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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38638045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a major health problem worldwide and is associated with high morbidity and mortality with every hour delay in initiation of therapy. A conventional method of blood culture and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) takes around 48-72 hours. Empirical antibiotics need to be administered until the sensitivity report is made available. It has been estimated that 20-50% of the empirical antibiotics are inappropriate, resulting in prolonged hospital stays, adverse effects, and emergence of drug resistance. Additionally, this also puts an extra financial burden on both the patients and healthcare settings. Performing direct Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing (dAST) is an important tool to reduce turn-around time (TAT) by at least 18-24 hours, thus reducing morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. METHODS: Direct AST (dAST) was performed from the positively flagged blood culture bottles received between December, 2021 to May, 2022 from Intensive Care Units (ICUs) on MuellerHinton Agar (MHA) using four drops of withdrawn blood. dAST was performed for six drugs: Ceftriaxone-30 µg (CTR), Piperacillin/Tazobactam-100/10 µg (PIT), Meropenem-10 µg (MRP), Ciprofloxacin-5 µg (CIP), Aztreonam-30 µg (AT), and Colistin (CL). The zone of inhibition was interpreted as per CLSI M100 ed32, 2022 guidelines. A parallel conventional method was also performed to examine for categorical agreement and disagreement. Identification was carried out using MALDI-TOF MS from the colonies that appeared on the dAST plate on the subsequent day. RESULTS: A total of 162 positively flagged blood culture bottles were included in the study. The majority of the Gram-negative organisms were from Enterobacterales (n=109), followed by Acinetobacter spp. (n=28) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=25). Out of the 972 isolate-antimicrobial combinations, overall Categorical Agreement (CA) was seen in 936 (96.3%), whereas disagreement was observed in 36 with minor error (mE) in 21 (2.2%), major error (ME) in 7 (0.7%), and very major error (VME) in 8 (0.8%) when compared to the routine method. Categorical agreement (CA) of > 99% was seen in ceftriaxone (CTR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In comparison, the lowest CA was observed with meropenem (MRP) at 92%. Colistin dAST was performed using the E-strip method, and the result obtained was highly convincing, with an overall disagreement of only 1.2%. CONCLUSION: Rapid dAST from positively flagged blood culture bottles proved to significantly reduce the TAT from the time of sample collection to the first availability of antimicrobial susceptibility report with excellent categorical agreement of > 95% using the conventional disc diffusion method. Results obtained were within the acceptance criteria set by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines of > 90% categorical agreement for a new method. We were able to obtain excellent concordance for colistin using the E-strip method. Performing dAST not only saves a "day", but its proper implementation would save a "life".

2.
Med Mycol ; 62(1)2024 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38130212

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with intracranial involvement in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) and to develop a nomogram model for predicting the risk of intracranial involvement, with a specific focus on perineural spread. An ambispective analysis was conducted on 275 CAM patients who received comprehensive treatment. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors, and a nomogram was created based on the results of the multivariable analysis. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the discriminatory capacity was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). The model's calibration was assessed through a calibration curve and the Hosmer Lemeshow test. In the results, the multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-3.79), HbA1c (OR: 7.168, 95% CI 1.724-25.788), perineural spread (OR: 6.3, 95% CI 1.281-19.874), and the disease stage were independent risk factors for intracranial involvement in CAM. The developed nomogram demonstrated good discriminative capacity with an AUC of 0.821 (95% CI 0.713-0.909) as indicated by the ROC curve. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was well-calibrated, and the Hosmer Lemeshow test yielded a P-value of 0.992, indicating a good fit for the model. In conclusion, this study found that CAM particularly exhibits perineural spread, which is a predictive factor for intracranial involvement. A nomogram model incorporating age, HbA1c, disease stage, and perineural spread was successfully developed for predicting intracranial involvement in CAM patients in both in-patient and out-patient settings.


