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2.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195820

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a need for an easily accessible biomarker of sympathetic nervous activation in essential hypertension, but none exists. Heart rate (HR) has been suggested, but requires validation, now doubly important as an elevated HR in hypertension has emerged as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. METHODS: Isotope dilution methodology was used to measure total and regional noradrenaline spillover and adrenaline secretion rates in 30 patients with unmedicated essential hypertension and in a comparator group of 48 healthy participants with normal blood pressure. The particular interest was in the relationship of measured HR to cardiac noradrenaline spillover, the measure of cardiac sympathetic activity. RESULTS: Sympathetic activation was present in the patients with essential hypertension, evident in significantly increased mean cardiac, renal and total noradrenaline spillover rates. Adrenaline secretion was normal. HR in hypertension correlated directly with cardiac noradrenaline spillover (r = 0.82, P = 9.3 × 10), but not with renal noradrenaline spillover or adrenaline secretion. 67% of the variance in HR was attributable to differences in cardiac sympathetic activity. Among hypertensive patients there was no internal correlation between cardiac noradrenaline spillover, renal noradrenaline spillover and adrenaline secretion; the sympathetic activation commonly was not 'global'. In healthy participants HR did not correlate with measures of sympathetic activity or adrenaline secretion. CONCLUSION: When sympathetic activation exists in essential hypertension it is differentiated, not necessarily involving all sympathetic outflows. An elevated HR proved to be a biomarker of cardiac sympathetic activation but not activation of the renal sympathetic outflow. Identifying activation of the cardiac sympathetic outflow as the prime mechanism of hypertension tachycardia is relevant to therapies which should now be considered to minimize cardiovascular risk in this clinical setting. Is an elevated HR a valid biomarker of sympathetic activation in essential hypertension? Yes, but only for the cardiac sympathetic outflow. The unavoidable principle is that regional differentiation of sympathetic responses in essential hypertension means that no simple test can ever represent each and every sympathetic outflow.

4.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51862

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. La Comisión Lancet de Hipertensión determinó que una medida clave para responder a la carga mundial que representa la hipertensión arterial era mejorar la calidad de las mediciones de la presión arterial, mediante la utilización de dispositivos cuya exactitud haya sido validada. En la actualidad existen 3000 dispositivos comercializados, pero muchos no tienen datos publicados sobre pruebas de exactitud conformes a las normas científicas establecidas. La falta de regulación o su ineficiencia, que permiten la autorización de dispositivos para uso comercial sin una validación oficial, posibilitan este problema. Además, han surgido tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial (por ejemplo, los sensores sin brazalete) sobre las cuales no existe unanimidad en la comunidad científica con respecto a las normas de exactitud de la medición. En conjunto, estos aspectos contribuyen a la disponibilidad generalizada de tensiómetros de consultorio o domiciliarios que ofrecen una exactitud limitada o incierta, que llevan a diagnósticos, manejo y farmacoterapia inapropiados de la hipertensión a escala mundial. Los problemas más importantes relacionados con la exactitud de los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial se pueden resolver mediante el requisito regulatorio de una validación independiente obligatoria de los dispositivos, en consonancia con la norma ISO universalmente aceptada. Esta es una recomendación básica y constituye una necesidad internacional acuciante. Otras recomendaciones clave son la elaboración de normas de validación específicas para las tecnologías nuevas de medición de la presión arterial y la publicación en línea de listas de los dispositivos nuevos exactos que están a la disposición de los usuarios y los profesionales de salud. Las recomendaciones están en consonancia con las políticas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud sobre los dispositivos médicos y la atención universal de la salud. El cumplimiento de las recomendaciones aumentará la disponibilidad mundial de dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial que sean exactos y tendrá como efecto un mejor diagnóstico y tratamiento, reduciendo así la carga mundial de la hipertensión.


