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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126693, 2022 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396957

RESUMEN

Researchers interested in a paper's statement or aiming to acquire useful information from scientific papers rely heavily on references. Additionally, calculation accuracy is important for ensuring the technical soundness of scientific papers. However, inaccurate citations and calculations are common in scientific literature. A recently published paper in the Journal of Hazardous Materials reported a study on microplastics in groundwater and surface water from coastal south India (Tamil Nadu state) and the heavy metal adsorption capacities of different polymers. In this study, we identified critical calculation errors and incorrect reference citations.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
2.
Chemosphere ; 284: 131376, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229894

RESUMEN

This paper discusses some critical weak points and mistakes identified in the original paper. The authors disregarded the importance of field blanks, sampling equipment, and well specifications for proper quality assurance and control. Beneficial field practices guarantee highly reliable results of laboratory analysis for microplastics. In addition, polymer type (chemical composition) and shape (form) are different classification criteria, but the authors mixed these in their description. The distribution and transport of microplastics should be properly understood, along with a knowledge of groundwater flow conditions, such as flow direction and velocity, in the study area.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070629

RESUMEN

Densazalin, a polycyclic alkaloid, was isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona densaspicula collected in Korea. The complete structure of the compound was determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and comparison of the calculated and measured electronic circular dichroism spectra. Densazalin possesses a unique 5,11-diazatricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]tridecan-2,4,6-triene moiety, which is connected by two linear carbon chains. This compound was derived from the biogenetic precursor bis-1,3-dialkylpyridnium. Densazalin exhibited cytotoxic activity on two human tumor cell lines (AGS and HepG2) in the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) bioassay, with IC50 values ranging from 15.5 to 18.4 µM.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides/aislamiento & purificación , Biología Marina , Poríferos/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/farmacología , Animales , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Línea Celular Tumoral , Ensayos de Selección de Medicamentos Antitumorales , Humanos , Análisis Espectral/métodos
4.
Surg Endosc ; 35(1): 200-208, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953735

RESUMEN

Peroral endoscopic myotomy has been recognized as an effective treatment for patients with achalasia. Prior treatment may affect the outcome of subsequent treatment. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of POEM in treatment-naive patients vs. those with prior treatment failure. We retrospectively analyzed the data of achalasia patients who underwent POEM from November 2011 to January 2018. A comparative analysis was performed between De-Novo (DN) and Prior Treatment Failure (PTF) cases. Technical and clinical success, adverse events, operative time for POEM, hospital stay were compared between the two groups Overall, 209 patients with achalasia underwent POEM during the studied period, including 113 patients (54%) in the DN group and 96 patients (45%) in the PTF group. The baseline characteristics of the DN and PTF groups were not significantly different except for duration of disease. The PTF group had longer disease duration than the DN group. (7.92 ± 9.28 vs 4.45 ± 5.67 years, respectively, p = 0.005). Both groups were technically successful. Operative time was longer in the PTF group than that in the de-novo group, but the difference was not significant. The occurrence rates of complications were similar in both groups. Changes in the Eckardt score were comparable in the DN and PTF cases. IRP and LES pressure decreased after POEM. After 6 months, more patients suffered from reflux symptoms in the PTF group, but DeMeester score and endoscopic evaluation were not significantly different POEM is safe and equally effective for patients with prior treatment failure as well as de-novo patients up to 6 months post treatment.


Asunto(s)
Acalasia del Esófago/cirugía , Miotomía/métodos , Cirugía Endoscópica por Orificios Naturales/métodos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Miotomía/efectos adversos , Cirugía Endoscópica por Orificios Naturales/efectos adversos , Tempo Operativo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Clin Endosc ; 54(1): 55-63, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375457