Discovery of perineural spread in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis reveals a new predictive model for intracranial complications which is crucial for early intervention.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/veterinaria , Hemoglobina Glucada , COVID-19/veterinaria , Curva ROC , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 19(3): 783-787, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37470611

RESUMEN

Introduction: This study was done to quantify the translational setup errors with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatment of head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients. Aims: The objective was to quantify the setup errors by CBCT. Methodology: One hundred patients of HNC were enrolled from March 2020 to March 2021 for IGRT treatment. Pretreatment kV-CBCT images were obtained at the first 3 days of irradiations, and setup error corrections were done in the mediolateral (ML), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Subsequently, a weekly kV-CBCT was repeated for whole duration of radiotherapy for the next 6-7 weeks. Adequacy of planning target volume (PTV) margins was assessed by van Herk's formula. Results: Total 630 CBCT scans of 100 patients were analyzed. Setup errors greater than 3 mm and 5 mm were seen in 11.4% and 0.31% of the patients, respectively. Systematic errors and random errors before correction in ML, SI, and AP directions were 0.10 cm, 0.11 cm, and 0.12 cm and 0.24 cm, 0.20 cm, and 0.21 cm, respectively. Systematic errors and random errors after correction in ML, SI, and AP directions were 0.06 cm, 0.07 cm, and 0.07 cm and 0.13 cm, 0.10 cm, and 0.12 cm, respectively. Conclusion: CBCT at the first 3 fractions and then weekly during radiotherapy is effective to detect the setup errors. An isotropic PTV margin of 5 mm over clinical target volume is safe to account for setup errors, however, in the case of close organ at risk, or with IGRT, a PTV margin of 3 mm can be considered.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagen , Humanos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagen/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Planificación de la Radioterapia Asistida por Computador/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/radioterapia , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico/métodos
4.
J Mycol Med ; 33(2): 101380, 2023 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37031499

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Invasive cerebral aspergillosis (ICA) is a rare but fatal infection affecting neutropenic immunocompromised patients. Recently cases have been reported in non-neutropenic settings also. We hereby present a series of ICA cases in non-neutropenic patients diagnosed at our tertiary care centre in Western India between March to October 2021. METHODS: All patients with clinico-radiological suspicion of CNS infections were analysed. Data regarding Clinico-radiological features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome were collected. After ruling out bacterial, viral and mycobacterial causes, appropriate samples were sent for KOH (potassium hydroxide) wet mount, fungal culture, histopathology and serum/CSF galactomannan. RESULTS: A total of four patients were diagnosed with ICA with a mean age of 43.5 years. Three patients had significant comorbidities; Diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease and COVID-19 pneumonia treated with dexamethasone, respectively. One patient had no known predisposing factor. Radiologically, one patient presented with a frontal brain abscess and two patients had multiple subcortical hyperintensities. Three patients were diagnosed based on CSF galactomannan (Platelia™ Aspergillus antigen, Bio-Rad, France) with OD >1 and one patient had high serum galactomannan (OD >2). CSF culture grew Aspergillus species in two patients. All patients were treated with Voriconazole. One patient recovered, and the remaining three succumbed due to delayed presentation and extensive cerebral involvement. CONCLUSION: Even in non-neutropenic patients, a high index of suspicion is warranted for cerebral aspergillosis. CSF galactomannan can be considered a reliable marker for diagnosing ICA in non-neutropenic settings. Early diagnosis allows timely antifungal therapy, which could be a key to improving the outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Humanos , Adulto , Aspergilosis/diagnóstico , Aspergilosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Aspergillus , Voriconazol/uso terapéutico , Francia , Mananos , Galactosa
5.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1041051, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37089537

