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2.
ESMO Open ; 5(1)2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958289

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Desmoid tumour (DT) is a locally aggressive fibroblastic proliferative disease representing the most common extraintestinal manifestation of familial adenomatosis polyposis (FAP). As data on the activity of chemotherapy in these patients are limited, we examined the outcomes of patients treated with low-dose methotrexate (MTX)+vinca alkaloids (vinorelbine or vinblastine). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed clinical and outcome data from all patients with confirmed FAP-associated DTs treated with weekly MTX+vinca alkaloids in seven European sarcoma reference centres between January 2000 and December 2018. Radiological responses were assessed using RECIST V.1.0 and V.1.1. The Kaplan-Meier method associated to the log-rank test was used to estimate and compare survival curves. RESULTS: We identified 37 patients (median age 29 years, range 7-44). According to RECIST, 20/37 (54.1%) patients achieved partial response (PR), 15/37 (40.5%) patients had stable disease and 2/37 (5.4%) had progressive disease as best response. Overall, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.5 years (range, 0.3-12.1 years). In the subset of patients achieving PR as best response, the median PFS was not reached. In a subset of 11 patients with progressive disease offered MTX+vinca alkaloids rechallenge (after chemotherapy withdrawal following prolonged disease control), the disease control rate was 100%, resulting in a median PFS after rechallenge of 5.8 years. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest series on the activity of low-dose chemotherapy in patients with FAP-related DT. In this population, MTX+vinca alkaloids is an active combination, as already reported in patients with sporadic DT.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545377

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the antiproliferative activity and safety of nonconventional high doses of somatostatin analogs (HD-SSA) in patients with well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NET) with radiological disease progression according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria on a previous treatment. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained databases from 13 Italian NET-dedicated centers was performed. Main inclusion criteria were: well-differentiated G1 or G2 GEP-NET, progressive disease on a previous treatment, and subsequent treatment with HD-SSA (either by increased administered dose [dose intensity] or shortened interval between administrations [dose density]). Main endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. RESULTS: Of 198 patients, 140 matched inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Overall, median PFS was 31 months. Use of HD-SSA as second-line treatment was associated with reduced risk for progression or death compared with third- or further-line treatment (HR: 2.12; P = 0.004). There was no difference in PFS between HD-SSA by increased dose density (N = 133; 95%) or intensity (N = 7; 5%). Partial response according to RECIST criteria was observed in 12 patients (8.6%), and stable disease was achieved in 106 (75.7%) patients. Adverse events occurred in 21 patients (15.0%), 2 of whom had grade 3 biliary stone disease. No patients discontinued HD-SSA treatment due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: HD-SSA is an active and safe treatment option in patients with progressive well-differentiated GEP-NET. The high rate of objective responses observed deserves prospective validation in ad hoc clinical trials.

4.
J Contemp Brachytherapy ; 11(5): 449-457, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749854

RESUMEN

Purpose: Alpha particle treatments could enhance the probability of an immune response, which can lead to abscopal effects (AE). We report a case of a patient affected by multiple cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). After the treatment with diffusing alpha emitters radiation therapy (DaRT) of one lesion, an AE was observed on at least two distant ones. Material and methods: We investigated a case of a 65-year-old female patient with multiple synchronous lesions of the skin of lower limbs confirmed by a biopsy. Patient was enrolled in a clinical trial N.CTP-SCC-00 (NCT03015883), with the objective to assess effectiveness of DaRT technique. DaRT is based on the insertion of locally 224Ra-loaded seeds in a clinical target volume (CTV). Treatment plan with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was used to entirely cover the CTV. Follow-up and biopsy evaluations were employed to outline the patient outcome. Results: We performed seeds implantation according to the Paris system. At 28th day, an evident lesion shrinkage with a persistent minimal area of hyperkeratosis was noted. 76 days after implantation, a complete remission of the treated lesion was observed and an evident reduction of the area with two more distant lesion, which could be associated to an immune-mediated response. One year after the treatment, a complete remission of treated lesion was observed as well as spontaneous regression of untreated distant ones. Conclusions: In this study, we reported evidences of an AE in cSCC stimulated by radiation and possibly mediated by immune system. In the next DaRT treatments, our intent is to monitor T-lymphocytes variations in peripheral blood in order to demonstrate indirect activation of the immune system mediated by radiation also in patients with solitary lesions, in which, by definition, an AE cannot be observed.