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To date, there is no standard tool to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Typically, GERD is a non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) that does not present endoscopic abnormalities. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has been shown to be an effective tool to identify and diagnose GERD. We aimed to investigate the cellular and vascular changes in vivo and ex vivo through CLE in patients with GERD. METHODS: Patients with refractory GERD who underwent mucosectomy were recruited. The distal esophagus was observed in vivo using CLE. Mucosectomy tissue was stained with acriflavine and CLE image was obtained ex vivo. We compared cellular and vascular changes in CLE between erosive reflux disease (ERD), NERD, and a control group. RESULTS: Eleven patients who underwent anti-reflux mucosectomy and five control patients were enrolled in the study. Patients with ERD and NERD presented greater dilated intercellular space than patients in the control group on CLE image. The diameter, number, and cross-sectional area of the intra-papillary capillary loops (IPCLs) were significantly larger in the ERD group than in the NERD group. The irregular shape of the IPCLs were observed in both patients with ERD and NERD. CONCLUSION: The irregular shape of the IPCLs were significantly correlated with a positive diagnosis of GERD. CLE may diagnose NERD with high sensitivity and accuracy.

6.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 14: 535775, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132872

RESUMEN

Early detection and evaluation of cognitive alteration in chronic liver disease is important for predicting the subsequent development of hepatic encephalopathy. While visuomotor tasks have been rigorously employed for cognitive evaluation in chronic liver disease, there is a paucity of auditory processing task. Here we focused on auditory perception and examined behavioral and haemodynamic responses to a melodic contour identification task (CIT) to compare cognitive abilities in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, N = 30) and healthy controls (N = 25). Further, we used support vector machines to examine the optimal combination of channels of functional near-infrared spectroscopy that can classify cognitive alterations in CLD. Behavioral findings showed that CIT performance was significantly worse in the patient group and CIT significantly correlated with neurocognitive evaluation (i.e., number connection test, digit span test). The findings indicated that CIT can measure auditory cognitive capacity and its difference existing between patient group and healthy controls. Additionally, optimal subsets classified the 16-dimensional haemodynamic data with 78.35% classification accuracy, yielding markers of cognitive alterations in the prefrontal regions (CH6, CH7, CH10, CH13, CH14, and CH16). The results confirmed the potential use of behavioral as well as haemodynamic responses to music perception as an alternative or supplementary method for evaluating cognitive alterations in chronic liver disease.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18109, 2020 10 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093633

RESUMEN

Musical cueing has been widely utilised in post-stroke motor rehabilitation; however, the kinematic evidence on the effects of musical cueing is sparse. Further, the element-specific effects of musical cueing on upper-limb movements have rarely been investigated. This study aimed to kinematically quantify the effects of no auditory, rhythmic auditory, and melodic auditory cueing on shoulder abduction, holding, and adduction in patients who had experienced hemiparetic stroke. Kinematic data were obtained using inertial measurement units embedded in wearable bands. During the holding phase, melodic auditory cueing significantly increased the minimum Euler angle and decreased the range of motion compared with the other types of cueing. Further, the root mean square error in the angle measurements was significantly smaller and the duration of movement execution was significantly shorter during the holding phase when melodic auditory cueing was provided than when the other types of cueing were used. These findings indicated the important role of melodic auditory cueing for enhancing movement positioning, variability, and endurance. This study provides the first kinematic evidence on the effects of melodic auditory cueing on kinematic enhancement, thus suggesting the potential use of pitch-related elements in psychomotor rehabilitation.


Asunto(s)
Señales (Psicología) , Movimiento , Música , Hombro/fisiología , Rehabilitación de Accidente Cerebrovascular/métodos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Estimulación Acústica , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Rango del Movimiento Articular
9.
Clin Endosc ; 52(5): 472-478, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096727

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for wound healing in various medical fields. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of local PRP injections after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: Patients were non-randomly divided into the following two groups: (1) control group in which patients were administered only an intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and (2) a study group in which patients were administered an intravenous PPI and a topical PRP injection. We assessed the reduction in the ulcer area and stage of the ulcer after the procedure (24 hours, 48 hours, and 28 days after endoscopic surgery). RESULTS: We enrolled 7 study and 7 control patients. In the study group, the rate of ulcer reduction was 59% compared to 52% in the control group (p=0.372), 28 days after ESD. There were 5 patients in the S stage and 2 patients in the H stage in the study group compared to no patient in the S stage and 7 patients in the H stage in the control group (p=0.05), 28 days after ESD. There were no serious complications in either group. CONCLUSION: The local injection of PRP is a safe and effective procedure for ulcer healing after ESD.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16737, 2018 11 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425287