RESUMEN

Reviewing "zoonotic diseases" classically brings to mind human infections contracted in close association with animals, where outdoor occupations and afforested lands usually play a key role in the epidemiological triad. However, there is a very common, yet overlooked route of infection where humans may not come in direct contact with animals or implicated environments. Milk-borne diseases are a unique set of infections affecting all age groups and occupational categories of humans, causing 4% of all the foodborne diseases in the world. The infection reservoir may lie with milch animals and associated enzootic cycles, and the infectious agent is freely secreted into the animal's milk. Commercial pooling and processing of milk create unique environmental challenges, where lapses in quality control could introduce infective agents during downstream processing and distribution. The infectious agent is finally brought to the doorstep of both rural and urban households through such animal products. The domestic hygiene of the household finally determines human infections. One health approach can target preventive measures like immunization in animals, pasteurization and stringent quality control during the commercial processing of milk, and finally, hygienic practices at the level of the consumer, to reduce the burden of milk-borne diseases. This review hopes to draw the attention of policymakers to this unique route of infection, because it can be easily regulated with cost-effective interventions, to ensure the safety of this precious food product, permeating the life and livelihood of humans from all walks of life.

6.
Access Microbiol ; 5(1)2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36911424

RESUMEN

Fungal endocarditis is a rare and fatal condition, most frequently caused by species of the genera Candida and Aspergillus. Fever and changing heart murmur are the most common clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is challenging, with prosthetic valve endocarditis being extremely difficult to diagnose. The optimal management of the condition still remains debatable. We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Candida parapsilosis, managed empirically with liposomal amphotericin B, which was later shifted to combination therapy with high-dose echinocandin and fluconazole, but had a fatal outcome because the patient could not undergo timely surgical intervention. Treating C. parapsilosis endocarditis cases is difficult because of their biofilm production on native and prosthetic heart valves. A combined approach consisting of a high index of clinical suspicion, early diagnosis using serological markers followed by culture or PCR and prompt initiation of appropriate antifungals may aid in improving outcomes.

7.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 23(1): e160822207524, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We diagnosed various cases of rhino-orbital-cerebral- COVID-associated Mucormycosis (ROCM-CAM) during India's second wave of COVID-19. This helped formulate novel suggestions for improving laboratory output, applicable anywhere in the world. METHODS: To diagnose ROCM-CAM by microbiological methods, we used direct microscopy and conventional culture on various clinical samples within the shortest turn-around time. DESIGN: Prospective single-center observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with ROCM-CAM. RESULTS: Of 113 suspected cases of ROCM-CAM during May 2021, direct microscopy and culture could confirm the disease in 87.61% and 44.25% of patients, respectively. The highest pathogen isolation was seen from maxillary bone fragments, FESS-guided biopsy from pterygopalatine fossae, nasal turbinates and nasal mucosal biopsy. Direct microscopy could diagnose the disease in almost 40% of patients within 24 hours and 60% within two days. Conventional cultures yielded Rhizopus spp. (86%) as the commonest fungal pathogen followed by Mucor spp. (12%) within 7 days. Deep tissue biopsies are more useful for rapid diagnosis than superficial specimens. Routine fungal cultures can supplement case detection and help prognosticate survivors. CONCLUSION: The management of ROCM is a surgical emergency. The diagnosis of the condition must therefore be prompt and precise. Despite ongoing antifungal therapy, nasal mucosal tissue, FESSguided, and intra-operative tissue biopsies showed the pathogen's highest diagnostic yield. The diagnostic index improved further when multiple (4-5) high-quality specimens were collected. Nasal swabs and crusts, among the most commonly requested specimens worldwide, were found to have an overall low diagnostic potential.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Biopsia , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Prueba de COVID-19
8.
Int Ophthalmol ; 43(6): 1919-1926, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427099

