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1.
J Mol Evol ; 91(6): 976-989, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010517

RESUMEN

Adaptation to different salinity environments can enhance morphological and genomic divergence between related aquatic taxa. Species of prawns in the genus Macrobrachium naturally inhabit different osmotic niches and possess distinctive lifecycle traits associated with salinity tolerance. This study was conducted to investigate the patterns of adaptive genomic divergence during freshwater colonization in 34 Macrobrachium species collected from four continents; Australia, Asia, North and South America. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technique identified 5018 loci containing 82,636 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were used to reconstruct a phylogenomic tree. An additional phylogeny was reconstructed based on 43 candidate genes, previously identified as being potentially associated with freshwater adaptation. Comparison of the two phylogenetic trees revealed contrasting topologies. The GBS tree indicated multiple independent continent-specific invasions into freshwater by Macrobrachium lineages following common marine ancestry, as species with abbreviated larval development (ALD), i.e., species having a full freshwater life history, appeared reciprocally monophyletic within each continent. In contrast, the candidate gene tree showed convergent evolution for all ALD species worldwide, forming a single, well-supported clade. This latter pattern is likely the result of common evolutionary pressures selecting key mutations favored in continental freshwater habitats Results suggest that following multiple independent invasions into continental freshwaters at different evolutionary timescales, Macrobrachium taxa experienced adaptive genomic divergence, and in particular, convergence in the same genomic regions with parallel shifts in specific conserved phenotypic traits, such as evolution of larger eggs with abbreviated larval developmental.


Asunto(s)
Palaemonidae , Animales , Palaemonidae/genética , Filogenia , Genómica , Agua Dulce , Genoma/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0276247, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37267327

RESUMEN

Bactrocera jarvisi is an endemic Australian fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). It occurs commonly across tropical and subtropical coastal Australia, from far-northern Western Australia, across the 'Top End' of the Northern Territory, and then down the Queensland east coast. Across this range, its distribution crosses several well documented biogeographic barriers. In order to better understand factors leading to the divergence of Australian fruit fly lineages, we carried out a population genetic study of B. jarvisi from across its range using genome-wide SNP analysis, utilising adult specimens gained from trapping and fruit rearing. Populations from the Northern Territory (NT) and Western Australia were genetically similar to each other, but divergent from the genetically uniform east-coast (= Queensland, QLD) population. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the NT population derived from the QLD population. We infer a role for the Carpentaria Basin as a biogeographic barrier restricting east-west gene flow. The QLD populations were largely panmictic and recognised east-coast biogeographic barriers play no part in north-south population structuring. While the NT and QLD populations were genetically distinct, there was evidence for the historically recent translocation of flies from each region to the other. Flies reared from different host fruits collected in the same location showed no genetic divergence. While a role for the Carpentaria Basin as a barrier to gene flow for Australian fruit flies agrees with existing work on the related B. tryoni, the reason(s) for population panmixia for B. jarvisi (and B. tryoni) over the entire Queensland east coast, a linear north-south distance of >2000km, remains unknown.


Asunto(s)
Tephritidae , Animales , Northern Territory , Filogenia , Tephritidae/genética
3.
BMC Biol ; 21(1): 121, 2023 05 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37226201

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ShK toxin from Stichodactyla helianthus has established the therapeutic potential of sea anemone venom peptides, but many lineage-specific toxin families in Actiniarians remain uncharacterised. One such peptide family, sea anemone 8 (SA8), is present in all five sea anemone superfamilies. We explored the genomic arrangement and evolution of the SA8 gene family in Actinia tenebrosa and Telmatactis stephensoni, characterised the expression patterns of SA8 sequences, and examined the structure and function of SA8 from the venom of T. stephensoni. RESULTS: We identified ten SA8-family genes in two clusters and six SA8-family genes in five clusters for T. stephensoni and A. tenebrosa, respectively. Nine SA8 T. stephensoni genes were found in a single cluster, and an SA8 peptide encoded by an inverted SA8 gene from this cluster was recruited to venom. We show that SA8 genes in both species are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and the inverted SA8 gene has a unique tissue distribution. While the functional activity of the SA8 putative toxin encoded by the inverted gene was inconclusive, its tissue localisation is similar to toxins used for predator deterrence. We demonstrate that, although mature SA8 putative toxins have similar cysteine spacing to ShK, SA8 peptides are distinct from ShK peptides based on structure and disulfide connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first demonstration that SA8 is a unique gene family in Actiniarians, evolving through a variety of structural changes including tandem and proximal gene duplication and an inversion event that together allowed SA8 to be recruited into the venom of T. stephensoni.


