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1.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 36(3): 221-222, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549296

RESUMEN

This special section is dedicated to some of the recent work by Dr. Angela Stevens, who passed away unexpectedly last year. She is dearly missed by those fortunate enough to have known her, but her legacy lives on through the lives she touched and her research. Since the beginning of her undergraduate training, Dr. Angela Stevens has dedicated her professional life to improving the lives of people who use drugs and alcohol through research. During her doctoral training at Texas Tech University, her research program focused on risk and protective factors which influence alcohol and cannabis use based on the theory of planned behavior. Dr. Stevens' master's thesis utilized daily diary methodology to examine the within-person intention-behavior relation for alcohol use among a sample of young adults (Stevens et al., 2017). This work indicated that individuals higher in phenotypes related to problematic drinking (i.e., impulsigenic traits) had stronger intentions to drink, which in turn predicted higher levels of alcohol consumption. Building on this work, her dissertation (Stevens et al., 2020) involved a psychometric evaluation of a momentary impulsivity scale across two intensive longitudinal samples using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). This work informed the assessment of state-level factors relevant to substance use. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 36(3): 243-253, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113586

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use is common among college students and associated with more consumption and consequences compared to single-substance use. This study examined occasions of simultaneous use and compared planned occasions to unplanned occasions with respect to motives, contexts, consumption, and consequences. METHOD: College student simultaneous users (N = 341; 53% women; 74% White) completed five daily surveys for 54 days. Mixed-effects models examined motives and contexts of simultaneous use occasions as a function of whether alcohol and cannabis use were (a) both planned versus (b) unplanned, no use planned, or (c) unplanned, single-substance use planned and whether alcohol and cannabis consumption and negative simultaneous use-related consequences varied across planned versus unplanned occasions. RESULTS: Social and enhancement motives were related to planned simultaneous use; offered and coping motives were associated with planned single-substance use that became simultaneous use (vs. planned simultaneous use). Compared to unplanned use, planned simultaneous use was negatively associated with using at home or alone, and positively associated with using with others, more intoxicated people, and more people using cannabis. Planned simultaneous use was associated with more alcohol and cannabis consumption. No significant differences were found for negative consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Planned simultaneous use was motivated by social and enhancement reasons, whereas planned single-substance use that became simultaneous use was more likely motivated by offers or for coping. Planned simultaneous use resulted in greater consumption, but not negative consequences. Results provide specific motives and contexts associated with unplanned and planned simultaneous use to be incorporated into real-time interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2022 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025553

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is considerable variation in how college student drinkers evaluate alcohol-related consequences across time and consequence type. Previous qualitative work suggested that students perceive consequences less negatively under certain circumstances (i.e., higher intoxication, when less time has passed, positive mood, after discussing with friends). The present study sought to confirm these patterns, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) during drinking episodes paired with retrospective next-day assessments. METHOD: For 28 days, heavy-drinking college students (n = 90, 50% female) completed self-reports during drinking episodes and the next morning. Measures included alcohol use, subjective intoxication, mood, negative consequences (e.g., being aggressive) and positive consequences (e.g., new friend), and consequence-specific evaluations. RESULTS: Consistent with hypotheses, multilevel models revealed that during drinking events compared to the next morning, average evaluations of negative and positive consequences were less negative and more positive, respectively. During drinking events, neither subjective intoxication nor estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) was associated with positive or negative evaluations. In morning reports, more positive mood was associated with less negative evaluations of negative consequences and more positive evaluations of positive consequences. Next-day discussion with friends was not significantly associated with consequence evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to assess subjective consequence evaluations in real time as well as retrospectively, for the same events. Findings continue to support the role of context (timing, mood) on subjective consequence evaluations, and suggest that ecological momentary interventions targeting alcohol consequences and related cognitions might best be delivered the morning after drinking, to capitalize on relatively more negative perceptions of one's drinking experiences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(1): 55-63, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040760