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the outcomes of transcutaneous retrobulbar Amphotericin B (TRAMB) for rhino-orbital-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM) post-COVID-19, as an adjuvant to standard systemic antifungal therapy. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study involving ROCM patients with clinical/radiological orbital involvement, 44 eyes with ROCM stage ≥ 3B received TRAMB for 7 consecutive days with liposomal Amphotericin-B (3.5 mg/ml) with a minimum clinical and radiological follow-up of 3 months. All patients received standard systemic antifungal therapy also as per institutional protocol. Data pertaining to demography, systemic status, clinical involvement, imaging, surgical/medical management were also recorded. Potential eyes for exenteration were excluded. Please confirm if the author names are presented accurately and in the correct sequence (given name, middle name/initial, family name). Author 12 Given name: [Mahendra Kumar ] Last name [Garg]. Also, kindly confirm the details in the metadata are correct.All author names are presented accurately. Details in the metadata are correct. Thank you. RESULTS: Forty-four eyes of 42 patients were included, out of which 30 had diabetes mellitus & 22 had received steroid/oxygen treatment during COVID-19 infection. Forty eyes showed improvement or stable disease on follow-up on radiology. Four eyes which showed progression of the disease in orbit were reaugmented with TRAMB. No patient required exenteration. Subconjunctival haemorrhage occurred in six eyes and temporary blurring of vision in four eyes after TRAMB which resolved spontaneously. CONCLUSION: TRAMB, as an adjuvant to standard systemic antifungal therapy, is associated with a significant reduction or stabilisation of orbital involvement. TRAMB should be considered as an adjuvant therapy for ROCM to reduce disease progression as well as to preserve globe or sight. It has a promising role in preventing potential orbital exenterations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Oftalmopatías , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Humanos , Anfotericina B/uso terapéutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Prospectivos , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Orbitales/tratamiento farmacológico
9.
ISA Trans ; 132: 94-108, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404154

RESUMEN

Human activity recognition can deduce the behaviour of one or more people from a set of sensor measurements. Despite its widespread applications in monitoring activities, robotics, and visual surveillance, accurate, meticulous, precise and efficient human action recognition remains a challenging research area. As human beings are moving towards the establishment of a smarter planet, human action recognition using ambient intelligence has become an area of huge potential. This work presents a method based on Bi-Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (Bi-CRNN) -based Feature Extraction and then Random Forest classification for achieving outcomes utilizing Ambient Intelligence that are at the cutting edge of human action recognition for Autonomous Robots. The auto fusion technique used has improved fusion for utilizing and processing data from various sensors. This paper has drawn comparisons with already existing algorithms for Human Action Recognition (HAR) and tried to propose a heuristic and constructive hybrid deep learning-based algorithm with an accuracy of 94.7%.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Ambiental , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas , Humanos , Reconocimiento de Normas Patrones Automatizadas/métodos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Algoritmos , Actividades Humanas
10.
J Lab Physicians ; 14(3): 351-354, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119428

RESUMEN

The annual cystic echinococcosis (CE) incidence in endemic countries is between 1 and 200 per 100,000 population. The clinical manifestations of CE are associated with damage or dysfunction of target organs and affect primarily the liver in around 70% of cases and lungs in around 20% of cases. The involvement of the spleen is rarely seen, representing 2 to 6% of all CE cases. We describe a 60-year-old female patient who presented with 15 days' history of intermittent fever and abdominal distension, having significant hepatosplenomegaly. CE was diagnosed involving the liver, spleen, and lungs and was confirmed radiologically and microbiologically. CE is caused by the larval or cystic stage of the zoonotic dog-tapeworm. Humans can be infected by ingestion of contaminated food or water. At present, there are nine species under the genus Echinococcus with E. granulosus sensu stricto having worldwide distribution, while the rest are focally distributed. CE involving multiple organs is rare. CE should be taken into consideration in patients with these symptoms in endemic areas.

11.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol ; 34(5): 622-627, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35402152

RESUMEN

Introduction: Mucormycosis and Aspergillosis are opportunistic fungal infections causing significant morbidity and mortality. Post the outbreak of COVID-19, these fungal osteomyelitis have seen a global rise with few atypical presentations noted. Case report: Current case series reports three such atypical presentations of fungal osteomyelitis including mandibular fungal osteomyelitis in two patients, fungal osteomyelitis mimicking space infection in a middle aged male, and suspected mixed fungal osteomyelitis involving maxillary sinus. Aggressive surgical debridement was indicated along with institution of antifungal therapy (Liposomal Amphotericin B, and Posaconazole). The fungal osteomyelitis was successfully treated with surgical and medical management with no recurrence. Discussion: The injudicious use of corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients along with their immunocompromised status increases their susceptibility to opportunistic fungal osteomyelitis. Prompt and aggressive surgical intervention along with antifungal therapy is important after diagnosing fungal osteomyelitis, as a delay could increase the mortality rate considerably.