Asunto(s)
Anémonas de Mar , Animales , Anémonas de Mar/genética , Genómica , Inversión Cromosómica , Cisteína , Disulfuros
4.
Front Genet ; 13: 1018568, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36313448

RESUMEN

Survival can be considered a relatively 'old' trait in animal breeding, yet commonly neglected in aquaculture breeding because of the simple binary records and generally low heritability estimates. Developing routine genetic evaluation systems for survival traits however, will be important for breeding robust strains based on valuable field survival data. In the current study, linear multivariate animal model (LMA) was used for the genetic analysis of survival records from 2-year classes (BL2019 and BL2020) of pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) breeding lines with data collection of 52, 248 individuals from 481 fullsib families. During grow-out test period, 10 days intervals of survival data were considered as separate traits. Two survival definitions, binary survivability (S) and continuous survival in days (SL), were used for the genetic analysis of survival records to investigate; 1) whether adding more survival time information could improve estimation of genetic parameters; 2) the trajectory of survival heritability across time, and 3) patterns of genetic correlations of survival traits across time. Levels of heritability estimates for both S and SL were low (0.005-0.076), while heritability for survival day number was found to be similar with that of binary records at each observation time and were highly genetically correlated (r g > 0.8). Heritability estimates of body weight (BW) for BL2019 and BL2020 were 0.486 and 0.373, respectively. Trajectories of survival heritability showed a gradual increase across the grow-out test period but slowed or reached a plateau during the later grow-out test period. Genetic correlations among survival traits in the grow-out tests were moderate to high, and the closer the times were between estimates, the higher were their genetic correlations. In contrast, genetic correlations between both survival traits and body weight were low but positive. Here we provide the first report on the trajectory of heritability estimates for survival traits across grow-out stage in aquaculture. Results will be useful for developing robust improved pacific white shrimp culture strains in selective breeding programs based on field survival data.

5.
Mol Ecol ; 31(3): 866-883, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837433

RESUMEN

The phylum Cnidaria is the oldest extant venomous group and is defined by the presence of nematocysts, specialized organelles responsible for venom production and delivery. Although toxin peptides and the cells housing nematocysts are distributed across the entire animal, nematocyte and venom profiles have been shown to differ across morphological structures in actiniarians. In this study, we explore the relationship between patterns of toxin expression and the ecological roles of discrete anatomical structures in Telmatactis stephensoni. Specifically, using a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, we examined whether there is a direct correlation between the functional similarity of regions and the similarity of their associated toxin expression profiles. We report that the regionalization of toxin production is consistent with the partitioning of the ecological roles of venom across envenomating structures, and that three major functional regions are present in T. stephensoni: tentacles, epidermis and gastrodermis. Additionally, we find that most structures that serve similar functions not only have comparable putative toxin profiles but also similar nematocyst types. There was no overlap in the putative toxins identified using proteomics and transcriptomics, but the expression patterns of specific milked venom peptides were conserved across RNA-sequencing and mass spectrometry imaging data sets. Furthermore, based on our data, it appears that acontia of T. stephensoni may be transcriptionally inactive and only mature nematocysts are present in the distal portions of the threads. Overall, we find that the venom profile of different anatomical regions in sea anemones varies according to its ecological functions.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Cnidarios , Anémonas de Mar , Animales , Proteómica , Anémonas de Mar/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Transcriptoma
6.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943135