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: College campuses closed in March 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic, disrupting the lives of students. The goal of the present study was to examine whether cannabis use changed from before campus departures prompted by COVID-19 to after campus departures and after the semester ended--and if living situation explained observed changes. We also examined changes in specific formulations of cannabis and self-reported reasons for perceived changes in use frequency. METHOD: A sample of 223 college student cannabis users (61% female) from three universities completed two online surveys (one in May 2020 assessing cannabis use pre-campus closure [pre-closure] and since campus closed [post-closure-1], and another in September 2020 assessing cannabis use since remote classes ended [post-closure-2]). RESULTS: Any use of cannabis and use of each specific formulation (leaf, edibles, concentrates) declined from pre-closure to post-closure-1, whereas the frequency of use did not change. Any cannabis use declined for those who stayed living dependently or moved to dependent living. Leaf use declined for all groups, concentrate use declined only for those who moved from independent to dependent living, and edible use declined only for those who stayed living dependently or moved to dependent living. Cannabis use did not change between post-closure-1 and post-closure-2, regardless of living situation stability or transition. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, among a sample of cannabis-using college students, the prevalence of any cannabis use, but not frequency of use, was reduced during the pandemic. Living with parents appears to be protective against frequent cannabis use.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudiantes , Universidades
5.
Psychol Med ; 52(3): 446-456, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546286

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most highly co-occurring psychiatric disorder among veterans with cannabis use disorder (CUD). Despite some evidence that cannabis use prospectively exacerbates the course of PTSD, which in turn increases the risk for CUD, the causal nature of the relationship between cannabis and psychiatric comorbidity is debated. The longitudinal relationship between PTSD diagnosis and traumatic intrusion symptoms with cannabis use and CUD was examined using cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) analysis. METHODS: Prospective data from a longitudinal observational study of 361 veterans deployed post-9/11/2001 included PTSD and CUD diagnoses, cannabis use, and PTSD-related traumatic intrusion symptoms from the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms. RESULTS: A random intercept CLPM analysis that leveraged three waves (baseline, 6 months and 12 months) of cannabis use and PTSD-related intrusion symptoms to account for between-person differences found that baseline cannabis use was significantly positively associated with 6-month intrusion symptoms; the converse association was significant but reduced in magnitude (baseline use to 6-month intrusions: ß = 0.46, 95% CI 0.155-0.765; baseline intrusions to 6-month use: ß = 0.22, 95% CI -0.003 to 0.444). Results from the two-wave CLPM reveal a significant effect from baseline PTSD to 12-month CUD (ß = 0.15, 95% CI 0.028-0.272) but not from baseline CUD to 12-month PTSD (ß = 0.12, 95% CI -0.022 to 0.262). CONCLUSIONS: Strong prospective associations capturing within-person changes suggest that cannabis use is linked with greater severity of trauma-related intrusion symptoms over time. A strong person-level directional association between PTSD and CUD was evident. Findings have significant clinical implications for the long-term effects of cannabis use among individuals with PTSD.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Abuso de Marihuana , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Veteranos , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Abuso de Marihuana/complicaciones , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Veteranos/psicología
6.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107088, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487979

RESUMEN

Alcohol outcomes expectancies (AOEs) are robust predictors of alcohol initiation and escalation of drinking behavior among adolescents. Although measurement invariance is a prerequisite for inferring valid comparisons of AOEs across groups (e.g., age), empirical evidence is lacking. In a secondary data analysis study, we employed regularized moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) to simultaneously test differential item functioning (DIF) across age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and alcohol initiation for a 22-item, two-factor measure of positive and negative AOEs among adolescents (analytic n = 936 drawn from a parent study of 1023 adolescents). Evidence of DIF was minimal, with no DIF for the negative AOE factor and DIF for only two items of the positive AOE factor. The item "feel grown up" exhibited DIF by age, and the item "feel romantic" exhibited DIF by SES. After accounting for DIF, the positive AOE latent factor mean differed by SES, age, and alcohol initiation, and exhibited lower variability by alcohol initiation. The negative AOE latent factor mean differed by sex and SES, with greater variability by SES and age and lower variability by alcohol initiation. Group-differences findings for age and alcohol initiation are consistent with prior work, and differences by sex and SES are a new contribution to the literature that should prompt additional research to ensure replicability. The present study demonstrates the utility of the MNLFA technique for examining comprehensive measurement invariance, particularly for applied researchers who seek to examine substantive research questions while accounting for any DIF present in the scales used.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Adolescente , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Padres , Psicometría
7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(6): 782-791, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762038