12.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(1): 118-122, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35309674

RESUMEN

Background: Asymptomatic carriers are responsible for the consistent spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the community. The Government of India has deputed house-to-house survey teams to aid in identifying asymptomatic individuals and their susceptible contacts. We selected door-to-door survey teams of a COVID-19 red zone in western India and determined their infectioncontrol practices and anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobin G (IgG) status. Materials and Methods: This single-day prospective cross-sectional study was conducted by the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care hospital of Jodhpur, in collaboration with the Rajasthan State Health Services. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) use after written informed consent. Venous blood samples were collected and Kavach enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (J Mitra and Co.) was performed to determine anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG status. Results: Out of the total 39 participants, IgG antibody was detected in four. Of them, three reported mild symptoms in the past. Out of two previously real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, only one had detectable IgG antibodies (Ab) in serum. Cloth mask was used by 24, N95 mask by 11, and surgical masks by four. Conclusion: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Abs were detected among four members of house-to-house COVID-19 survey teams in Jodhpur. Most of the team members used cloth masks, whereas the Government of India guidelines has recommended triple-layered surgical masks as minimum essential PPE for healthcare workers in India. More such studies should be conducted to ascertain infection prevention and control practices among such vulnerable frontline workers in our country.

13.
J Mycol Med ; 32(2): 101238, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979299

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of patients with ROCM (Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis) following their medical and surgical management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prognostic study based in a tertiary care center in North-Western India. Patients who developed ROCM post COVID-19 infection from 1st September 2020 to 30th June 2021 were included in this study. Surgical debridement and administration of antifungal therapy was done for the post-COVID-19 ROCM patients. Disease progression and survival was studied up to 5 months of follow-up in the second wave. RESULTS: A total of 145 ROCM patients were included. The mean age at presentation, male: female ratio was 48.2 years and 2:1 respectively. As per our proposed new staging system and treatment strategy, the majority of patients belonged to stage II (31.72%) and stage III (31.03%). On a follow-up period of 5 months, 26 (18%) patients have lost their life and rest of the patients are on strict follow-up. CONCLUSION: ROCM is an extremely aggressive fungal infection which rapidly became an epidemic following the COVID-19 pandemic. The diverse and unique presentation led us to evolve a new strategy to classify and manage these patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones Fúngicas del Ojo , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Infecciones Fúngicas del Ojo/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/cirugía , Enfermedades Orbitales/tratamiento farmacológico , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atención Terciaria
14.
Tanaffos ; 21(2): 207-213, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36879727

RESUMEN

Background: Flexible bronchoscopy is an aerosol-generating procedure (AGP), which increases the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to find COVID-19 symptoms among healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in flexible bronchoscopies for non-COVID-19 indications during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Materials and Methods: The participants of this hospital-based single-center descriptive study were HCWs of our hospital involved in flexible bronchoscopies of patients with non-COVID-19 indications. These patients had no clinical features of COVID-19 and were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal and throat swabs before the procedure. The study outcome was the occurrence of COVID-19 in study participants after exposure to bronchoscopies. Results: Thirteen HCWs performed 81 bronchoscopies on 62 patients. Indications for bronchoscopies included malignancy (61.30%), suspected infections (19.35%), non-resolving pneumonia (6.45%), mucus plug removal (6.45%), central airway obstruction (4.84%), and hemoptysis (1.61%). The mean age of patients was 50.44 ± 15.00 years, and the majority was males (72.58%). Bronchoscopic procedures included 51 bronchoalveolar lavages, 32 endobronchial ultrasound- transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), 26 endobronchial biopsies, 10 transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB), 3 mucus plug removals, 2 conventional TBNA, and 2 radial EBUS-TBLB. Except for two HCWs who complained of transient throat irritation of non-infectious cause, none of the cases developed any clinical features suggestive of COVID-19. Conclusion: A dedicated bronchoscopy protocol helps in minimizing the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs involved in flexible bronchoscopies for non-COVID-19 indications during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

