplines and time were developed. We posit this as an entry into greater debate and diversity in the field as we continue to find ways to strengthen research and practice in the CHS.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 504998, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136446

RESUMEN

Background: In 2010, Sweden opened up for establishment of privately owned primary health care providers, as part of a national Free Choice in Primary Health Care reform. The reform has been highly debated, and evidence on its effects is scarce. The present study therefore sought to evaluate whether the reform have impacted on primary health care service performance. Methods: This ecological register-based study used a natural experimental approach through an interrupted time series design. Data comprised the total adult population of the 21 counties of Sweden 2001-2009 (pre-intervention period) and 2010-2016 (post-intervention period). Hospitalizations and emergency department visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) were used as indicators of primary health care performance. Segmented regression analysis was used to assess the effects of the reform, in Sweden as a whole, as well as compared between counties grouped by (i) change in private provision pre- to post reform; (ii) the timing of the implementation; and (iii) sustained presence of private providers both pre- and post-reform. Results: The results suggest that, following the introduction of the reform in Sweden as a whole, the trends in total hospitalizations rates were slowed down by 1.0% albeit acute emergency visits increased 1.1% more rapidly after the introduction of the reform. However, we found no evidence of more beneficial effects in counties where the reform had been implemented more ambitiously, specifically those with a larger increase in private primary care providers, or where the reform was introduced early and thus had longer time effects to emerge. Lastly, counties with a sustained high presence of private primary care providers displayed the least favorable development when it comes to ACSC. Conclusion: Taken together, the present study does not support that the Swedish Free Choice reform has improved performance of the primary care delivery system in Sweden, and suggests that high degree of private provision may involve worse performance and higher care burden for specialized health care. Further evaluations of the consequences of the reform are dire needed to provide a comprehensive picture of its intended and unintended impact on health care provision, delivery and results.


Asunto(s)
Reforma de la Atención de Salud , Privatización , Adulto , Atención Ambulatoria , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Suecia
8.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1927330, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148525

RESUMEN

Background: Despite routine supportive supervision of health service delivery, maternal and newborn outcomes have remained poor in sub-Saharan Africa in general and in Tanzania in particular. There is limited research evidence on factors limiting the effectiveness of supportive supervision in improving the quality of maternal and newborn care.Objective: This study explored enablers of and barriers to supportive supervision in maternal and newborn care at the district and hospital levels in Shinyanga region in Tanzania.Methods: This study employed a qualitative case study design. A purposeful sampling approach was employed to recruit a stratified sample of health system actors: members of the council health management team (CHMT), members of health facility management teams (HMTs), heads of units in the maternity department and health workers.Results: This study identified several barriers to the effectiveness of supportive supervision. First, the lack of a clear policy on supportive supervision. Despite the general acknowledgement of supportive supervision as a managerial mechanism for quality improvement at the district and lower-level health facilities, there is no clear policy guiding it. Second, limitations in measurement of progress in quality improvement; although supportive supervision is routinely conducted to improve maternal and newborn outcomes, efforts to measure progress are limited due to shortfalls in the setting of goals and targets, as well as gaps in M&E. Third, resource constraints and low motivation; that is, the shortage of resources - CHMT supervisors, health staff and funds - results in irregular supervision and low motivation.Conclusion: Besides resource constraints, lack of clear policies and limitations related to progress measurement impair the effectiveness of supportive supervision in improving maternal and newborn outcomes. There is a need to reform supportive supervision so that it aids and measures progress not only at the district but also at the health facility level.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Salud , Personal de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Investigación Cualitativa , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Tanzanía
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619935

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Unlike the large body of research that has examined the 'success' or 'failure' of eHealth in terms of patient and provider perceptions or cost- and clinical effectiveness, the current study teases out ways through which a novel eHealth initiative in rural northern Sweden might result in more distal or systemic beneficial outcomes. More specifically, this paper aims to explore how and under what circumstances the so-called virtual health rooms (VHRs) are expected to improve access to person-centred care and strengthen community health systems, especially for elderly residents of rural areas. METHODS: The first phase of the realist evaluation methodology was conducted, involving qualitative interviews with 8 key stakeholders working with eHealth, business development, digitalisation, and process management. Using thematic analysis and following an abductive-retroductive analytical process, an intervention-context-actor-mechanism-outcome (ICAMO) configuration was developed and elicited into an initial programme theory. RESULTS: The findings indicate that a novel eHealth initiative, which provides reliable technologies in a customized facility that connects communities and providers, might improve access to person-centred care and strengthen community health systems for rural populations. This is theorized to occur if mechanisms acting at individual (such as knowledge, skills and trust) and collective (like a common vision and shared responsibilities) levels are triggered in contexts characterised by supportive societal transitions, sufficient organisational readiness and the harnessing of rural cohesiveness and creativity. CONCLUSION: The elicited initial programme theory describes and explains how a novel eHealth initiative in rural northern Sweden is presumed to operate and under what circumstances. Further testing, refinements and continued gradual building of theory following the realist evaluation methodology is now needed to ascertain if the 'VHRs' work as intended, for whom, in what conditions and why.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242699, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259528