5.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698876

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We assessed the real-life clinical impact of bone health management in patients with breast cancer (BC) receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy at an Italian Osteoncology Center. METHODS: Pre- and post-menopausal women undergoing adjuvant endocrine therapy for early-stage BC who came to our institute for their first bone health evaluation from January 2011 to June 2016 were considered in this retrospective observational study. RESULTS: 1125 pre- and post-menopausal early-stage BC patients (209 and 916, respectively) were evaluated. Median age was 61 years (range 26-88). In the pre-menopausal group, spinal x-ray revealed that 10 patients (4.7%) had a morphometric vertebral fracture. Higher age (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.29) and bone mineral density (BMD) ≤ -2.5 (OR: 14.45; 95% CI: 1.70-122.67) were associated with a higher risk of bone fracture. The overall frequency of bone fracture was 17.6% (n = 161) in post-menopausal patients and a lower risk for bone fractures was associated with tamoxifen or other treatments (OR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.12-0.53), presence of back pain (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.16-2.36), lower BMD (OR: 2.09 in patients with T-score ≤ 2.5; 95% CI: 1.21-3.59) and lower vitamin D levels (OR: 1.57 in patients with ≤ 10 ng/mL; 95% CI: 1.05-2.34) in univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that bone health management should be an integral part of long-term cancer care.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12263, 2019 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439905

RESUMEN

The fate of tumors depends both on the cancer cells' intrinsic characteristics and on the environmental conditions where the tumors reside and grow. Engineered in vitro models have led to significant advances in cancer research, allowing the investigation of cells in physiological environments and the study of disease mechanisms and processes with enhanced relevance. Here we present a biomimetic cancer model based on a collagen matrix synthesized through a biologically inspired process. We compared in this environment the responses of two breast tumor lineages characterized by different molecular patterns and opposite clinical behaviors: MCF-7 that belong to the luminal A subtype connected to an indolent course, and basal-like MDA-MB-231 connected to high-grade and aggressive disease. Cancer cells in the biomimetic matrix recreate a hypoxic environment that affects their growth dynamics and phenotypic features. Hypoxia induces apoptosis and the selection of aggressive cells that acquire expression signatures associated with glycolysis, angiogenesis, cell-matrix interaction, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastatic ability. In response to hypoxia MDA-MB-231 migrate on the collagen fibrils and undergo cellular senescence, while MCF-7 do not exhibit these behaviors. Our biomimetic model mimics the evolution of tumors with different grade of aggressiveness fostered by a hypoxic niche and provides a relevant technology to dissect the events involved in cancer progression.

8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(11): e13404, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408256

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing chemotherapy are at risk of toxicity, especially of haematological origin. Granulocyte depletion, although often underestimated, can lead to the occurrence of an event defined as febrile neutropenia (FN). Neutropenic fever syndromes are dangerous because they cause major complications in around 25%-30% of patients and have a mortality rate of up to 11%. Treatment for FN was limited to antibiotics and supportive therapies until filgrastim was approved for use in the 1990s. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review focuses on the efficacy and safety of this haematopoietic growth factor. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: For this review, a systematic literature search of electronic databases and references from recent reviews up to December 2018 was carried out to identify clinical trials, observational studies and case reports evaluating filgrastim efficacy and safety. English language was defined as a restriction. Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), case reports and reviews analysing the effects of filgrastim on severe neutropenia and its limits were considered. Four review authors independently selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias and extracted study data. RESULTS: As reported in ASCO guidelines, the efficacy of filgrastim with respect to placebo or no treatment in RCTs is based on its prevention of FN. A recent meta-analysis analysed nine RCTs with 2197 patients, revealing a reduction in the incidence of FN with filgrastim (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% CI 0.53-0.75). These findings were further confirmed in two observational studies. Bone pain is the most commonly reported adverse event with filgrastim, while other toxicities are associated with filgrastim efficacy and with an increased neutrophil count. KEY FINDINGS: In conclusion, our findings attest to the previous results on the efficacy and safety of filgrastim.