RESUMEN

Attention deficits due to auditory distractibility are pervasive among patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). It remains unclear, however, whether attention deficits following ABI specific to auditory modality are associated with altered haemodynamic responses. Here, we examined cerebral haemodynamic changes using functional near-infrared spectroscopy combined with a topological vector-based analysis method. A total of thirty-seven participants (22 healthy adults, 15 patients with ABI) performed a melodic contour identification task (CIT) that simulates auditory distractibility. Findings demonstrated that the melodic CIT was able to detect auditory distractibility in patients with ABI. The rate-corrected score showed that the ABI group performed significantly worse than the non-ABI group in both CIT1 (target contour identification against environmental sounds) and CIT2 (target contour identification against target-like distraction). Phase-associated response intensity during the CITs was greater in the ABI group than in the non-ABI group. Moreover, there existed a significant interaction effect in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during CIT1 and CIT2. These findings indicated that stronger hemodynamic responses involving oxygen exchange in the left DLPFC can serve as a biomarker for evaluating and monitoring auditory distractibility, which could potentially lead to the discovery of the underlying mechanism that causes auditory attention deficits in patients with ABI.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Lesiones Encefálicas/fisiopatología , Música , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Estimulación Acústica , Lesiones Encefálicas/metabolismo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Análisis de Datos , Femenino , Hemodinámica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tiempo de Reacción
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248908

RESUMEN

A key for earcon design in public environments is to incorporate an individual's perceived level of cognitive load for better communication. This study aimed to examine the cognitive load changes required to perform a melodic contour identification task (CIT). While healthy college students (N = 16) were presented with five CITs, behavioral (reaction time and accuracy) and cerebral hemodynamic responses were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Our behavioral findings showed a gradual increase in cognitive load from CIT1 to CIT3 followed by an abrupt increase between CIT4 (i.e., listening to two concurrent melodic contours in an alternating manner and identifying the direction of the target contour, p < 0.001) and CIT5 (i.e., listening to two concurrent melodic contours in a divided manner and identifying the directions of both contours, p < 0.001). Cerebral hemodynamic responses showed a congruent trend with behavioral findings. Specific to the frontopolar area (Brodmann's area 10), oxygenated hemoglobin increased significantly between CIT4 and CIT5 (p < 0.05) while the level of deoxygenated hemoglobin decreased. Altogether, the findings indicate that the cognitive threshold for young adults (CIT5) and appropriate tuning of the relationship between timbre and pitch contour can lower the perceived cognitive load and, thus, can be an effective design strategy for earcon in a public environment.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Acústica/instrumentación , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Ambiente , Diseño de Equipo , Música , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Circulación Cerebrovascular , Femenino , Neuroimagen Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adulto Joven
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29641462

RESUMEN

Older adults are known to have lesser cognitive control capability and greater susceptibility to distraction than young adults. Previous studies have reported age-related problems in selective attention and inhibitory control, yielding mixed results depending on modality and context in which stimuli and tasks were presented. The purpose of the study was to empirically demonstrate a modality-specific loss of inhibitory control in processing audio-visual information with ageing. A group of 30 young adults (mean age = 25.23, Standar Desviation (SD) = 1.86) and 22 older adults (mean age = 55.91, SD = 4.92) performed the audio-visual contour identification task (AV-CIT). We compared performance of visual/auditory identification (Uni-V, Uni-A) with that of visual/auditory identification in the presence of distraction in counterpart modality (Multi-V, Multi-A). The findings showed a modality-specific effect on inhibitory control. Uni-V performance was significantly better than Multi-V, indicating that auditory distraction significantly hampered visual target identification. However, Multi-A performance was significantly enhanced compared to Uni-A, indicating that auditory target performance was significantly enhanced by visual distraction. Additional analysis showed an age-specific effect on enhancement between Uni-A and Multi-A depending on the level of visual inhibition. Together, our findings indicated that the loss of visual inhibitory control was beneficial for the auditory target identification presented in a multimodal context in older adults. A likely multisensory information processing strategy in the older adults was further discussed in relation to aged cognition.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Atención , Percepción Auditiva , Inhibición Psicológica , Percepción Visual , Estimulación Acústica , Adulto , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estimulación Luminosa , Adulto Joven
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1059, 2018 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348411