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and cannabis use as well as their simultaneous use are common among U.S. college students. Reasons for use are proximal predictors of consumption and consequences. Little research has examined possible adverse effects of endorsing multiple motives on a given use day. We examined the effects of the number of motives on consumption and negative consequences for alcohol-only, cannabis-only, and simultaneous-use days. METHOD: College students (N = 341; 53% women; mean age = 19.79 years) who reported past-month simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use completed 54 days of data collection. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to examine the effects of endorsing multiple motives on consumption and consequences. RESULTS: Across models, endorsing more motives than typical on a given use day (within person) and more motives in general (between person) was related to greater alcohol and cannabis consumption. Endorsing more alcohol-only motives and cannabis-only motives than typical resulted in greater odds of experiencing a negative consequence when accounting for consumption. This within-person effect was not statistically significant for simultaneous-use motives/consequences. Endorsing a greater number of motives across the study (i.e., between person) was not significantly related to consequences beyond consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Research has documented the robust effects of specific motives on substance use outcomes. Our novel findings extend this work by demonstrating the risks associated with endorsing multiple motives on a given use day. In addition to motive type, we recommend that the number of motives endorsed on a given day be considered as a potential risk factor to be targeted to reduce harms associated with substance use.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(10): 2167-2178, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762304

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The reasons for college students to abstain from alcohol and cannabis use on a given day can inform efforts to prevent or intervene in those behaviors. Research on reasons for alcohol nonuse remains in its nascent stages and no study to date has examined reasons for cannabis nonuse on a given day. Here we examine reasons for nonuse among college students after they planned to use alcohol and/or cannabis. METHODS: College students (N = 341; Mage  = 19.79; 53% women; 74% White) from 3 universities completed 54 days of data collection across which approximately 50% were nonuse days. Each morning, participants indicated whether they planned to use that day; nonuse reasons were assessed the next morning, if applicable. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to disentangle within- and between-person effects. RESULTS: On a given nonuse day (at the within-person level), "work" and "school" were reasons associated with having no plan to use alcohol and "to feel in control" was linked to having no plan to use cannabis. "Did not want to get high" was related to forgoing plans (did not use when originally planned) for alcohol use at the within-person level. At the between-person level, "no desire" was associated with no plans for alcohol or cannabis use and "did not want to get high" was related to no plans for cannabis use. "School" and "could not get" were related to forgoing plans for alcohol and cannabis use, respectively, at the between-person level. CONCLUSION: An examination of earlier intentions for alcohol and/or cannabis use on nonuse days yielded novel findings on the intention-behavior gap. Reasons for nonuse can inform intervention and prevention strategies (e.g., those involving social norms or just-in-time adaptive efforts) for alcohol and cannabis use on college campuses.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Intención , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Conducta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
9.
Prev Sci ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716891

RESUMEN

At the population level, use of multiple substances (or "co-use") is prevalent in young adulthood and linked with increased risk for experiencing substance-related harms. Less understood is the heterogeneity of substance use behaviors within individuals and across days, as well as the proximal predictors of these daily use patterns. The present study applied latent class analysis to daily diary data to identify daily substance use patterns and compare day-level class membership based on day-level stress and positive and negative affect among a higher-risk sample of young adult substance users. Participants (n = 152) completed up to 13 daily assessments of stress, affect, and substance use behavior. Among substance use days, five classes of days were identified: cannabis (some alcohol; 43% of days), alcohol-only (26%), vaping (some alcohol, cannabis; 24%), stimulant + alcohol (some cannabis, vaping; 4%), and cigarette-only (3%) days. Days with lower levels of perceived stress were significantly more likely to be alcohol-only Days relative to being days characterized by cigarette use, cannabis use, or multiple drug combinations. Days with higher levels of stress and negative affect were more likely to be cigarette-only days relative to cannabis and vaping days. Study findings document the wide range of substance use and co-use behaviors exhibited among young adults in daily life and highlight the importance of considering risk factors that correspond to days of problematic use patterns.