15.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(1): 112-120, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802841

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis has emerged as a major opportunistic infection in patients with COVID-19. High clinical suspicion and prompt imaging are crucial for early diagnosis and management. Our study evaluates imaging characteristics of patients with COVID-19 associated Rhino-orbital-cerebral Mucormycosis (CA-ROCM) in a tertiary care hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data of patients with CA-ROCM who presented between December 2020 to June 2021 was performed. All patients had microbiologically or histologically proven sino-nasal mucormycosis along with documented SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR test and/or classical lung imaging features of COVID-19 infection. The extent of sinus involvement, bony erosions, extra-sinus soft tissue extension, orbital-intracranial invasion, perineural spread, and vascular complications were assessed. RESULTS: Fifty patients were included for the final analysis. Diabetes was the most common associated comorbidity. Seven patients presented with stage I disease, 18 patients with stage II, and 25 patients with stage III disease. The stage of disease showed a positive statistical correlation with HbA1c levels using Pearson's correlation. The common imaging features were "Black turbinate sign" and nonenhancing sino-nasal mucosa (82%), orbital involvement (76%), and diffusion restriction in the optic nerve (24%). Intracranial involvement was seen as perineural extension into the brain (42%), cerebritis (30%), and internal carotid artery involvement (16%). CONCLUSIONS: CA-ROCM is an acute invasive fungal sinusitis with an aggressive clinical course. Black-turbinate sign and peri-antral soft tissue infiltration are early features, whereas extra-nasal tissue infarction, optic nerve diffusion restriction, and vascular invasion are seen with advanced disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E628-E634, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34909490

RESUMEN

The number of outbreaks have progressively increased since many years in India. In this era of globalization and rapid international travel, any infectious disease in one country can become a potential threat to the entire globe. Outbreaks of Nipah, Zika, Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever and Kyasanur Forest Disease have been reported since a decade and now we are facing COVID-19 pandemic. One of the challenges in the prevention of these outbreaks is that as the cases decrease, the felt need declines, the public demand decreases and the mitigation responses get overshadowed by the need of emergency responses elsewhere. The One Health approach is a movement to promote alliance between medicine field, veterinary medicine and environmental sciences to upgrade the health of humans, animals, and ecosystem. The data in this article is compiled from different websites and publications of World Health Organization (WHO), Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP), grey literature and media. There is an urgent need for better surveillance and disease burden assessments in the country and to gain detailed insights into vector biology, factors of environment influencing the diseases, mapping of endemic areas, strengthen intersectoral coordination, infection control practices, and ensure use of Personal Protective Equipment's (PPE) and availability of drugs and vaccines to handle the outbreaks in a better way.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Ecosistema , Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea/epidemiología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cureus ; 13(9): e18400, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729277

RESUMEN

Introduction In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the frontline around the world and categorized as a priority group for COVID-19 vaccines. Our study aimed to find out the COVID-19 vaccine awareness, attitude, and acceptance in HCWs in western India. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January 14 and January 28, 2021, at a tertiary care hospital located in western India. Data were collected anonymously using Google Forms. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the sociodemographic variables. The knowledge and attitude of HCWs were analyzed using mean and SD. Multivariate analysis was done to find out the association between participants' attitudes with demographic characteristics. Results Of the total health care workers, 498 answered the survey. The mean age of participants was 29.8 years (SD 6.4), and 354 (71.1%) were male. Among the respondents, 445 (89.4%) would accept a COVID-19 vaccine when available. Four-hundred seventy-six (476) HCWs (95.6%) had excellent knowledge regarding COVID-19 and COVID-19-appropriate behavior. The majority of the subjects (399) had a neutral attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination. Health care professionals (doctors and nurses) had higher acceptance for vaccination against COVID-19 than non-professionals. Conclusions The higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and the excellent knowledge among HCWs will directly enhance the level and acceptability of vaccine among the general population and will definitely help in reducing the mortality and morbidity related to COVID-19.