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to rank capabilities and suggest a relevant set of capabilities for the Swedish context to inform the development of capability-adjusted life years (CALYs). CALYs is a quality of life measure for policy making based on the capability approach by Amartya Sen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Swedish governmental review proposed the following 10 relevant capabilities: time, financial situation, mental/physical health, political resources, knowledge, living environment, occupation, social relations, security, and housing. Researchers in health-related disciplines from 5 universities ranked these capabilities from 1 to 10 (most to least important) in a web-based cross-sectional survey; 115 of 171 responses were eligible. RESULTS: Health, social relations, and financial situation were deemed most important. Stratification by gender, research field, and age group revealed few differences. We found that it was possible to rank capabilities and that health, social relations, and financial situation were ranked highest by a non-representative sample of researchers and doctoral students from health-related disciplines at five Swedish universities. CONCLUSIONS: The revealed ranking is dependent on the metric and must be further explored. The findings support continued development of CALYs for monitoring and evaluating outcomes in public health and social-welfare interventions.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Bienestar Social , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Estudiantes , Suecia/epidemiología , Universidades , Adulto Joven
11.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1841962, 2020 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236698

RESUMEN

Background: Health care systems in developing countries such as Tanzania depend heavily on out-of-pocket payments. This mechanism contributes to inefficiency, inequity and cost, and is a barrier to patients seeking access to care. There are efforts to expand health insurance coverage to vulnerable groups, including older adults, in Sub-Saharan African countries. Objective: To analyse the association between health insurance and health service use in rural residents aged 60 and above in Tanzania. Methods: Data were obtained from a household survey conducted in the Nzega and Igunga districts. A standardised survey instrument from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health was used. This comprised of questions regarding demographic and socio-economic characteristics, health and insurance status, health seeking behaviours, sickness history (three months and one year prior to the survey), and the receipt of health care. A multistage sampling method was used to select wards, villages and respondents in each district. Local ward and hamlet officers guided the researchers in identifying households with older people. Crude and adjusted logistic regression methods were used to explore associations between health insurance and outpatient and inpatient health care use. Results: The study sample comprised 1,899 people aged 60 and above of whom 44% reported having health insurance. A positive statistically significant association between health insurance and the utilisation of outpatient and inpatient care was observed in all models. The odds of using outpatient (adjusted OR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.54, 3.14) and inpatient services (adjusted OR = 3.20; 95% CI: 2.46, 4.15) were higher among the insured. Conclusion: Health insurance is a predictor of outpatient and inpatient health services in people aged 60 and above in rural Tanzania. Further research is needed to understand the perceptions of both the insured and uninsured regarding the quality of care received.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud , Seguro de Salud , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Atención a la Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tanzanía
12.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1834965, 2020 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215571

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The quality of laboratory services is crucial for quality of patient care. Clinical services and physicians' decisions depend largely on laboratory test results for appropriate patients' management. Therefore, physicians' satisfaction with laboratory services is a key measurement of the quality service that stresses impactful laboratory service improvement to benefit patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians' satisfaction and perspectives on the quality of services in clinical referral laboratories in Rwanda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among physicians from four referral hospitals with closed-ended questionnaire and one general open-ended question. A five-point Likert scale rating was used to measure satisfaction. Descriptive, ordered logistic regression, and thematic analysis were used. RESULTS: In total, 462 of 507 physicians (91% response rate) participated in the study. Overall mean satisfaction was 3.2 out of 5, and 36.2% of physicians were satisfied (satisfied and strongly satisfied) with laboratory services. In four service categories out of 17, the physicians' satisfaction was over 50%. The categories were: reliability of results (69.9%), adequacy of test reports (61.9%), laboratory staff availability (58.4%), and laboratory leadership responsiveness (51.3%). Lowest satisfaction was seen for routine test turnaround time (TAT) (19.3%), in-patient stat (urgent) test TAT (27%), communication of changes such as reagent stock out, new test (29%), and missing outpatient results (31%). Eighty-four percent answered that test TAT was not communicated, and 73.4% lacked virology diagnostics. Pediatricians, internists, and more experienced physicians were less satisfied. While ineffective communication, result delays, and service interruption were perceived as dissatisfying patterns, external audits were appreciated for improving laboratory services. CONCLUSION: Availing continuously laboratory tests, timely result reporting, and effective communication between laboratories and clinicians would increase physicians' satisfaction and likely improve the quality of health care. Laboratory staff participation in clinical meetings and ward rounds with physicians may address most of the physicians' concerns.