11.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(11): 2294-2308, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use shows age-graded patterning, with normative use progressing through characteristic milestones of escalating use or severity. Despite some knowledge about the timing of milestone attainment and sequencing across milestones, there is a gap in our understanding of the earliest stages of use. This study characterizes the timing, sequencing, and speed of progression through milestones beginning with the first sip of alcohol. METHODS: Sixth through eighth graders (N = 1023; 52% female; 76% White; M = 12.23 years old) completed web surveys through the end of high school. Participants reported on alcohol experiences including the first sip, full drink, consumption of 3+ drinks/occasion (heavy drinking), being drunk, and experiencing acute consequences, from which milestone age and speed of progression (duration) were calculated. Milestone prevalence, sequencing, and timing were characterized, and associations between age of attainment and speed of progression were examined. We also examined whether milestone timing and progression varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. RESULTS: Overall, milestones followed the expected ordering with the exception of heavy drinking (3+ drinks/occasion) and being drunk, which appear to index similar experiences. An earlier age of attainment was associated with an increased likelihood of attaining each of the milestones. In contrast, once a milestone was achieved, there was reduced risk of initiation of subsequent adjacent milestones for individuals with an earlier first sip and full drink, and earlier initiation was associated with a longer duration to subsequent milestones. Girls were more likely to attain all milestones than boys, but there was no sex difference in the age of attainment. In contrast, Hispanic youth reported earlier ages of initiation than White non-Hispanic youth, but the likelihood of attainment did not vary by race/ethnicity. Rapid progression was observed in females but did not vary by race/ethnicity. DISCUSSION: Risks associated with early drinking are complex, with little support for normative ordering of milestones beyond the first sip. Although early drinking is associated with an increased risk of subsequent drinking, it does not appear to place the drinker on an accelerated course to heavier use. A nuanced understanding of risks associated with milestone timing may inform intervention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Edad de Inicio , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
12.
Subst Use Misuse ; 56(13): 1972-1981, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499566

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) continues to be a concern on college campuses. Previous research demonstrates a strong link between NPS and use of other substances, particularly alcohol and marijuana among college students. Simultaneous use of NPS with other substances has become an increasing concern. Given the high rates of NPS and simultaneous NPS with other substances, research examining substance use patterns and motives among students is warranted. Method: This study evaluated group differences in alcohol and marijuana use patterns, consequences, and motives among college students: a) with no NPS history (No NPS); b) engaged in NPS with no simultaneous use (Non-Sim NPS); and c) engaged in simultaneous NPS with alcohol and/or marijuana (Sim NPS). Participants included 1,108 students from three universities who reported past-year marijuana and alcohol use. Results: Overall, 32.8% reported lifetime NPS with 12.5% indicating NPS in the previous 3 months, of which 51.1% reported simultaneous NPS with alcohol and 40.2% with marijuana. Significant group differences for all drinking and marijuana outcomes were found, with heaviest rates among the Sim NPS group, followed by the Non-Sim NPS group, and the No NPS group. The Sim NPS group reported greater motives for using marijuana to alter the effects of other substances. Conclusions: College students engaged in simultaneous NPS with alcohol and marijuana are a high-risk group that should be the focus of prevention and intervention programs in the campus setting.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Motivación , Prescripciones , Universidades
13.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 698-711, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472880

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Given the adverse outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and marijuana (SAM) use, understanding factors that give rise to occasions of simultaneous use is critical. This study examines the relationships between situational motives and contexts and three situational outcomes: simultaneous alcohol and marijuana use (SAM) use versus cannabis-only use, number of cannabis uses, and subjective effects. METHOD: Past-month SAM users (n = 341; 52% female; 75% White; 10% Latinx/Hispanic; age 18-24) from three U.S. college campuses completed 8 weeks of surveys up to five times a day. Three-level generalized linear mixed-effects models tested the effects of situational motives and social and physical contexts on occasion type (SAM vs. cannabis-only), cannabis use, and subjective effects. RESULTS: Situational social and enhancement motives were related to greater odds of SAM relative to cannabis-only use; expansion motives were reported more often on cannabis-only occasions. Using with others and at friends' places, being with others consuming cannabis, and being with others who are intoxicated were more likely when combining alcohol with cannabis. Increased number of cannabis uses and subjective effects in a social context were evident only on cannabis-only occasions. Using alone and using at home were greater on cannabis-only occasions and were associated with lower cannabis use and subjective effects. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of alcohol and cannabis use occurs during social situations and when motivated by positive reinforcement but number of cannabis uses is not increased when consuming cannabis with alcohol in social situations. Characterizing the complex interplay of situational factors that contribute to risky use will inform interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Humanos , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Motivación , Adulto Joven
14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 587-596, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424029