RESUMEN

Salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors affecting growth, metabolism, immunity and survival of aquatic species in farming environments. As a euryhaline species, the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) can tolerate a wide range of salinity levels and is farmed between brackish to marine water conditions. The current study tested the effects of six different salinity levels (0‱, 2.5‱, 5‱, 10‱, 20‱ and 30‱) on the selected physiological, biochemical and genetic markers (individual changes in the expression pattern of selected candidate genes) in the black tiger shrimp. Experimental salinity levels significantly affected growth and survival performance (p < 0.05); the highest levels of growth and survival performance were observed at the control (20‱) salinity. Salinity reductions significantly increased free fatty acid (FFA), but reduced free amino acid (FAA) levels. Lower salinity treatments (0-10‱) significantly reduced hemolymph osmolality levels while 30‱ significantly increased osmolality levels. The five different salinity treatments increased the expression of osmoregulatory and hemolymph regulatory genes by 1.2-8-fold. In contrast, 1.2-1.6-fold lower expression levels were observed at the five salinity treatments for growth (alpha amylase) and immunity (toll-like receptor) genes. O2 consumption, glucose and serotonin levels, and expression of osmoregulatory genes showed rapid increase initially with salinity change, followed by reducing trend and stable patterns from the 5th day to the end. Hemocyte counts, expression of growth and immunity related genes showed initial decreasing trends, followed by an increasing trend and finally stability from 20th day to the end. Results indicate the farming potential of P. monodon at low salinity environments (possibly at freshwater) by proper acclimation prior to stocking with minimal effects on production performance.

7.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827102

RESUMEN

Rabbitfish (Siganidae) are coral reef fish that are distributed across diverse habitats that include estuaries, mangroves, reefs, and even seaweed mats. Given their ecological diversity and natural widespread distributions across the Indo-Pacific region, we were interested to investigate the evolutionary history of this group and patterns of divergence that have contributed to their present-day distributions. In the present study, samples were collected from the South China Sea to study taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships, and divergence times. We investigated the taxonomic relationships among modern rabbitfish species, reconstructed their molecular phylogeny, and estimated divergence times among selected lineages based on a fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and sequences of the nuclear rhodopsin retrogene (RHO). Our results indicate that modern rabbitfish likely originated in the Indo-West Pacific during the late Eocene [37.4 million years ago (mya)], following which they diverged into three major clades during the Pliocene/Pleistocene. Subsequent diversification and origins of the majority of siganids may likely be associated with episodes of paleo-oceanographic events, including greenhouse and glaciation events (Eocene-Miocene) as well as major plate tectonic events (Pliocene-Pleistocene). Some modern siganid species may naturally hybridize with congeneric species where their geographical ranges overlap. A comprehensive taxonomic analysis revealed that the phylogeny of Siganidae (cladogenesis of Clades I, II, and III) is characterized by divergence in several external morphological characters and morphometric parameters. Our study demonstrates that morphological characteristics, geographical heterogeneity, and environmental change have contributed to siganids' historical diversification.

8.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 06 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209745

RESUMEN

Phylum Cnidaria is an ancient venomous group defined by the presence of cnidae, specialised organelles that serve as venom delivery systems. The distribution of cnidae across the body plan is linked to regionalisation of venom production, with tissue-specific venom composition observed in multiple actiniarian species. In this study, we assess whether morphological variants of tentacles are associated with distinct toxin expression profiles and investigate the functional significance of specialised tentacular structures. Using five sea anemone species, we analysed differential expression of toxin-like transcripts and found that expression levels differ significantly across tentacular structures when substantial morphological variation is present. Therefore, the differential expression of toxin genes is associated with morphological variation of tentacular structures in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, the unique toxin profile of spherical tentacular structures in families Aliciidae and Thalassianthidae indicate that vesicles and nematospheres may function to protect branched structures that host a large number of photosynthetic symbionts. Thus, hosting zooxanthellae may account for the tentacle-specific toxin expression profiles observed in the current study. Overall, specialised tentacular structures serve unique ecological roles and, in order to fulfil their functions, they possess distinct venom cocktails.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Cnidarios/genética , Anémonas de Mar/anatomía & histología , Anémonas de Mar/genética , Animales , Transcriptoma
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022410

