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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(3): e201210, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191329

RESUMEN

Importance: The degree to which the presence of mental health disorders is associated with additional medical spending on non-mental health conditions is largely unknown. Objective: To determine the proportion and degree of total spending directly associated with mental health conditions vs spending on other non-mental health conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study of 4 358 975 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in the US in 2015 compared spending and health care utilization among Medicare patients with serious mental illness (SMI; defined as bipolar disease, schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, and major depressive disorder), patients with other common mental health disorders (defined as anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder), and patients with no known mental health disorders. Data analysis was conducted from February to October 2019. Exposure: Diagnosis of an SMI or other common mental health disorder. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk-adjusted, standardized spending and health care utilization. Multivariable linear regression models were used to adjust for patient characteristics, including demographic characteristics and other medical comorbidities, using hospital referral region fixed effects. Results: Of 4 358 975 Medicare beneficiaries, 987 379 (22.7%) had an SMI, 326 991 (7.5%) had another common mental health disorder, and 3 044 587 (69.8%) had no known mental illness. Compared with patients with no known mental illness, patients with an SMI were younger (mean [SD] age, 72.3 [11.6] years vs 67.4 [15.7] years; P < .001) and more likely to have dual eligibility (633 274 [20.8%] vs 434 447 [44.0%]; P < .001). Patients with an SMI incurred more mean (SE) spending on mental health services than those with other common mental health disorders or no known mental illness ($2024 [3.9] vs $343 [6.2] vs $189 [2.1], respectively; P < .001). Patients with an SMI also had substantially higher mean (SE) spending on medical services for physical conditions than those with other common mental health disorders or no known mental illness ($17 651 [23.6] vs $15 253 [38.2] vs $12 883 [12.8], respectively; P < .001), reflecting $4768 (95% CI, $4713-$4823; 37% increase) more in costs for patients with an SMI and $2370 (95% CI, $2290-$2449; 18.4% increase) more in costs for patients with other common mental health disorders. Among Medicare beneficiaries, $2 686 016 110 of $64 326 262 104 total Medicare spending (4.2%) went to mental health services and an additional $5 482 791 747 (8.5%) went to additional medical spending associated with mental illness, representing a total of 12.7% of spending associated with mental health disorders. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, having a mental health disorder was associated with spending substantially more on other medical conditions. These findings quantify the extent of additional spending in the Medicare fee-for-service population associated with a diagnosis of a mental health disorder.

4.
BMJ ; 368: m40, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024637

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between expansion of the Medicaid program under the Affordable Care Act and changes in healthcare spending among low income adults during the first four years of the policy implementation (2014-17). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental difference-in-difference analysis to examine out-of-pocket spending and financial burden among low income adults after Medicaid expansions. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of individuals aged 19-64 years, with family incomes below 138% of the federal poverty level, from the 2010-17 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Four annual healthcare spending outcomes: out-of-pocket spending; premium contributions; out-of-pocket plus premium spending; and catastrophic financial burden (defined as out-of-pocket plus premium spending exceeding 40% of post-subsistence income). P values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: 37 819 adults were included in the study. Healthcare spending did not change in the first two years, but Medicaid expansions were associated with lower out-of-pocket spending (adjusted percentage change -28.0% (95% confidence interval -38.4% to -15.8%); adjusted absolute change -$122 (£93; €110); adjusted P<0.001), lower out-of-pocket plus premium spending (-29.0% (-40.5% to -15.3%); -$442; adjusted P<0.001), and lower probability of experiencing a catastrophic financial burden (adjusted percentage point change -4.7 (-7.9 to -1.4); adjusted P=0.01) in years three to four. No evidence was found to indicate that premium contributions changed after the Medicaid expansions. CONCLUSION: Medicaid expansions under the Affordable Care Act were associated with lower out-of-pocket spending and a lower likelihood of catastrophic financial burden for low income adults in the third and fourth years of the act's implementation. These findings suggest that the act has been successful nationally in improving financial risk protection against medical bills among low income adults.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicaid/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pobreza/economía , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Costo de Enfermedad , Femenino , Financiación Personal/economía , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/economía , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro/economía , Masculino , Medicaid/economía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
Health Serv Res ; 55(2): 249-258, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984494