RESUMEN

Objective: Alcohol-related consequences are most often examined as outcomes of alcohol use. However, it is also possible that experiencing consequences may predict future drinking behavior. The predictive power of consequences on future drinking behavior may involve both objective experiences of consequences and subjective evaluations of those consequences (i.e., how positive, how negative). The purpose of the present study was to understand how positive and negative alcohol-related consequences-and evaluations of those consequences-predict elements of the next drinking event among college students. Method: 96 participants reported alcohol use and related consequences over a 28-day daily assessment period. Results: Survival analysis and multilevel modeling were used to examine the influence of positive and negative consequences from a given drinking event on latency to and number of drinks consumed at the next drinking event. Contrary to hypotheses, subsequent drinking was not impacted by recent consequences nor how they were perceived. Conclusions: Though theoretically, experiencing alcohol consequences may impact proximal drinking behavior, findings suggest that, in the current sample, other factors have greater importance in the latency between drinking events and amount of alcohol consumed. Future work should continue to identify event-level predictors that impact behavior at the next drinking event, and ways drinkers attempt to avoid repetition of drinking consequences other than simply drinking less (e.g., protective behavioral strategies), as such factors would be valuable targets for intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Estudiantes , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/psicología , Humanos , Estudiantes/psicología
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444465

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a global pandemic that has resulted in widespread negative outcomes. Face masks and social distancing have been used to minimize its spread. Understanding who will engage in protective behaviors is crucial for continued response to the pandemic. We aimed to evaluate factors that are indicative of mask use and social distancing among current and former college students prior to vaccine access. Participants (N = 490; 67% female; 60% White) were current and former U.S. undergraduate college students. Perceived effectiveness and descriptive norms regarding COVID-19 safety measures, COVID-19-related news watching and seeking, state response timing to stay-at-home mandates, impulsivity-like traits, affect (mood), and demographic variables were assessed. Results found that greater perceived effectiveness indicated increased personal compliance within and across behaviors. Greater norms related to compliance within behaviors (e.g., indoor norms related to indoor compliance). Increased perceived stress, anxiety, and negative affect indicated greater compliance. More positive affect was associated with less compliance. Being non-White, compared to White (p < 0.001), and female, compared to male (p < 0.001), were associated with greater compliance. Overall, early implementation of stay-at-home orders, exposure to COVID-19-related news, and increased perceived effectiveness are crucial for health safety behavior compliance. Findings are important for informing response to health crises, including COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Distanciamiento Físico , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(4): 460-469, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343077

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed parental communication and behavior related to children's Internet and social media usage to delineate profiles of parenting regarding these newer forms of media and associated those profiles with youth alcohol and marijuana use. METHOD: Using data from 748 adolescents (mean age = 15.8, 52% female, 25% non-White) and their parents, latent class analysis was performed to identify classes based on items concerning device ownership, monitoring, and communication of online activities. The associations between class membership and ever use of alcohol and marijuana were then tested, controlling for screen time, general parenting, substance availability, and deviance. RESULTS: We identified five classes: high media parenting (23%), low media parenting (20%), moderate media parenting with limited device access (11%), moderate media parenting with high device access (25%), and low monitoring but high communication about online activities (21%). Probability of class membership was differentially associated with contemporaneous and 1-year prospective alcohol and marijuana use. The low-device-access class had the highest percentage of abstainers at both time points. The lowest rate of abstaining was associated with membership in the high-device-access class but moderate levels of monitoring. Membership in the low media parenting class was associated with use of both substances. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a novel exploration of media parenting, an important construct in the context of increased access to personalized media devices that allow for streaming of mature media content related to substance use.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Responsabilidad Parental , Estudios Prospectivos
17.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197134