RESUMEN

Integrating physiological and genomic approaches in a comparative framework offers excellent opportunity to investigate the underlying mechanisms for acclimation to specific challenges. The present study was conducted on three different prawn species (inhabitants of different salinity environments) of the genus Macrobrachium (M. australiense, M. tolmerum and M. novaehollandiae) to investigate the salinity induced changes in expression patterns of 10 candidate genes in the gill tissue (that previously had been inferred to play important functional roles in acclimation and adaptation to freshwater environments), and hemolymph osmolality. The prawn individuals were maintained in laboratory condition under three different salinity levels (0‰, 6‰ and 12‰) for 28 days using 6‰ as the control. All of the genes studied, showed salinity induced differential expression patterns. Genes with more important functional roles under low ionic conditions (i.e. Claudin, Na+/H+exchanger, V-type H+-ATPase and UNT2) showed 2.5 to 6 fold higher expression at 0‰ compared with at higher salinities (6‰ and 12‰) but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between 6‰ and 12‰ for the same genes. In contrast, 1.5 to 4 fold higher expression levels were observed at 6‰ and 12‰ for genes that have important roles in mediating salinity tolerance (i.e., Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl-Co-transporter, Diuretic Hormone, Crustacean Hyperglycaemic Hormone and UNT1). The osmotic stress response gene, Calreticulin, showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in expression between different salinity comparisons. Hemolymph osmolality also was impacted in all three species with a strong correlation evident between hemolymph osmolality and expression of genes influencing this trait. Findings indicate an important role of plasticity that facilitates rapid acclimation to changing salinity levels.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Expresión Génica , Concentración Osmolar , Palaemonidae/genética , Salinidad , Animales , Proteínas de Artrópodos/genética , Branquias/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Osmorregulación/genética , Palaemonidae/clasificación , Palaemonidae/fisiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Especificidad de la Especie , Factores de Tiempo
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7840, 2020 05 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398707

RESUMEN

Seed production can be improved if genetic selection is applied to key reproductive traits when a substantial amount additive genetic variation is present that can be exploited in a selective breeding program. Despite the commercial importance of reproductive traits to the seed production sector currently, few quantitative genetic studies have been conducted to address these traits in farmed penaeid shrimp culture lines. Here, we investigated genetic parameters for a number of key reproductive traits that directly impact nauplii production in Pacific white shrimp (P. vannamei) hatcheries in China. Our objectives were to determine the additive genetic variance associated with reproductive traits, and to anticipate any potential impacts on reproductive performance when selecting for increased body weight by assessing genetic correlations between post-spawning body weight and specific female reproductive traits. Data were collected on 595 females from 78 full-sib families over 30 days, with a total of 1,113 spawning events recorded. Traits studied included: body weight after spawning (WAS), number of eggs per spawn (NE), number of nauplii per spawn (NN), egg hatching rate per spawn (HR), number of eggs produced relative to female weight (g) (FE), and spawn frequency over 30 days (SF). Estimated heritability was high  for WAS (h2 = 0.64 ± 0.10) and moderate for NE (0.26 ± 0.07), NN (0.18 ± 0.06), and SF (0.15 ± 0.06), respectively. In contrast, h2 for HR (0.04 ± 0.03) and FE (0.05 ± 0.04) were low. The genetic correlations between growth trait (WAS) with NE, NN and SF were 0.93 ± 0.10, 0.84 ± 0.10, and 0.57 ± 0.18, respectively. While the genetic correlation between WAS and HR was low (0.02 ± 0.33), a negative genetic correlation was found between WAS and FE (-0.50 ± 0.27). Overall, we concluded that it is possible to improve the key female reproductive traits (i.e. NE, NN, and SF) in cultured white shrimp lines via genetic selection, but not for HR or FE. The genetic relationship between the growth trait and reproductive traits predicts that selection on fast growth would increase the production in the seed sector, with little or no compromise on the eggs quality.


Asunto(s)
Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/fisiología , Animales , Peso Corporal , Cruzamiento , China , Domesticación , Femenino , Variación Genética , Penaeidae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Fenotipo , Reproducción
11.
Mar Drugs ; 18(4)2020 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283847

RESUMEN

This review examines the current state of knowledge regarding toxins from anthozoans (sea anemones, coral, zoanthids, corallimorphs, sea pens and tube anemones). We provide an overview of venom from phylum Cnidaria and review the diversity of venom composition between the two major clades (Medusozoa and Anthozoa). We highlight that the functional and ecological context of venom has implications for the temporal and spatial expression of protein and peptide toxins within class Anthozoa. Understanding the nuances in the regulation of venom arsenals has been made possible by recent advances in analytical technologies that allow characterisation of the spatial distributions of toxins. Furthermore, anthozoans are unique in that ecological roles can be assigned using tissue expression data, thereby circumventing some of the challenges related to pharmacological screening.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Cnidarios/fisiología , Toxinas Marinas/metabolismo , Anatomía , Animales , Antozoos/clasificación , Cnidarios/clasificación , Humanos , Biología Marina , Toxinas Marinas/química , Toxinas Marinas/toxicidad , Filogenia
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(4): 1002-1018, 2019 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840062