RESUMEN

Photoacoustic spectroscopy has been shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive blood glucose monitoring. However, the repeatability of such a method is susceptible to changes in skin condition, which is dependent on hand washing and drying due to the high absorption of infrared excitation light to the skin secretion products or water. In this paper, we present a method to meet the challenges of mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose monitoring. By obtaining the microscopic spatial information of skin during the spectroscopy measurement, the skin region where the infrared spectra is insensitive to skin condition can be locally selected, which enables reliable prediction of the blood glucose level from the photoacoustic spectroscopy signals. Our raster-scan imaging showed that the skin condition for in vivo spectroscopic glucose monitoring had significant inhomogeneities and large variability in the probing area where the signal was acquired. However, the selective localization of the probing led to a reduction in the effects of variability due to the skin secretion product. Looking forward, this technology has broader applications not only in continuous glucose monitoring for diabetic patient care, but in forensic science, the diagnosis of malfunctioning sweat pores, and the discrimination of tumors extracted via biopsy.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Glucosa/metabolismo , Microscopía Acústica , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Piel , Piel/metabolismo , Análisis Espectral , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Microscopía Acústica/métodos , Análisis Espectral/métodos
14.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 23(3): 571-580, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878496

RESUMEN

This study was aimed to identify plant growth-promoting bacterial isolates from soil samples and to investigate their ability to improve plant growth and salt tolerance by analysing phytohormones production and phosphate solubilisation. Among the four tested bacterial isolates (I-2-1, H-1-4, H-2-3, and H-2-5), H-2-5 was able to enhance the growth of Chinese cabbage, radish, tomato, and mustard plants. The isolated bacterium H-2-5 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 based on 16S rDNA sequence and phylogenetic analysis. The secretion of gibberellins (GA4, GA8, GA9, GA19, and GA20) from B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 and their phosphate solubilisation ability may contribute to enhance plant growth. In addition, the H-2-5-mediated mitigation of short term salt stress was tested on soybean plants that were affected by sodium chloride. Abscisic acid (ABA) produced by the H-2-5 bacterium suppressed the NaCl-induced stress effects in soybean by enhancing plant growth and GA4 content, and by lowering the concentration of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and proline. These results suggest that GAs, ABA production, and the phosphate solubilisation capacity of B. amyloliquefaciens H-2-5 are important stimulators that promote plant growth through their interaction and also to improve plant growth by physiological changes in soybean at saline soil.

15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(4)2017 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397761

RESUMEN

We propose an approach to match the resonant characteristics of a photoacoustic cell with that of a microphone in order to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio in the photoacoustic sensor system. The synergetic resonance matching of a photoacoustic cell and a microphone was achieved by observing that photoacoustic cell resonance is merged with microphone resonance, in addition to conducting numerical and analytical simulations. Using this approach, we show that the signal-to-noise ratio was increased 3.5-fold from the optimized to non-optimized cell in the photoacoustic spectroscopy system. The present work is expected to have a broad impact on a number of applications, from improving weak photoacoustic signals in photoacoustic spectroscopy to ameliorating various sensors that use acoustic resonant filters.

16.
J Biomed Opt ; 22(9): 91513, 2017 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444151

RESUMEN

We propose a compact and easy to use photoacoustic imaging (PAI) probe structure using a single strand of optical fiber and a beam combiner doubly reflecting acoustic waves for convenient detection of lymph nodes and cancers. Conventional PAI probes have difficulty detecting lymph nodes just beneath the skin or simultaneously investigating lymph nodes located in shallow as well as deep regions from skin without any supplementary material because the light and acoustic beams are intersecting obliquely in the probe. To overcome the limitations and improve their convenience, we propose a probe structure in which the illuminated light beam axis coincides with the axis of the ultrasound. The developed PAI probe was able to simultaneously achieve a wide range of images positioned from shallow to deep regions without the use of any supplementary material. Moreover, the proposed probe had low transmission losses for the light and acoustic beams. Therefore, the proposed PAI probe will be useful to easily detect lymph nodes and cancers in real clinical fields.