Asunto(s)
Filgrastim/uso terapéutico , Factor Estimulante de Colonias de Granulocitos/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Hematológicos/uso terapéutico , Neutropenia/prevención & control , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 118: 178-186, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164265

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of the study is to analyse whether letrozole (L) and zoledronic acid plus L (ZL) are more effective than tamoxifen (T) as adjuvant endocrine treatment of premenopausal patients with breast cancer with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a phase 3 trial, 1065 premenopausal patients with HR + early breast cancer received triptorelin to suppress ovarian function and were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to adjuvant T, L or ZL for 5 years. Cancer recurrence, second breast or non-breast cancer and death were considered events for the intention-to-treat disease-free survival (DFS) analysis. RESULTS: With a 64-month median follow-up and 134 reported events, the disease-free rate at 5 years was 85.4%, 93.2% and 93.3% with T, L and ZL, respectively (overall P = 0.008). The hazard ratio for a DFS event was 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.80; P = 0.003) with ZL vs T, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.48 to 1.07; P = 0.06) with L vs T and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.12; P = 0.22) with ZL vs L. With 36 deaths, there was no significant difference in overall survival (P = 0.14). Treatment was stopped for toxicity or refusal in 7.3%, 7.3% and 16.6% patients, and in the safety population, grade 3-4 side-effects were reported in 4.2%, 6.9% and 9.1% patients treated with T, L or ZL, respectively. CONCLUSION: HOBOE study shows that in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer undergoing ovarian function suppression with triptorelin, ZL significantly improves DFS, while worsening compliance and toxicity, as compared with T. (NCT00412022).

10.
J Bone Oncol ; 16: 100227, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911462

RESUMEN

The skeleton is one of the most common sites of metastatic spread from advanced clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC). Most of the bone lesions observed in RCC patients are classified as osteolytic, causing severe pain and morbidity due to pathological bone destruction. Nowadays, it is well known that cancer induced bone loss in lytic metastasis is caused by the triggering of a vicious cycle between cancer and bone resident cells that leads to an imbalance between bone formation and degradation. Targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an efficient treatment option for metastatic renal carcinoma patients. Moreover, bone targeted therapy could benefit bone metastatic cancer patients caused by advanced RCC. However, more data is needed to support the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of a combined therapy. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of targeting mTOR and the sequential combination with bone targeted therapy as a strategy to break the vicious cycle between ccRCC cells and osteoclasts. A previously optimized fully human co-culture model is used to mimic the crosstalk between Caki-2 cells (ccRCC) and osteoclasts. Cells are treated at fixed timing with everolimus, zoledronic acid and denosumab as single or sequential combined treatment. We show that Caki-2 cells can induce osteoclast cells differentiation from isolated human monocytes, as demonstrated by specific tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and f-actin ring formation, in a statistically significant manner. Moreover, differentiated osteoclasts proved to be functionally active by pit formation assay. Caki-2 cells co-cultured with osteoclasts acquire a more aggressive phenotype based on gene expression analysis. Interestingly, the sequential combined treatment of everolimus and zoledronic acid is the most effective in the inhibition of both Caki-2 cells survival and osteoclastogenic potential, making it an effective strategy to inhibit the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. At preclinical level, this observation confirms the value of our co-culture model as a useful tool to mimic the bone microenvironment and to assess drug sensitivity in vitro. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor-bone cells crosstalk will be investigated next.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213934, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis to describe the characteristics, frequency of skeletal-related events (SREs), and prognosis of head and neck cancer (HNC) in patients with bone metastases (BM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The data of 192 HNC patients with BMs were collected. Analyses were conducted separately in 64 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients and in 128 non-NPC patients. RESULTS: SREs occurred in 34 (27%) non-NPC and in 6 (9%) NPC patients, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 25 and 6 months in NPC and non-NPC patients, respectively. Locoregional recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 2.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.93), synchronous BM (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.59-0.71) and bone-directed therapies (BDT) (HR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10-0.68) were independent prognostic factors for OS in NPC patients. Combined bone radiotherapy (RT) and BDT in NPC patients obtained longer survival (38 months) than either therapy alone (25 months) or neither of these therapies (8 months). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with BMs from non-NPC have a poor prognosis and are at high risk of SREs. NPC patients with BMs are at relatively low risk of SREs. BDT may potentially improve survival, particularly when combined with bone RT. This last finding deserves prospective confirmation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Óseas/patología , Huesos/patología , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Óseas/secundario , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Pronóstico , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
12.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(9): 3395-3402, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649614