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Problematic alcohol use among college students remains a public health concern; thus, there is a need to understand distinct drinking events, such as unplanned and planned drinking. The present study examined motives and social and physical contexts as correlates of unplanned and planned drinking to help inform prevention and intervention. METHOD: College student alcohol and cannabis users (N = 341; 53% women) completed 56 days of data collection (two 28-day bursts) with five repeated daily surveys. Three-level generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to examine associations among motives, physical and social contexts, and unplanned versus planned drinking. We also examined whether unplanned or planned drinking resulted in greater consumption and negative consequences. RESULTS: Social and enhancement motives were related to planned drinking, whereas offered motives (i.e., offers of alcohol) and coping motives were linked to unplanned drinking. Drinking at home, with roommates, or alone was associated with unplanned drinking. Drinking at a bar/restaurant, a party, at a friend's place, with friends, with strangers/acquaintances, with a significant other, or with intoxicated people was linked to planned drinking. Unplanned drinking was related to fewer drinks consumed and fewer negative consequences endorsed. CONCLUSIONS: Findings showed that planned drinking-irrespective of consumption-was related to more negative consequences than unplanned drinking. In addition to targeting intentions to drink, the present study provided specific motives and social and physical contexts that are associated with planned drinking that could be incorporated into ecological momentary interventions focused on harm reduction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970653

RESUMEN

Substance use in young adulthood and polysubstance users (PSU), in particular, pose unique risks for adverse consequences. Prior research on young adult PSU has identified multiple classes of users, but most work has focused on college students. We examined PSU patterns by age and college attendance during young adulthood in two nationally representative samples. Using National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) Wave 1 and NESARC-III data sets, multigroup latent class analysis (MG-LCA) was employed to examine PSU patterns based on age (18-24 vs. 25-34) and determine whether solutions were similar (i.e., statistically invariant) by college attendance/graduation. Classes were estimated by binary past-year use of sedatives, tranquilizers, opioids/painkillers, heroin, amphetamines/stimulants, cocaine, hallucinogens, club drugs, and inhalants, and past-year frequency of alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use. PSU patterns are largely replicated across waves. Model fit supported 3-class solutions in each MG-LCA: Low frequency-limited-range PSU (alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis only), medium-to-high frequency limited-range PSU (alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis only), and extended-range PSU (ER PSU; all substances). Apart from one model, MG-LCA solutions were not invariant by college attendance/graduation, suggesting important differences between these groups. Except for alcohol, cannabis, and cigarette use frequency, results showed that probabilities of illicit and prescription drug use declined in the older age group. Findings also supported examining college and noncollege youth separately when studying PSU. ER PSU may be uniquely vulnerable to coingesting substances, particularly for nongraduates, warranting future research to classify patterns of simultaneous PSU and identify predictors and consequences of high-risk combinations (e.g., alcohol and opioids). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

20.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(6): 691-697, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014687

RESUMEN

Objective: Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis (i.e., marijuana [SAM]) use is highly prevalent among young adults and college students and associated with a number of negative consequences compared to single substance use. The current study examined socio-contextual factors (e.g., physical, situational, social) associated with SAM use versus cannabis-only versus alcohol-only use. Method: Data were collected from college student SAM users (N = 313, 53% women, M age = 19.79; 74% White; 10% Hispanic/Latinx) who completed two bursts (28 days) of online repeated daily surveys (RDS). RDS were collected five times per day during both bursts (3 months apart). Results: Results suggested that odds of being at home were greater for cannabis-only use compared to SAM and SAM compared to alcohol-only use. Odds of being at a friend's place were greater for SAM compared to alcohol-only and cannabis-only use. Odds of being at a party were greater for SAM compared to alcohol-only use and odds of being at a bar or restaurant were greater for alcohol-only compared to SAM use. Results also suggested that odds of having more people in a location consistently were greater for SAM compared to cannabis-only use, and alcohol-only compared to cannabis-only use. Conclusion: Physical and social contexts (parties, friend's homes, and being around more people) are significantly associated with SAM use occasions. These findings are well-aligned with a social-ecological framework and suggest intervention and prevention efforts should take a comprehensive approach to reduce harms associated with SAM use. Future work is needed to examine these associations in diverse samples. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Uso de la Marihuana , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Etanol , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
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