Asunto(s)
Laboratorios , Médicos , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Satisfacción Personal , Derivación y Consulta , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Rwanda , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 179, 2020 10 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046058

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Responsiveness has become an important health system performance indicator in evaluating the ability of health care systems to meet patients' expectations. However, its measurement in sub-Saharan Africa remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the responsiveness of the health care services among the insured and non-insured elderly in Tanzania and to explore the association of health insurance (HI) with responsiveness in this population. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 where a pre-tested household survey, administered to the elderly (60 + years) living in Igunga and Nzega districts, was applied. Participants with and without health insurance who attended outpatient and inpatient health care services in the past three and 12 months were selected. Responsiveness was measured based on the short version of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country responsiveness survey study, which included the dimensions of quality of basic amenities, choice, confidentiality, autonomy, communication and prompt attention. Quantile regression was used to assess the specific association of the responsiveness index with health insurance adjusted for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: A total of 1453 and 744 elderly, of whom 50.1 and 63% had health insurance, used outpatient and inpatient health services, respectively. All domains were rated relatively highly but the uninsured elderly reported better responsiveness in all domains of outpatient and inpatient care. Waiting time was the dimension that performed worst. Possession of health insurance was negatively associated with responsiveness in outpatient (- 1; 95% CI: - 1.45, - 0.45) and inpatient (- 2; 95% CI: - 2.69, - 1.30) care. CONCLUSION: The uninsured elderly reported better responsiveness than the insured elderly in both outpatient and inpatient care. Special attention should be paid to those dimensions, like waiting time, which ranked poorly. Further research is necessary to reveal the reasons for the lower responsiveness noted among insured elderly. A continuous monitoring of health care system responsiveness is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Pacientes no Asegurados/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Atención Ambulatoria/organización & administración , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tanzanía
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess migrant youths' access to sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRHC) in Sweden, to examine the socioeconomic differences in their access, and to explore the reasons behind not seeking SRHC. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted for 1739 migrant youths 16 to 29 years-old during 2018. The survey was self-administered through: ordinary post, web survey and visits to schools and other venues. We measured access as a 4-stage process including: healthcare needs, perception of needs, utilisation of services and met needs. RESULTS: Migrant youths faced difficulties in accessing SRHC services. Around 30% of the participants needed SRHC last year, but only one-third of them fulfilled their needs. Men and women had the same need (27.4% of men [95% CI: 24.2, 30.7] vs. 32.7% of women [95% CI: 28.2, 37.1]), but men faced more difficulties in access. Those who did not categorise themselves as men or women (50.9% [95% CI: 34.0, 67.9]), born in South Asia (SA) (39% [95% CI: 31.7, 46.4]), were waiting for residence permit (45.1% [95% CI: 36.2, 54.0]) or experienced economic stress (34.5% [95% CI: 30.7, 38.3]) had a greater need and found more difficulties in access. The main difficulties were in the step between the perception of needs and utilisation of services. The most commonly reported reasons for refraining from seeking SRHC were the lack of knowledge about the Swedish health system and available SRHC services (23%), long waiting times (7.8%), language difficulties (7.4%) and unable to afford the costs (6.4%). CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need to improve migrant youths' access to SRHC in Sweden. Interventions could include: increasing migrant youths' knowledge about their rights and the available SRHC services; improving the acceptability and cultural responsiveness of available services, especially youth clinics; and improving the quality of language assistance services.