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Bone metastases (BMs) are responsible for high morbidity in patients. A multidisciplinary approach involving a team of specialists offers an effective therapeutic strategy based on disease characteristics, medical history, and performance status. We evaluated the impact of our 10-year multidisciplinary experience on the management of patients with BM. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 2194 medical reports of 1628 patients referred to our Osteoncology Center from 2005 to 2015. Cases were discussed weekly by a multidisciplinary team. RESULTS: Eight hundred thirty-eight (38.2%) of the 2194 visits were requested because of a risk of complications from BM. Antiblastic treatment and bone-targeted therapy were modified in 709 (66.3%) and 309 (31%) of cases, respectively. Radiotherapy was scheduled in 220 (20%) of the 1099 patients for whom information was recorded. Patients completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) during their first visit, 1296 (59.1%) reporting pain (median intensity 4), and 537 (41.4%) experiencing a level that interfered substantially with daily activities. New ortheses and/or antalgic therapy was prescribed accordingly. After 7 days, 208 (16%) patients were re-evaluated and a new BPI administered. A significant improvement in the worst (p < 0.0001) and current pain (p = 0.03) was seen, together with a favorable impact on daily activities (p = 0.02). Two thousand fifty-one patients completed an anonymous questionnaire on the quality of the service, the majority (69.4%) expressing high satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Our 10-year osteoncology experience confirms the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to optimize BM management. Further evaluations are needed in relation to quality of life, outcome, and costs.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Óseas/secundario , Dimensión del Dolor/métodos , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Satisfacción del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Óseas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Óseas/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Endocr Connect ; 7(12): 1535-1541, 2018 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530877

RESUMEN

The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is higher in individuals ≥70 years of age (elderly) who are underrepresented in clinical trials because of comorbidities and low performance status. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of elderly patients with metastatic NEN (mNEN). Comorbidities were summarized by Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate overall survival (OS) and Cox's proportional hazard model was used to assess the impact of known prognostic factors. We retrieved data on 145 mNEN patients aged ≥70 years seen at our center from June 2007 to March 2016. Fifty-six (38.6%) were aged ≥75 years. ECOG PS was 0 in 45.7% of cases and CCI was 0 in 41.0% and 1 in 37.4%. A total of 75.4% of patients had grade (G)1/G2 NEN and 24.6%, G3. Octreoscan/Gallium PET/CT and FDG-PET/CT were positive in 94.2% and 70.3% of cases, respectively. Median follow-up was 72.3 (53.2-85.1) months. Seventy-nine patients received first-line somatostatin analogs (SSA), 23 peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and 36 chemotherapy (CHT). Seven did not undergo first-line therapy and 102 received more than one line. Median overall survival (mOS) was 5.1 years (95% CI: 3.4-6.6). No differences in mOS were seen according to CCI. First-line PRRT patients had a mOS of 6.5 years (95% CI: 3.3-not reached (NR)), SSA 5.7 years (95% CI: 4.2-7) and CHT 5.9 years (95% CI: 0.4-NR). mOS in CHT-treated G3 patients was 1.5 years (1.0-2.5). ECOG PS and FDG PET/CT were identified as independent prognostic factors. Results suggest that the above treatments positively impacted OS in elderly mNEN patients, including those aged ≥75 years.

14.
Cells ; 7(11)2018 Oct 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366467

RESUMEN

Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) belongs to the group of sarcoma tumors, which represent only 1% of the totality of adult tumors worldwide. Thus, given the rare nature of this cancer, this makes the availability of MFS cell lines difficult. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, we immortalized a primary culture of MFS (IM-MFS-1) and compared the cell morphology with patient's tumor tissue. IM-MFS-1 was genetically characterized through a Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array and the mesenchymal phenotype was evaluated using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence staining. Drug sensitivity for MFS therapies was monitored over time in cultures. We confirmed the conservation of the patient's tumor cell morphology and of the mesenchymal phenotype. Conversely, the synthesis and expression of CD109, a TGFß co-receptor used to facilitate the diagnosis of high-grade MFS diagnosis, was maintained constant until high cancer cell line passages. The CGH array revealed a complex karyotype with cytogenetic alterations that include chromosome regions associated with genes involved in tumor processes. Cytotoxicity assays show drug sensitivity constantly increased during the culture passages until a plateau was reached. In conclusion, we established and characterized a new MFS cell line that can be used for future preclinical and molecular studies on soft tissue sarcomas.