18.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17250, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540476

RESUMEN

Introduction Lack of specific clinical features makes the diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis difficult. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis especially in cohorts with pre-existing risk factors. This study aimed to study the clinical and radiological characteristics and outcomes in patients with pulmonary nocardiosis. Methods This was a retrospective observational study. Data of confirmed cases with pulmonary nocardiosis were collected from a digital patient management system. Results A total of eight cases of pulmonary nocardiosis were included. The mean age of patients was 50 ± 14.3 years with a female preponderance (62.5%). The most common co-morbidity was chronic lung disease (37.5%). The common clinical feature of pulmonary nocardiosis was cough with expectoration (50%) and the mean duration of symptoms was 18 days. The common radiological (CT thorax) findings were consolidation, bronchiectasis, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and nodularity (50% each). One patient had an extension of pulmonary disease in the chest wall. Microbiological detection of Nocardia spp. was done in sputum samples (50%) and in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples (50%). Culture was positive in two BAL samples. Intravenous empirical antibiotics in combination with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole double standard (15 mg/kg trimethoprim) were started at the time of diagnosis. Ceftriaxone and amikacin were commonly used antimicrobials. Conclusion Nocardia spp. commonly causes disease in patients with pre-existing chronic disease. A high index of suspicion is required in patients with subacute to chronic respiratory symptoms, raised inflammatory markers, and the absence of common respiratory pathogens in evaluation.

19.
Indian J Urol ; 37(3): 270-273, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465958

RESUMEN

Association of mucormycosis with COVID-19 disease is emerging as a matter of concern, with multiple reports of rhino-cerebral-orbital and pulmonary involvement. The association of isolated renal mucormycosis in a patient with a history of COVID-19 infection is unknown. The immune dysregulation associated with COVID, along with the use of steroids, mechanical ventilation, and interleukin-6-directed therapies, predisposes to the development of mucormycosis. We report a rare case of primary renal mucormycosis in a young male following recovery from COVID-19. The unusual mode of presentation, rapidly progressive disease course, and the ensuing dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment merit critical analysis.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 745, 2021 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344324

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Empyema necessitans is a rare pulmonary condition described as the presence of pus in the pleural cavity with insidious extension into the surrounding soft tissue. The common microbial aetiology of empyema necessitans is tuberculosis. Nocardiosis a cause of empyema necessitans is rarely described in the literature. We herein present a case of an 80-year-old male with empyema necessitans with osteomyelitis of rib caused by Nocardia farcinica. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old male presented with complaints of soft swelling on the left lower posterior chest wall associated with dry cough and breathlessness on exertion. Computed Tomography (CT) thorax demonstrated empyema necessitans with features of left fifth rib osteomyelitis. Radiological guided aspiration of the chest wall collection revealed Nocardia species and surgical drainage of abscess was performed. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified the isolate as Nocardia farcinica. He was treated with three-drug regimen: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, amikacin and ceftriaxone for 2 weeks. After showing improvement patient was discharged and advised to take oral Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the next 6 months with periodic follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: As our case demonstrates, the possibility of invasive Nocardiosis should not be overlooked even in immunocompetent patients. Clinicians should aware of this rare entity while treating patients with empyema necessitans.


Asunto(s)
Empiema , Nocardiosis , Nocardia , Osteomielitis , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Humanos , Masculino , Nocardiosis/complicaciones , Nocardiosis/diagnóstico , Nocardiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Osteomielitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Costillas
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