15.
Qual Life Res ; 29(11): 3075-3086, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533423

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether a local survey applying EQ-5D and SAGE could provide data valuable in setting priorities. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional household survey was used to collect information from a total of 1,899 elderly individuals aged 60 years and over living in the Nzega and Igunga districts using the WHO-SAGE and EQ-5D questionnaires. QALY weights were generated using the average of an EQ-5D index. A multivariable regression model was performed to analyse the effect of socioeconomic factors and self-rated health status on the EQ-5D index, using a linear regression model. RESULTS: The confidence interval estimates indicate higher HRQoL among men, married, urban dwellers, and elderly rated with good health than in women, unmarried, rural dwellers, and elderly rated with bad/moderate health, and it decreases with age. Income and education level have a positive relationship with HRQoL. The regression analysis; Model 1 (not adjusted with SAGE variables): age in all groups (p = 0.01, 0.00 and 0.02) and marital status (p = 0.01) have an influence on HRQoL. Model 2 (adjusted with SAGE variables): self-rated health (p < 0.00), the age for the 80-89 group (p = 0.01), marital status (not married), and high income have an influence on HRQoL. Sex, education, and residence were not statistically significant (in either model) to affect the HRQoL of the elderly. CONCLUSION: Local surveys, applying a combination of EQ-5D and SAGE, generate relevant and valuable information for policy makers when setting priorities at the district level. Therefore, this paper provides an empirical analysis for decision makers to consider the importance of combining EQ-5D, SAGE, and socioeconomic factors when setting priorities to improve HRQoL among the elderly.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Datos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tanzanía
16.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(4): 780-785, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417877

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ensuring a good quality service and equal access according to need for all young people is a key objective of the Swedish health system. The aim of this study was to explore youths' perception of youth health centres' (YHCs') friendliness and to assess the differences in perception between immigrant and Swedish-Scandinavian youths. METHODS: All YHCs in the four northern counties in Sweden were invited (22 centres), and 20 agreed to participate. Overall, 1089 youths aged 16-25 years answered the youth-friendly health services-Sweden questionnaire between September 2016 and February 2017. Thirteen sub-domains of friendliness were identified and their scores were calculated. Multilevel analysis was used to examine the differences in perception between immigrant and Swedish-Scandinavian youths. RESULTS: Our sample consisted of 971 Swedish-Scandinavian youths (89.2%) and 118 immigrants (10.8%). Generally, both groups perceived the services to be very friendly. All 13 sub-domains were rated more than three in a four-point scale except for fear of exposure and parental support of psychosocial services. However, immigrant youths perceived YHCs less friendly than their counterparts, particularly regarding the domains of equity, respect, quality and parental support. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that even though youths perceived YHCs as highly friendly, there is a space for improvement regarding access to health care. Our findings highlight the importance of an open and culturally sensitive attitude of the staff and the need to engage parents and community as a key to improve immigrant youths' accessibility to health care.


Asunto(s)
Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Adolescente , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Percepción , Suecia
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 416, 2020 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404089

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Citizen-led accountability initiatives are a critical strategy for redressing the causes of health inequalities and promoting better health system governance. A growing body of evidence points to the need for putting power relations at the forefront of understanding and operationalizing citizen-led accountability, rather than technical tools and best practices. In this study, we apply a network lens to the question of how initiatives build collective power to redress health system failures affecting marginalized communities in three municipalities in Guatemala. METHODS: Network mapping and interpretive discussions were used to examine relational qualities of citizen-led initiatives' networks and explore the resources they offer for mobilizing action and influencing health accountability. Participants in the municipal-level initiatives responded to a social network analysis questionnaire focused on their ties of communication and collaboration with other initiative participants and their interactions with authorities regarding health system problems. Discussions with participants about the maps generated enriched our view of what the ties represented and their history of collective action and also provided space for planning action to strengthen their networks. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that network qualities like cohesiveness and centralization reflected the initiative participants' agency in adapting to their sociopolitical context, and participants' social positions were a key resource in providing connection to a broad base of support for mobilizing collective action to document health service deficiencies and advocate for solutions. Their legitimacy as "representatives of the people" enabled them to engage with authorities from a bolstered position of power, and their iterative interactions with authorities further contributed to develop their advocacy capabilities and resulted in accountability gains. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided evidence to counter the tendency to underestimate the assets and capabilities that marginalized citizens have for building power, and affirmed the idea that best-fit, with-the-grain approaches are well-suited for highly unequal settings characterized by weak governance. Efforts to support and understand change processes in citizen-led initiatives should include focus on adaptive network building to enable contextually-embedded approaches that leverage the collective power of the users of health services and grassroots leaders on the frontlines of accountability.


Asunto(s)
Redes Comunitarias/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad , Servicios de Salud , Responsabilidad Social , Guatemala , Humanos
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 346, 2020 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326967