RESUMEN

Elucidating the molecular basis of adaptation to different environmental conditions is important because adaptive ability of a species can shape its distribution, influence speciation, and also drive a variety of evolutionary processes. For crustaceans, colonization of freshwater habitats has significantly impacted diversity, but the molecular basis of this process is poorly understood. In the current study, we examined three prawn species from the genus Macrobrachium (M. australiense, M. tolmerum, and M. novaehollandiae) to better understand the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation using a comparative transcriptomics approach. Each of these species naturally inhabit environments with different salinity levels; here, we exposed them to the same experimental salinity conditions (0‰ and 15‰), to compare expression patterns of candidate genes that previously have been shown to influence phenotypic traits associated with freshwater adaptation (e.g., genes associated with osmoregulation). Differential gene expression analysis revealed 876, 861, and 925 differentially expressed transcripts under the two salinities for M. australiense, M. tolmerum, and M. novaehollandiae, respectively. Of these, 16 were found to be unannotated novel transcripts and may be taxonomically restricted or orphan genes. Functional enrichment and molecular pathway mapping revealed 13 functionally enriched categories and 11 enriched molecular pathways that were common to the three Macrobrachium species. Pattern of selection analysis revealed 26 genes with signatures of positive selection among pairwise species comparisons. Overall, our results indicate that the same key genes and similar molecular pathways are likely to be involved with freshwater adaptation widely across this decapod group; with nonoverlapping sets of genes showing differential expression (mainly osmoregulatory genes) and signatures of positive selection (genes involved with different life history traits).


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Biológica/genética , Palaemonidae/genética , Selección Genética , Transcriptoma , Animales , Palaemonidae/metabolismo , Salinidad , Especificidad de la Especie
13.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 622, 2017 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28814267

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is economically important in European fisheries and is a key organism in local marine ecosystems. Despite multi-faceted scientific interest in this species, our current knowledge of genetic resources in this species remains very limited. Here, we generated a reference de novo transcriptome for N. norvegicus from multiple tissues in both sexes. Bioinformatic analyses were conducted to detect transcripts that were expressed exclusively in either males or females. Patterns were validated via RT-PCR. RESULTS: Sixteen N. norvegicus libraries were sequenced from immature and mature ovary, testis and vas deferens (including the masculinizing androgenic gland). In addition, eyestalk, brain, thoracic ganglia and hepatopancreas tissues were screened in males and both immature and mature females. RNA-Sequencing resulted in >600 million reads. De novo assembly that combined the current dataset with two previously published libraries from eyestalk tissue, yielded a reference transcriptome of 333,225 transcripts with an average size of 708 base pairs (bp), with an N50 of 1272 bp. Sex-specific transcripts were detected primarily in gonads followed by hepatopancreas, brain, thoracic ganglia, and eyestalk, respectively. Candidate transcripts that were expressed exclusively either in males or females were highlighted and the 10 most abundant ones were validated via RT-PCR. Among the most highly expressed genes were Serine threonine protein kinase in testis and Vitellogenin in female hepatopancreas. These results align closely with gene annotation results. Moreover, a differential expression heatmap showed that the majority of differentially expressed transcripts were identified in gonad and eyestalk tissues. Results indicate that sex-specific gene expression patterns in Norway lobster are controlled by differences in gene regulation pattern between males and females in somatic tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The current study presents the first multi-tissue reference transcriptome for the Norway lobster that can be applied to future biological, wild restocking and fisheries studies. Sex-specific markers were mainly expressed in males implying that males may experience stronger selection than females. It is apparent that differential expression is due to sex-specific gene regulatory pathways that are present in somatic tissues and not from effects of genes located on heterogametic sex chromosomes. The N. norvegicus data provide a foundation for future gene-based reproductive studies.


Asunto(s)
Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Nephropidae/genética , Caracteres Sexuales , Animales , Femenino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genómica , Masculino , Especificidad de Órganos , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo
14.
J Hered ; 108(5): 544-552, 2017 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482023