[ABSTRACT]. The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


[RESUMO]. A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico , Salud Global , Tecnología Biomédica , Estándares de Referencia , Equipo para Diagnóstico
6.
Med J Aust ; 212(9): 422-427, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172533

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This statement from the Australian Chronic Disease Prevention Alliance, the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation and the Editorial Committee for Remote Primary Health Care Manuals communicates the latest consensus advice of guideline developers, aligning recommendations on the age to commence Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander CVD risk assessment across three guidelines. MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS: In Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples without existing CVD: CVD risk factor screening should commence from the age of 18 years at the latest, including for blood glucose level or glycated haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum lipids, urine albumin to creatinine ratio, and other risk factors such as blood pressure, history of familial hypercholesterolaemia, and smoking status. Individuals aged 18-29 years with the following clinical conditions are automatically conferred high CVD risk: ▶type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria; ▶moderate to severe chronic kidney disease; ▶systolic blood pressure ≥ 180 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mmHg; ▶familial hypercholesterolaemia; or ▶serum total cholesterol > 7.5 mmol/L. Assessment using the National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance absolute CVD risk algorithm should commence from the age of 30 years at the latest - consider upward adjustment of calculated CVD risk score, accounting for local guideline use, risk factor and CVD epidemiology, and clinical discretion. Assessment should occur as part of an annual health check or opportunistically. Subsequent review should be conducted according to level of risk. CHANGES IN MANAGEMENT AS A RESULT OF THIS STATEMENT: From age 18 years (at the latest), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults should undergo CVD risk factor screening, and from age 30 years (at the latest), they should undergo absolute CVD risk assessment using the NVDPA risk algorithm.

7.
J Hypertens ; 38(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790375

RESUMEN

: The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organisation for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.

8.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e21, 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1101778

RESUMEN

resumen está disponible en el texto completo


ABSTRACT The Lancet Commission on Hypertension identified that a key action to address the worldwide burden of high blood pressure (BP) was to improve the quality of BP measurements by using BP devices that have been validated for accuracy. Currently, there are over 3 000 commercially available BP devices, but many do not have published data on accuracy testing according to established scientific standards. This problem is enabled through weak or absent regulations that allow clearance of devices for commercial use without formal validation. In addition, new BP technologies have emerged (e.g. cuffless sensors) for which there is no scientific consensus regarding BP measurement accuracy standards. Altogether, these issues contribute to the widespread availability of clinic and home BP devices with limited or uncertain accuracy, leading to inappropriate hypertension diagnosis, management and drug treatment on a global scale. The most significant problems relating to the accuracy of BP devices can be resolved by the regulatory requirement for mandatory independent validation of BP devices according to the universally-accepted International Organization for Standardization Standard. This is a primary recommendation for which there is an urgent international need. Other key recommendations are development of validation standards specifically for new BP technologies and online lists of accurate devices that are accessible to consumers and health professionals. Recommendations are aligned with WHO policies on medical devices and universal healthcare. Adherence to recommendations would increase the global availability of accurate BP devices and result in better diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, thus decreasing the worldwide burden from high BP.


RESUMO A Comissão Lancet sobre Hipertensão Arterial identificou que uma iniciativa central para enfrentar a carga mundial da hipertensão arterial seria a melhoria na qualidade da mensuração da pressão arterial pelo uso aparelhos de pressão arterial validados quanto à acurácia. Atualmente, existem mais de 3 000 aparelhos de pressão arterial disponíveis comercialmente; entretanto, muitos não têm dados publicados sobre testes de acurácia realizados de acordo com padrões científicos estabelecidos. Este problema resulta de regulamentação fraca ou inexistente, o que permite a aprovação para uso comercial de dispositivos sem validação formal. Além disso, surgiram novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial (por exemplo, sensores sem algemas) sem consenso científico quanto aos padrões de acurácia. No conjunto, essas questões contribuem para a oferta generalizada de dispositivos de pressão arterial clínica e domiciliar com acurácia limitada ou incerta, levando a diagnóstico, gerenciamento e tratamento inadequados da hipertensão em escala global. Os problemas mais significativos relacionados com a acurácia dos dispositivos de pressão arterial podem ser resolvidos por regulamentação que imponha a obrigatoriedade de validação independente dos aparelhos de pressão arterial, de acordo com a norma universalmente aceita pela Organização Internacional de Normalização. Esta é uma recomendação fundamental para a qual existe uma necessidade internacional urgente. Outras recomendações essenciais incluem o desenvolvimento de padrões de validação especificamente para novas tecnologias de mensuração da pressão arterial e listas on-line de aparelhos com acurácia adequada que sejam acessíveis aos consumidores e profissionais de saúde. As recomendações estão alinhadas com as políticas da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre dispositivos médicos e atenção universal à saúde. A adesão às recomendações aumentaria a oferta global de dispositivos de pressão arterial com acurácia adequada e resultaria em melhor diagnóstico e tratamento da hipertensão arterial, diminuindo assim a carga mundial dessa doença.