15.
J Vis Exp ; (136)2018 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939179

RESUMEN

Blood sample quality is crucial to ensure accurate downstream analyses such as real-time PCR or ELISA. Correct storage of biological materials is the starting point to achieve reproducible and reliable results. All samples should be treated in the same way from blood collection to storage. Depending on the analyses to be performed, whole blood and serum samples should be stored at -20 °C or -80 °C until use. Blood/serum samples should also be aliquoted to avoid multiple freeze-thawing. Another important issue is the sample conditions during shipment from one laboratory to another. If dry ice is not available or the shipment takes longer than a few days, alternative approaches are needed. One option is to use filter paper for blood collection. Here, we propose a method for blood and serum sample collection that takes advantage of dried blood spots (DBS) and dried serum spots (DSS). We developed the procedure to extract DNA from DBS for the downstream evaluation of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by real time PCR. We also optimized an ELISA assay starting from proteins eluted from DSS. This method can be used with other ELISA assays or procedures evaluating proteins.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Pruebas con Sangre Seca/métodos , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática/métodos , Suero/química , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , Humanos
16.
J Vis Exp ; (134)2018 04 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708525

RESUMEN

Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) represent a spectrum of heterogeneous malignancies with a difficult diagnosis, classification, and management. To date, more than 50 histological subtypes of these rare solid tumors have been identified. Thus, due to their extraordinary diversity and low incidence, our understanding of the biology of these tumors is still limited. Patient-derived cultures represent the ideal platform to study STS pathophysiology and pharmacology. We thus developed a human preclinical model of STS starting from tumor specimens harvested from patients undergoing surgical resection. Patient-derived STS cell cultures were obtained from the surgical specimens by collagenase digestion and isolated by filtration. Cells were counted, seeded, and left for 14 days in standard monolayer cultures and then processed by downstream analysis. Before performing molecular or pharmaceutical analyses, the establishment of STS primary cultures was confirmed through the evaluation of cytomorphologic features and, when available, immunohistochemical markers. This method represents a useful tool 1) to study the natural history of these poorly explored malignancies and 2) to test the effects of different drugs in an effort to learn more about their mechanisms of action.


Asunto(s)
Sarcoma/patología , Anciano , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula , Humanos
17.
Gastroenterology ; 155(2): 479-489.e7, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655834

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metformin seems to have anticancer effects. However, it is not clear whether use of glycemia and metformin affect outcomes of patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). We investigated the association between glycemia and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with pNETs treated with everolimus and/or somatostatin analogues, as well as the association between metformin use and PFS time. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 445 patients with advanced pNET treated at 24 medical centers in Italy from 1999 through 2015. Data on levels of glycemia were collected at time of diagnosis of pNET, before treatment initiation, and during treatment with everolimus (with or without somatostatin analogues), octreotide, or lanreotide. Diabetes was defined as prior or current use of glycemia control medication and/or fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/L), or a random sample of plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), with reported classic symptoms of hyperglycemia or hyperglycemic crisis. Patients were assigned to groups based on diagnosis of diabetes before or during antitumor therapy. PFS was compared between patients with vs without diabetes. Among patients with diabetes, the association between metformin use and PFS was assessed. We performed sensitivity and landmark analyses to exclude patients who developed diabetes while receiving cancer treatment and to exclude a potential immortal time bias related to metformin intake. RESULTS: PFS was significantly longer in patients with diabetes (median, 32.0 months) than without diabetes (median, 15.1 months) (hazard ratio for patients with vs without diabetes, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.80; P = .0002). PFS of patients treated with metformin was significantly longer (median PFS, 44.2 months) than for patients without diabetes (hazard ratio for survival of patients with diabetes receiving metformin vs without diabetes, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.62; P < .00001) and longer than for patients with diabetes receiving other treatments (median PFS, 20.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.69; P < .0001). In multivariable analysis, adjusted for other factors associated with outcomes, metformin was associated with longer PFS but level of glycemia was not. Metformin was associated with increased PFS of patients receiving somatostatin analogues and in those receiving everolimus, with or without somatostatin analogues. Sensitivity and landmark analyses produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective study of patients with pNETs, we found a significant association between metformin use and longer PFS.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Everolimus/uso terapéutico , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidad , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Italia/epidemiología , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/mortalidad , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
18.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 25(6): 607-618, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559553

