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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2776, 2019 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270319

RESUMEN

Silicon spin qubits have emerged as a promising path to large-scale quantum processors. In this prospect, the development of scalable qubit readout schemes involving a minimal device overhead is a compelling step. Here we report the implementation of gate-coupled rf reflectometry for the dispersive readout of a fully functional spin qubit device. We use a p-type double-gate transistor made using industry-standard silicon technology. The first gate confines a hole quantum dot encoding the spin qubit, the second one a helper dot enabling readout. The qubit state is measured through the phase response of a lumped-element resonator to spin-selective interdot tunneling. The demonstrated qubit readout scheme requires no coupling to a Fermi reservoir, thereby offering a compact and potentially scalable solution whose operation may be extended above 1 K.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(2): 027701, 2018 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30085716

RESUMEN

Quantum shot noise probes the dynamics of charge transfers through a quantum conductor, reflecting whether quasiparticles flow across the conductor in a steady stream, or in syncopated bursts. We have performed high-sensitivity shot noise measurements in a quantum dot obtained in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. The quality of our device allows us to precisely associate the different transport regimes and their statistics with the internal state of the quantum dot. In particular, we report on large current fluctuations in the inelastic cotunneling regime, corresponding to different highly correlated, non-Markovian charge transfer processes. We have also observed unusually large current fluctuations at low energy in the elastic cotunneling regime, the origin of which remains to be fully investigated.

3.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13575, 2016 11 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27882926

RESUMEN

Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.

4.
Nano Lett ; 16(1): 88-92, 2016 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26599868

RESUMEN

Hole spins in silicon represent a promising yet barely explored direction for solid-state quantum computation, possibly combining long spin coherence, resulting from a reduced hyperfine interaction, and fast electrically driven qubit manipulation. Here we show that a silicon-nanowire field-effect transistor based on state-of-the-art silicon-on-insulator technology can be operated as a few-hole quantum dot. A detailed magnetotransport study of the first accessible hole reveals a g-factor with unexpectedly strong anisotropy and gate dependence. We infer that these two characteristics could enable an electrically driven g-tensor-modulation spin resonance with Rabi frequencies exceeding several hundred mega-Hertz.

5.
Nano Lett ; 15(7): 4622-7, 2015 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26047255

RESUMEN

We report the dispersive readout of the spin state of a double quantum dot formed at the corner states of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Two face-to-face top-gate electrodes allow us to independently tune the charge occupation of the quantum dot system down to the few-electron limit. We measure the charge stability of the double quantum dot in DC transport as well as dispersively via in situ gate-based radio frequency reflectometry, where one top-gate electrode is connected to a resonator. The latter removes the need for external charge sensors in quantum computing architectures and provides a compact way to readout the dispersive shift caused by changes in the quantum capacitance during inter-dot charge transitions. Here, we observe Pauli spin-blockade in the high-frequency response of the circuit at finite magnetic fields between singlet and triplet states. The blockade is lifted at higher magnetic fields when intra-dot triplet states become the ground state configuration. A line shape analysis of the dispersive phase shift reveals furthermore an intra-dot valley-orbit splitting Δvo of 145 µeV. Our results open up the possibility to operate compact complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a singlet-triplet qubit and make split-gate silicon nanowire architectures an ideal candidate for the study of spin dynamics.

6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 27(15): 154206, 2015 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25783566

RESUMEN

We describe the first implementation of a coupled atom transistor where two shallow donors (P or As) are implanted in a nanoscale silicon nanowire and their electronic levels are controlled with three gate voltages. Transport spectroscopy through these donors placed in series is performed both at zero and microwave frequencies. The coherence of the charge transfer between the two donors is probed by Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interferometry. Single-charge transfer at zero bias (electron pumping) has been performed and the crossover between the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes is studied.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(13): 136802, 2013 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23581354

RESUMEN

We report on microwave-driven coherent electron transfer between two coupled donors embedded in a silicon nanowire. By increasing the microwave frequency we observe a transition from incoherent to coherent driving revealed by the emergence of a Landau-Zener-Stückelberg quantum interference pattern of the measured current through the donors. This interference pattern is fitted to extract characteristic parameters of the double-donor system. In particular we estimate a charge dephasing time of 0.3±0.1 ns, comparable to other types of charge-based two-level systems. The demonstrated coherent coupling between two dopants is an important step towards donor-based quantum computing devices in silicon.

8.
Nat Commun ; 4: 1581, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23481389

RESUMEN

With the development of single-atom transistors, consisting of single dopants, nanofabrication has reached an extreme level of miniaturization. Promising functionalities for future nanoelectronic devices are based on the possibility of coupling several of these dopants to each other. This already allowed to perform spectroscopy of the donor state by d.c. electrical transport. The next step, namely manipulating a single electron over two dopants, remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate electron pumping through two phosphorus donors in series implanted in a silicon nanowire. While quantized pumping is achieved in the low-frequency adiabatic regime, we observe remarkable features at higher frequency when the charge transfer is limited either by the tunnelling rates to the electrodes or between the two donors. The transitions between quantum states are modelled involving a Landau-Zener transition, allowing to reproduce in detail the characteristic signatures observed in the non-adiabatic regime.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 108(20): 206812, 2012 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23003174

RESUMEN

We measure a large valley-orbit splitting for shallow isolated phosphorus donors in a silicon gated nanowire. This splitting is close to the bulk value and well above previous reports in silicon nanostructures. It was determined using a double dopant transport spectroscopy which eliminates artifacts induced by the environment. Quantitative simulations taking into account the position of the donors with respect to the Si/SiO2 interface and electric field in the wire show that the values found are consistent with the device geometry.

10.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 5(2): 133-7, 2010 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19966793

RESUMEN

One consequence of the continued downward scaling of transistors is the reliance on only a few discrete atoms to dope the channel, and random fluctuations in the number of these dopants are already a major issue in the microelectronics industry. Although single dopant signatures have been observed at low temperatures, the impact on transistor performance of a single dopant atom at room temperature is not well understood. Here, we show that a single arsenic dopant atom dramatically affects the off-state room-temperature behaviour of a short-channel field-effect transistor fabricated with standard microelectronics processes. The ionization energy of the dopant is measured to be much larger than it is in bulk, due to its proximity to the buried oxide, and this explains the large current below threshold and large variability in ultra-scaled transistors. The results also suggest a path to incorporating quantum functionalities into silicon CMOS devices through manipulation of single donor orbitals.


Asunto(s)
Electroquímica/métodos , Nanoestructuras/química , Nanotecnología/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Cristalización , Electroquímica/instrumentación , Electrónica/instrumentación , Tamaño de la Partícula , Silicio/química , Propiedades de Superficie , Temperatura , Termodinámica , Transistores Electrónicos
11.
Nature ; 405(6782): 50-3, 2000 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10811213

RESUMEN

Shot noise refers to the fluctuations in electrical current through a device arising from the discrete nature of the charge-carrying particles. Recent experiments have exploited the fact that the shot noise is proportional to the charge of the carriers to establish fractional quantization of quasiparticles in the fractional quantum Hall effect. By a similar argument, it is expected that when a superconducting reservoir emits Cooper pairs, (which have a charge twice that of an electron) into a short normal-metal wire, the shot noise should be double that obtained for a normal-metal reservoir. Although the charge of Cooper pairs has been well established by flux quantization and tunnel experiments, doubling of their shot noise has not yet been observed. Here we report a shot-noise experiment using a short diffusive normal-metal superconductor contact, in which we confirm the predicted noise behaviour for double charges. The measurements, taken over a large range of bias current, establish that phase coherence is not required to observe the effect.

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