RESUMEN

Understanding the molecular basis of adaptive response to variable environmental conditions is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Here, we sought to identify potential outlier single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3 wild populations of a freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium australiense) that are exposed to differing osmotic niches by using a comparative transcriptomics approach. De novo assembly of approximately 542 million (75 nt) pair end reads collected from 10 individuals revealed 123396 longer contigs/transcripts of variable length, that showed 97.38% transcriptome assembly completeness. Differential gene expression analysis of major osmoregulatory genes revealed that calreticulin, Na+/H+ exchanger, and V-type (H+) ATPase showed the highest expression levels in the Blunder Creek (low ionic) population, while Crustacean cardiovascular peptide (CCP), Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC) and Na+/HCO3- exchanger showed the highest expression levels in the Bulimba Creek (higher ionic) population. In total, 16 gene ontology term categories were functionally enriched among the 3 studied populations. We identified 4144 raw and 835 high quality filtered SNPs in the 3 M. australiense populations, of which 84 SNPs were identified as outliers. Outliers were detected in 4 important osmoregulatory genes that include: calreticulin, Na+/H+ exchanger, Na+/K+-ATPase, and V-type-(H+)-ATPase. All outliers in the osmoregulatory genes were located in noncoding regulatory regions (untranslated regions) of the gene. We hypothesize that the outlier SNPs identified here in M. australiense populations exposed naturally to different osmotic conditions influence specific gene expression patterns that allow individuals to respond to local environmental conditions.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Genoma/genética , Palaemonidae/genética , Animales , Proteínas de Artrópodos/genética , Agua Dulce , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Osmorregulación/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , ARN/química , ARN/genética
15.
PeerJ ; 5: e2977, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194319

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The endemic Australian freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium koombooloomba, provides a model for exploring genes involved with freshwater adaptation because it is one of the relatively few Macrobrachium species that can complete its entire life cycle in freshwater. METHODS: The present study was conducted to identify potential candidate genes that are likely to contribute to effective freshwater adaptation by M. koombooloomba using a transcriptomics approach. De novo assembly of 75 bp paired end 227,564,643 high quality Illumina raw reads from 6 different cDNA libraries revealed 125,917 contigs of variable lengths (200-18,050 bp) with an N50 value of 1597. RESULTS: In total, 31,272 (24.83%) of the assembled contigs received significant blast hits, of which 27,686 and 22,560 contigs were mapped and functionally annotated, respectively. CEGMA (Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach) based transcriptome quality assessment revealed 96.37% completeness. We identified 43 different potential genes that are likely to be involved with freshwater adaptation in M. koombooloomba. Identified candidate genes included: 25 genes for osmoregulation, five for cell volume regulation, seven for stress tolerance, three for body fluid (haemolymph) maintenance, eight for epithelial permeability and water channel regulation, nine for egg size control and three for larval development. RSEM (RNA-Seq Expectation Maximization) based abundance estimation revealed that 6,253, 5,753 and 3,795 transcripts were expressed (at TPM value ≥10) in post larvae, juveniles and adults, respectively. Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that 15 genes were expressed differentially in different individuals but these genes apparently were not involved with freshwater adaptation but rather were involved in growth, development and reproductive maturation. DISCUSSION: The genomic resources developed here will be useful for better understanding the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation in Macrobrachium prawns and other crustaceans more broadly.

16.
PeerJ ; 4: e2520, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27761323

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. METHODS: To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. RESULTS: We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp) with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO) terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million) ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries. Among the top 10 genes expressed in four tissue libraries associated with osmoregulation, arginine kinase and Na+/K+- ATPase showed the highest transcript copy number with 7098 and 660, respectively in gill which is considered to be the most important organ involved in osmoregulation. DISCUSSION: The current study provides the first broad transcriptome from M. australiense using next generation sequencing and identifies potential candidate genes involved in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation that can provide a foundation for investigating osmoregulatory capacity in a wide variety of freshwater crustaceans.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(5)2016 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164098

RESUMEN

The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world's most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp) were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Decápodos/genética , Reproducción/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/métodos , Transcriptoma , Animales , Decápodos/metabolismo , Decápodos/fisiología , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
18.
Mar Genomics ; 25: 75-88, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26653845