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the exclusion of patients who die from adjusted 30-day readmission rates influences readmission rate measures and penalties under the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: 100% Medicare fee-for-service claims over the period July 1, 2012, until June 30, 2015. STUDY DESIGN: We examine the 30-day readmission risk across the three conditions targeted by the HRRP: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia. Using logistic regression, we estimate the readmission risk for three samples of patients: those who survived the 30-day period after their index admission, those who died over the 30-day period, and all patients who were admitted to see how they differ. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: We identified and extracted data for Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries admitted with primary diagnoses of AMI (N = 497 931), CHF (N = 1 047 552), and pneumonia (N = 850 552). RESULTS: The estimated hospital readmission rates for the survived and nonsurvived patients differed by 5%-8%, on average. Incorporating these estimates into overall readmission risk for all admitted patients changes the likely penalty status for 9% of hospitals. However, this change is randomly distributed across hospitals and is not concentrated amongst any one type of hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Not accounting for variations in mortality may result in inappropriate penalties for some hospitals. However, the effect of this bias is low due to low mortality rates amongst incentivized conditions and appears to be randomly distributed across hospital types.

7.
JGH Open ; 3(6): 474-479, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832547

RESUMEN

Background and Aim: Although the mortality rate has declined in recent years, amoebic liver abscesses (ALAs) still carry a substantial risk of morbidity. Studies regarding the indicators of severity, complication, or prognosis of ALA are limited in number and heterogeneous in methodology and results. Methods: Clinicodemographic profile, therapeutic modalities, and outcomes of indoor ALA patients admitted between January 2016 and October 2017 were analyzed. An analysis of possible prognostic factors associated with complications and interventional therapy in patients with ALA was performed retrospectively. Results: Data of 198 patients with ALA (mean age: 45 ± 12.1; M:F ratio: 193:5) were analyzed. The volume of abscess (503.1 ± 391.2: 300.2 ± 305.8 mL), elevated liver enzymes, and duration of hospital stay (11.98 ± 5.75): 10.23 ± 4.1 days) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in alcoholic, compared to nonalcoholic, individuals. On univariate analysis, older age, duration of alcohol consumption, smoking, leukocytosis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, and a larger volume of abscess were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) associated with complications. On multivariate analysis, older age, duration of alcohol consumption, smoking, leukocytosis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyponatremia were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) associated with complications. Male gender, hypoalbuminemia, and larger volume of abscess were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with interventional treatment. Conclusion: Older age, leukocytosis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyponatremia, chronic alcoholism, and smoking are independent factors significantly associated with complications in patients with ALA. Hypoalbuminemia, larger volume of abscess, and male gender are independent variables associated with the requirement of interventional therapy.

8.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850990

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare patient outcomes between International Medical Graduate (IMG) versus US medical graduate (USMG) surgeons. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: One in 7 surgeons practicing in the US graduated from a foreign medical school. However, it remains unknown whether patient outcomes differ between IMG versus USMG surgeons. METHODS: Using 20% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 to 99 years who underwent 1 of 13 common nonelective surgical procedures (as a "natural experiment" as surgeons are less likely to select patients in this context) in 2011 to 2014 (638,973 patients treated by 37,221 surgeons for the mortality analysis), we compared operative mortality, complications, and length of stay (LOS) between IMG and USMG surgeons, adjusting for patient and surgeon characteristics and hospital-specific fixed effects (effectively comparing IMG and USMG surgeons within the same hospital). We also conducted stratified analyses by patients' severity of illness and procedure type. RESULTS: We found no evidence that patient outcomes differ between IMG and USMG surgeons for operative mortality [adjusted mortality, 7.3% for IMGs vs 7.3% for USMGs; adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.05; P = 0.79], complication rate (adjusted complication rate, 0.6% vs 0.6%; aOR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85-1.06; P = 0.43), and LOS (adjusted LOS, 6.6 days vs 6.6 days; adjusted difference, +0.02 days; 95% CI, -0.05 to +0.08; P = 0.54). We also found no difference when we stratified by severity of illness and procedures. CONCLUSION: Using national data of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent common surgical procedures, we found no evidence that outcomes differ between IMG and USMG surgeons.