Asunto(s)
Ganglios Linfáticos/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagen , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Acústica , Humanos , Ultrasonografía
17.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 8: 134, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27378907

RESUMEN

Cognitive decline is a natural phenomenon of aging. Although there exists a consensus that sensitivity to acoustic features of music is associated with such decline, no solid evidence has yet shown that structural elements and contexts of music explain this loss of cognitive performance. This study examined the extent and the type of cognitive decline that is related to the contour identification task (CIT) using tones with different pitches (i.e., melodic contours). Both younger and older adult groups participated in the CIT given in three listening conditions (i.e., focused, selective, and alternating). Behavioral data (accuracy and response times) and hemodynamic reactions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Our findings showed cognitive declines in the older adult group but with a subtle difference from the younger adult group. The accuracy of the melodic CITs given in the target-like distraction task (CIT2) was significantly lower than that in the environmental noise (CIT1) condition in the older adult group, indicating that CIT2 may be a benchmark test for age-specific cognitive decline. The fNIRS findings also agreed with this interpretation, revealing significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) concentration in the younger (p < 0.05 for Δpre - on task; p < 0.01 for Δon - post task) rather than the older adult group (n.s for Δpre - on task; n.s for Δon - post task). We further concluded that the oxyHb difference was present in the brain regions near the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these findings suggest that CIT2 (i.e., the melodic contour task in the target-like distraction) is an optimized task that could indicate the degree and type of age-related cognitive decline.

18.
Brain Cogn ; 105: 9-21, 2016 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031677

RESUMEN

Different working memory (WM) mechanisms that underlie words, tones, and timbres have been proposed in previous studies. In this regard, the present study developed a WM test with nonverbal sounds and compared it to the conventional verbal WM test. A total of twenty-five, non-music major, right-handed college students were presented with four different types of sounds (words, syllables, pitches, timbres) that varied from two to eight digits in length. Both accuracy and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) were measured. The results showed significant effects of number of targets on accuracy and sound type on oxyHb. A further analysis showed prefrontal asymmetry with pitch being processed by the right hemisphere (RH) and timbre by the left hemisphere (LH). These findings suggest a potential for employing musical sounds (i.e., pitch and timbre) as a complementary stimuli for conventional nonverbal WM tests, which can additionally examine its asymmetrical roles in the prefrontal regions.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Lateralidad Funcional/fisiología , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Música , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción de la Altura Tonal/fisiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 86: 95-103, 2015 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26434797

RESUMEN

3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a well-known contaminant of foods containing hydrolyzed vegetable protein. However, limited toxicity data are available for the risk assessment of 3-MCPD and its carcinogenic potential is controversial. To evaluate the potential toxicity and determine the dose levels for a 26-week carcinogenicity test using Tg rasH2 mice, 3-MCPD was administered once daily by oral gavage at doses of 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day for 28 days to male and female CB6F1-non-Tg rasH2 mice (N = 5 males and females per dose). The standard toxicological evaluations were conducted during the in-life and post-mortem phase. In the 100 mg/kg b.w./day group, 3 males and 1 female died during the study and showed clinical signs such as thin appearance and subdued behavior accompanied by significant decreases in mean b.w. Microscopy revealed tubular basophilia in the kidneys, exfoliated degenerative germ cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule of the testes, vacuolation in the brain, axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve, and cardiomyopathy in the 100, ≥25, ≥50, 100, and 100 mg/kg b.w./day groups, respectively. In conclusion, 3-MCPD's target organs were the kidneys, testes, brain, sciatic nerve, and heart. The "no-observed-adverse-effect level" (NOAEL) of 3-MCPD was ≤25 and 25 mg/kg b.w./day in males and females, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas de Carcinogenicidad , alfa-Clorhidrina/toxicidad , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Bioensayo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos , Neoplasias Experimentales/inducido químicamente , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos
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