RESUMEN

Increasing salinity levels in freshwater and coastal environments caused by sea level rise linked to climate change is now recognized to be a major factor that can impact fish growth negatively, especially for freshwater teleost species. Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) is an important freshwater teleost that is now widely farmed across the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam. Understanding the basis for tolerance and adaptation to raised environmental salinity conditions can assist the regional culture industry to mitigate predicted impacts of climate change across this region. Attempt of next generation sequencing using the ion proton platform results in more than 174 million raw reads from three tissue libraries (gill, kidney and intestine). Reads were filtered and de novo assembled using a variety of assemblers and then clustered together to generate a combined reference transcriptome. Downstream analysis resulted in a final reference transcriptome that contained 60,585 transcripts with an N50 of 683 bp. This resource was further annotated using a variety of bioinformatics databases, followed by differential gene expression analysis that resulted in 3062 transcripts that were differentially expressed in catfish samples raised under two experimental conditions (0 and 15 ppt). A number of transcripts with a potential role in salinity tolerance were then classified into six different functional gene categories based on their gene ontology assignments. These included; energy metabolism, ion transportation, detoxification, signal transduction, structural organization and detoxification. Finally, we combined the data on functional salinity tolerance genes into a hypothetical schematic model that attempted to describe potential relationships and interactions among target genes to explain the molecular pathways that control adaptive salinity responses in P. hypophthalmus. Our results indicate that P. hypophthalmus exhibit predictable plastic regulatory responses to elevated salinity by means of characteristic gene expression patterns, providing numerous candidate genes for future investigations.


Asunto(s)
Bagres/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Salinidad , Tolerancia a la Sal/genética , Agua/química , Adaptación Fisiológica/genética , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Bagres/fisiología
19.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 40(6): 1839-48, 2014 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25139325

RESUMEN

The effects of a range of different sublethal salinities were assessed on physiological processes and growth performance in the freshwater 'tra' catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) juveniles over an 8-week experiment. Fish were distributed randomly among 6 salinity treatments [2, 6, 10, 14 and 18 g/L of salinity and a control (0 g/L)] with a subsequent 13-day period of acclimation. Low salinity conditions from 2 to 10 g/L provided optimal conditions with high survival and good growth performance, while 0 g/L and salinities >14 g/L gave poorer survival rates (p < 0.05). Salinity levels from freshwater to 10 g/L did not have any negative effects on fish weight gain, daily weight gain, or specific growth rate. Food conversion ratio, however, was lowest in the control treatment (p < 0.05) and highest at the maximum salinities tested (18 g/L treatment). Cortisol levels were elevated in the 14 and 18 g/L treatments after 6 h and reached a peak after 24-h exposure, and this also led to increases in plasma glucose concentration. After 14 days, surviving fish in all treatments appeared to have acclimated to their respective conditions with cortisol levels remaining under 5 ng/mL with glucose concentrations stable. Tra catfish do not appear to be efficient osmoregulators when salinity levels exceed 10 g/L, and at raised salinity levels, growth performance is compromised. In general, results of this study confirm that providing culture environments in the Mekong River Basin do not exceed 10 g/L salinity and that cultured tra catfish can continue to perform well.


Asunto(s)
Bagres/crecimiento & desarrollo , Salinidad , Cloruro de Sodio/toxicidad , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Agua/química , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Compuestos de Boro/sangre , Compuestos de Boro/metabolismo , Bagres/sangre , Metacrilatos/metabolismo , Metilmetacrilatos/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e91657, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24614160

RESUMEN

Feral pigs occur throughout tropical far north Queensland, Australia and are a significant threat to biodiversity and World Heritage values, agriculture and are a vector of infectious diseases. One of the constraints on long-lasting, local eradication of feral pigs is the process of reinvasion into recently controlled areas. This study examined the population genetic structure of feral pigs in far north Queensland to identify the extent of movement and the scale at which demographically independent management units exist. Genetic analysis of 328 feral pigs from the Innisfail to Tully region of tropical Queensland was undertaken. Seven microsatellite loci were screened and Bayesian clustering methods used to infer population clusters. Sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region was examined to identify pig breed. Significant population structure was identified in the study area at a scale of 25 to 35 km, corresponding to three demographically independent management units (MUs). Distinct natural or anthropogenic barriers were not found, but environmental features such as topography and land use appear to influence patterns of gene flow. Despite the strong, overall pattern of structure, some feral pigs clearly exhibited ancestry from a MU outside of that from which they were sampled indicating isolated long distance dispersal or translocation events. Furthermore, our results suggest that gene flow is restricted among pigs of domestic Asian and European origin and non-random mating influences management unit boundaries. We conclude that the three MUs identified in this study should be considered as operational units for feral pig control in far north Queensland. Within a MU, coordinated and simultaneous control is required across farms, rainforest areas and National Park Estates to prevent recolonisation from adjacent localities.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Clima Tropical , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Análisis por Conglomerados , Intervalos de Confianza , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Repeticiones de Microsatélite/genética , Filogenia , Queensland , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
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