RESUMEN

No validated prognostic tool is available for predicting overall survival (OS) of patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs). This study, conducted in three independent cohorts of patients from five different European countries, aimed to develop and validate a classification prognostic score for OS in patients with stage IV WDNETs. We retrospectively collected data on 1387 patients: (i) patients treated at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori (Milan, Italy; n = 515); (ii) European cohort of rare NET patients included in the European RARECAREnet database (n = 457); (iii) Italian multicentric cohort of pancreatic NET (pNETs) patients treated at 24 Italian institutions (n = 415). The score was developed using data from patients included in cohort (i) (training set); external validation was performed by applying the score to the data of the two independent cohorts (ii) and (iii) evaluating both calibration and discriminative ability (Harrell C statistic). We used data on age, primary tumor site, metastasis (synchronous vs metachronous), Ki-67, functional status and primary surgery to build the score, which was developed for classifying patients into three groups with differential 10-year OS: (I) favorable risk group: 10-year OS ≥70%; (II) intermediate risk group: 30% ≤ 10-year OS < 70%; (III) poor risk group: 10-year OS <30%. The Harrell C statistic was 0.661 in the training set, and 0.626 and 0.601 in the RARECAREnet and Italian multicentric validation sets, respectively. In conclusion, based on the analysis of three 'field-practice' cohorts collected in different settings, we defined and validated a prognostic score to classify patients into three groups with different long-term prognoses.


Asunto(s)
Tumores Neuroendocrinos/clasificación , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/patología , Pronóstico , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Análisis de Supervivencia
19.
Pancreatology ; 18(2): 198-203, 2018 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361429

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Besides data reported in a Phase-III trial, data on sunitinib in pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (panNETs) are scanty. AIM: To evaluate sunitinib efficacy and tolerability in panNETs patients treated in a real-world setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of progressive panNETs treated with sunitinib. Efficacy was assessed by evaluating progression-free survival, overall survival, and disease control (DC) rate (stable disease (SD) + partial response + complete response). Data are reported as median (25th-75th IQR). RESULTS: Eighty patients were included. Overall, 71.1% had NET G2, 26.3% had NET G1, and 2.6% had NET G3 neoplasms. A total of 53 patients (66.3%) had received three or more therapeutic regimens before sunitinib, with 24 patients (30%) having been treated with four previous treatments. Median PFS was 10 months. Similar risk of progression was observed between NET G1 and NET G2 tumors (median PFS 11 months and 8 months, respectively), and between patients who had received ≥ 3 vs ≤ 2 therapeutic approaches before sunitinib (median PFS 9 months and 10 months, respectively). DC rate was 71.3% and SD was the most frequent observed response, occurring in 43 pts (53.8%). Overall, 59 pts (73.8%) experienced AEs, which were grade 1-2 in 43 of them (72.9%), grade 3 in 15 pts (25.4%), and grade 4 in one patient (1.7%). Six pts (7.5%) stopped treatment due to toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The present real-world experience shows that sunitinib is a safe and effective treatment for panNETs, even in the clinical setting of heavily pre-treated, progressive diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Indoles/uso terapéutico , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Pirroles/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Anciano , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Indoles/efectos adversos , Italia/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/epidemiología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiología , Pirroles/efectos adversos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sunitinib , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Dis Markers ; 2018: 6878409, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627226

RESUMEN

There is a growing need for more accurate biomarkers to facilitate the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with grade (G) 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). In particular, the discrimination between well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (WD-NECs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PD-NECs) is still an unmet need. We previously showed that 68Gallium-(68Ga-) PET/CT positivity is a prognostic factor in patients with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) G3 NECs, correlating with a better outcome in terms of overall survival. Here, we hypothesize that 68Ga-PET/CT could help to discriminate between WD-NECs and PD-NECs, adding complementary information to that obtained from morphologic and biologic factors. A retrospective, single-institution study was performed on 11 patients with histologically confirmed, measurable G3 large- or small-cell GEP-NECs according to the 2017 WHO classification. The staging procedures included a 68Ga-PET/CT scan. Results of 68Ga-PET/CT were correlated in univariate analysis with loss of tissue immunohistochemical expression of DAXX/ATRX or RB1 frequently associated with WD-NECs or PD-NECs, respectively. None of the patients with positive 68Ga-PET/CT showed loss of RB1 expression, whereas among those (n = 6) with negative 68Ga-PET/CT, 4 showed loss of expression. A trend towards a correlation between loss of RB1 expression and negative 68Ga-PET/CT was observed. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that PD-NECs carrying RB1 mutation and loss of its expression may be associated with negative 68Ga-PET/CT. If confirmed in a larger clinical trial, 68Ga-PET/CT would help in the stratification of G3 NECs.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/diagnóstico por imagen , Carcinoma Neuroendocrino/patología , Radioisótopos de Galio/administración & dosificación , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/métodos , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras Transductoras de Señales/metabolismo , Adulto , Anciano , Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , Regulación hacia Abajo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Clasificación del Tumor , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Unión a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Unión a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligasas/metabolismo , Proteína Nuclear Ligada al Cromosoma X/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada al Cromosoma X/metabolismo
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