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sweden has nearly 300 youth clinics that have been offering services since the 1970s. However, no evaluation has been done to assess their youth-friendliness. This study aims to assess: i) to what extent youth clinics are perceived as youth-friendly by the young people using them; and ii) if the level of youth friendliness is equally perceived across different sociodemographic groups of users. METHODS: The four northernmost counties of Sweden were included in the study. Of the total identified 22 youth clinics, 20 participated by giving out questionnaires to the youth after their visits to the respective youth clinics. In total 1110 youth participated in the study and answered questions according to the World Health Organization's criteria of accessibility, equity, respect, privacy and confidentiality, no judgement, and quality. Means and frequencies were calculated, and t-test and ANOVA were used to compare means by sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Participants perceived the youth clinics as very youth friendly across the measured domains, with scores as high as 4.8 and 4.9 (of a maximum of 5). Youth clinics were perceived in a similar way regardless of gender, but other sociodemographic factors influenced some of the domains, especially ethnic background. CONCLUSIONS: The perception of youth friendliness in youth clinics was very high. Nonetheless, younger users; users who did not categorize themselves as either heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual; users with trans-experiences; and users with non-Swedish backgrounds gave youth clinics lower scores for certain domains.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud del Adolescente , Satisfacción del Paciente , Adolescente , Servicios de Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Confidencialidad , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfacción del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Conducta Sexual , Suecia , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 89, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024516

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are increasing calls for developing robust processes of community-based accountability as key components of health system strengthening. However, implementation of these processes have shown mixed results over time and geography. The Community Action for Health (CAH) project was introduced as part of India's National Rural Health Mission (now National Health Mission) to strengthen community-based accountability through community monitoring and planning. In this study we trace the implementation process of this project from its piloting, implementation and abrupt termination in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu. METHODS: We framed CAH as an innovation introduced into the health system. We use the framework on integration of innovations in complex systems developed by Atun and others. We used qualitative approaches to study the implementation. We conducted interviews among a range of individuals who were directly involved in the implementation, focusing on the policy making organizational level. RESULTS: We uncover what we have termed "dissonances" and "disconnects" at the state level among individuals with key responsibility of implementation. By dissonances we refer to the diversity of perspective on the concept of community-based accountability and its perceived role. By disconnects we refer to the lack of spaces and processes for "sense-making" in a largely hierarchically functioning system. These constructs we believe contributes significantly to making sense of the initial uptake and the subsequent abrupt termination of the project. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the overall field of policy implementation, especially the phase between the emergence on the policy agenda and its incorporation into the day to day functioning of a system. It focuses on the implementation of contested interventions like community-based accountability, in Low- and Middle-income country settings undergoing transitions in governance. It highlights the importance of "problematization" a dimension not included in most currently popular frameworks to study the uptake and spread of innovations in the health system. It points not only to the importance of diverse perspectives present among individuals at different positions in the organization, but equally importantly the need for spaces and process of collective sense-making to ensure that a contested policy intervention is integrated into a complex system.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Programas Nacionales de Salud/organización & administración , Salud Rural , Responsabilidad Social , Humanos , India , Formulación de Políticas
20.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 1, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915022

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Community-based sexual reproductive interventions are key in attaining universal health coverage for all by 2030, yet adolescents in many countries still lack health services that are responsive to their sexual reproductive health and rights' needs. As the first step of realist evaluation, this study provides a programme theory that explains how, why and under what circumstances community-based sexual reproductive health interventions can transform (or not) 'ordinary' community-based health systems (CBHSs) into systems that are responsive to the sexual reproductive health of adolescents. METHODS: This realist approach adopted a case study design. We nested the study in the full intervention arm of the Research Initiative to Support the Empowerment of Girls trial in Zambia. Sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders involved in the development and/or implementation of the trial. All the interviews were recorded and analysed using NVIVO version 12.0. Thematic analysis was used guided by realist evaluation concepts. The findings were later synthesized using the Intervention-Context-Actors-Mechanism-Outcomes conceptualization tool. Using the retroduction approach, we summarized the findings into two programme theories. RESULTS: We identified two initial testable programme theories. The first theory presumes that adolescent sexual reproductive health and rights (SRHR) interventions that are supported by contextual factors, such as existing policies and guidelines related to SRHR, socio-cultural norms and CBHS structures are more likely to trigger mechanisms among the different actors that can encourage uptake of the interventions, and thus contribute to making the CBHS responsive to the SRHR needs of adolescents. The second and alternative theory suggests that SRHR interventions, if not supported by contextual factors, are less likely to transform the CBHSs in which they are implemented. At individual level the mechanisms, awareness and knowledge were expected to lead to value clarification', which was also expected would lead to individuals developing a 'supportive attitude towards adolescent SRHR. It was anticipated that these individual mechanisms would in turn trigger the collective mechanisms, communication, cohesion, social connection and linkages. CONCLUSION: The two alternative programme theories describe how, why and under what circumstances SRHR interventions that target adolescents can transform 'ordinary' community-based health systems into systems that are responsive to adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad/organización & administración , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Servicios de Salud Reproductiva/organización & administración , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Salud Sexual/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Reproductiva , Población Rural , Adulto Joven , Zambia
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