9.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(5): 662-667, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859142

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in women globally, accounting for 32% of deaths in females. There are several female-specific risk factors for CVD that are under appreciated clinically, insufficiently researched and not given adequate attention in CVD risk prediction. Hypertensive and metabolic disorders of pregnancy are independent risk factors for the development of premature CVD. They confer more than double the risk of CVD in exposed women, but are not included in any current, multivariable CVD risk prediction models. Failure to recognise this risk leads to a lost opportunity to identify at risk women, institute primary preventive strategies, and potentially improve their health trajectory. This also translates into a missed opportunity to educate women and their families about their CVD risks, and to a lack of awareness and prioritisation of CVD within the broader community. Improving CVD outcomes for women globally also requires attention to research methodology and analysis. Researchers should be encouraged to include a thorough pregnancy history in prospective CVD datasets and to power their studies to report on gender disaggregated CVD outcomes. Particular attention should be given to the inclusion of young women of child-bearing age in CVD intervention trials. Ultimately, women should be offered CVD assessment using gender specific risk prediction models that are validated across broad ethic and socioeconomic groups. These prediction models should account for female specific risk factors and their complex interactions with traditional risk factors. This will pave the way for a gender-specific approach to CVD diagnosis, investigation and management.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012630, 2019 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679444

RESUMEN

Background Information is scarce regarding effects of antihypertensive medication on blood pressure variability (BPV) and associated clinical outcomes. We examined whether antihypertensive treatment changes BPV over time and whether such change (decline or increase) has any association with long-term mortality in an elderly hypertensive population. Methods and Results We used data from a subset of participants in the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study (n=496) aged ≥65 years who had 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings at study entry (baseline) and then after a median of 2 years while on treatment (follow-up). Weighted day-night systolic BPV was calculated for both baseline and follow-up as a weighted mean of daytime and nighttime blood pressure standard deviations. The annual rate of change in BPV over time was calculated from these BPV estimates. Furthermore, we classified both BPV estimates as high and low based on the baseline median BPV value and then classified BPV changes into stable: low BPV, stable: high BPV, decline: high to low, and increase: low to high. We observed an annual decline (mean±SD: -0.37±1.95; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.19; P<0.001) in weighted day-night systolic BPV between baseline and follow-up. Having constant stable: high BPV was associated with an increase in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 3.03; 95% CI, 1.67-5.52) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio: 3.70; 95% CI, 1.62-8.47) in relation to the stable: low BPV group over a median 8.6 years after the follow-up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Similarly, higher risk was observed in the decline: high to low group. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that in elderly hypertensive patients, average BPV declined over 2 years of follow-up after initiation of antihypertensive therapy, and having higher BPV (regardless of any change) was associated with increased long-term mortality.

13.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526682

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes are two of the most important public health problems. Outcomes for patients with these disorders vary considerably, likely due to the added influence of a range of interacting clinical, metabolic, environmental, lifestyle, genetic and psychosocial risk factors associated with these diseases. The Baker Biobank study was designed to characterise these factors to inform better risk prediction, earlier diagnosis and better treatment of CVDs and diabetes. METHODS: This paper describes the detailed methods for the establishment of the Baker Biobank. The study collected extensive phenotypic detail about the participants recruited from Victoria, Australia. Data and samples were collected at the Departments of Cardiology and Respiratory Medicine at the Alfred Hospital and Healthy Hearts Program at the Baker Institute. RESULTS: A total of 6,530 adults with age 18-69 years were recruited into the Biobank. The majority of these participants (63%) were male. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of the Biobank Cohort at the time of data collection was 57(15) years. The study collected data on socio-demographic characteristics, behavioural and lifestyle factors, anthropometric measurements, medical and medication history, and blood levels of various biomarkers. The study also collected and stored Guthrie cards, serum, plasma, buffy coat, whole blood collected in Tempus tubes (for RNA extraction). For some samples extracted DNA and RNA is stored. The Biobank data is also linked to echocardiogram, hospital admission, pathology and mortality datasets. The Baker Biobank data and samples are available for health researchers with approval of Biobank Steering Group and Human Research Ethics Committee. CONCLUSION: The Baker Biobank provides valuable data and samples into the study of the interplay among cardiovascular diseases risk factors and their impact on morbidity and mortality in Australia.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200567

RESUMEN

It is now becomingly increasingly evident that the functions of the mammalian Y chromosome are not circumscribed to the induction of male sex. While animal studies have shown variations in the Y are strongly accountable for blood pressure (BP), this is yet to be confirmed in humans. We have recently shown modulation of adaptive immunity to be a significant mechanism underpinning Y-chromosome-dependent differences in BP in consomic strains. This is paralleled by studies in man showing Y chromosome haplogroup is a significant predictor for coronary artery disease through influencing pathways of immunity. Furthermore, recent studies in mice and humans have shown that Y chromosome lineage determines susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here we review the evidence in animals and humans that Y chromosome lineage influences hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk, with a novel focus on pathways of immunity as a significant pathway involved.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/genética , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/genética , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Cromosoma Y/genética , Animales , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/inmunología , Humanos
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(11): e011792, 2019 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131674

RESUMEN

Background Although acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, relationships with biologically active lipid species potentially associated with plaque disruption/erosion in the context of their lipoprotein carriers are indeterminate. The aim was to characterize lipid species within lipoprotein particles which differentiate ACS from stable coronary artery disease. Methods and Results Venous blood was obtained from 130 individuals with de novo presentation of an ACS (n=47) or stable coronary artery disease (n=83) before coronary catheterization. Lipidomic measurements (533 lipid species; liquid chromatography electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry) were performed on whole plasma as well as 2 lipoprotein subfractions: apolipoprotein A1 (apolipoprotein A, high-density lipoprotein) and apolipoprotein B. Compared with stable coronary artery disease, ACS plasma was lower in phospholipids including lyso species and plasmalogens, with the majority of lipid species differing in abundance located within high-density lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein, 113 lipids; plasma, 73 lipids). Models including plasma lipid species alone improved discrimination between the stable and ACS groups by 0.16 (C-statistic) compared with conventional risk factors. Models utilizing lipid species either in plasma or within lipoprotein fractions had a similar ability to discriminate groups, though the C-statistic was highest for plasma lipid species (0.80; 95% CI, 0.75-0.86). Conclusions Multiple lysophospholipids, but not cholesterol, featured among the lipids which were present at low concentration within high-density lipoprotein of those presenting with ACS. Lipidomics, when applied to either whole plasma or lipoprotein fractions, was superior to conventional risk factors in discriminating ACS from stable coronary artery disease. These associative mechanistic insights elucidate potential new preventive, prognostic, and therapeutic avenues for ACS which require investigation in prospective analyses.

20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650533

RESUMEN

Evidence suggests age and sex differences in risk factors for chronic disease. This study examined lifestyle and biomedical risk factors among men (m) and women (w) in early-middle (25⁻51 years), middle (52⁻64) and older (65+) adulthood. Cross-sectional data from the 2011⁻2012 Australian Health Survey (n = 3024) were analysed. Self-reported dietary, activity, sleep behaviours and collected biomedical data were analysed. Early-middle adults failed to meet fruit, vegetable (95.3%) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB, 34.9%) recommendations. Older adults had higher prevalence of overweight/obesity (70%), high blood pressure (38.0%) and fewer met physical activity guidelines (36.3%). Prior to older adulthood, more men consumed SSBs (early-middle m 45.6%, w 24.4%; middle m 26.0%, w 19.3%), and fewer met sedentary behaviour recommendations (early-middle m 43.2%, w 62.1%; middle m 46.4%, w 63.9%). Differences in overweight/obese women in early-middle (44.8%) to middle adulthood (64.7%) were significant. Biomedical risk was greatest in middle age; abnormal cholesterol/lipids increased specifically for women (total cholesterol early-middle 24.9% middle 56.4%; abnormal LDL-cholesterol early-middle 23.1% middle 53.9%). Adherence to lifestyle guidelines was low; particularly among men. While men exhibited greater clinical risk overall, this significantly increased among women in middle-adulthood. Public health strategies to improve lifestyle, monitor and intervene among middle-aged women are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Bebidas , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Frutas , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Verduras
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