11.
JAMA Intern Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682713

RESUMEN

Importance: Emergency department (ED) visits are common and increasing. Whether outcomes associated with care in the ED are improving over time is largely unknown to date. Objective: To examine trends in 30-day mortality rates associated with ED care among Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used a random 5% sample in 2009 and 2010 and a 20% sample from 2011 to 2016, for a total of 15 416 385 ED visits from 2009 to 2016 among Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older. Exposures: Time (year) as a continuous variable. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day mortality, overall and stratified by illness severity and hospital characteristics. Secondary outcomes included mortality rates on the day of the ED visit (day 0) as well as at 7 and 14 days. Changes in disposition from the ED (admission, observation, transfer, died in the ED, and discharged) over time were also examined. Results: The sample included 15 416 385 ED visits (60.8% women and 39.2% men; mean [SD] age, 78.6 [8.5] years) at 4828 acute care hospitals. The percentage of patients discharged from the ED increased from 53.6% in 2009 to 56.7% in 2016. Unadjusted 30-day mortality declined from 5.1% in 2009 to 4.6% in 2016 (-0.068% per year; 95% CI, -0.074% to -0.063% per year; P < .001). After adjusting for hospital random effects, patient demographics, and chronic conditions, the adjusted 30-day mortality trend was -0.198% per year (95% CI, -0.204% to -0.193% per year; P < .001). The magnitude of this trend was greatest for patients with a high severity of illness (-0.662%; 95% CI, -0.681% to -0.644%; P < .001), followed by those with a medium severity of illness (-0.103% per year; 95% CI, -0.108% to -0.097% per year; P < .001) and those with a low severity of illness (-0.009% per year; 95% CI, -0.006% to -0.011% per year; P < .001). Declines in mortality were seen in each category of ED disposition, including visits resulting in admission (-0.356% per year; 95% CI, -0.368% to -0.343% per year; P < .001) as well as those resulting in discharge (-0.059% per year; 95% CI, -0.064% to -0.055% per year; P < .001). The decline was greater for major teaching hospitals (compared with nonteaching hospitals), nonprofit hospitals (compared with for-profit hospitals), and urban hospitals (compared with rural hospitals). Conclusions and Relevance: Among Medicare beneficiaries receiving ED care in the United States, mortality within 30 days of an ED visit appears to have declined in recent years, particularly for patients with the highest severity of illness, even as fewer patients are being admitted from an ED visit. This study's findings suggest that further study is needed to understand the reasons for this decline and why certain types of hospitals are seeing greater improvements in outcomes.

12.
Healthc (Amst) ; : 100378, 2019 Nov 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708403

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthy Days at Home (HDAH) is a novel population-based outcome measure developed in conjunction with the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission. METHODS: We identified beneficiary age, sex, race, and Medicaid eligibility, death date, chronic conditions and healthcare utilization among a 20% sample of Medicare beneficiaries in 2016. For each beneficiary we calculated HDAH for the year by subtracting the following measure components from 365 days: mortality days, the total number of days spent in inpatient, observation, skilled nursing facilities (SNF), inpatient psychiatry, inpatient rehabilitation and long-term hospital settings as well as the number of outpatient emergency department and home health visits. We examined how HDAH and its components varied by beneficiary demographic characteristics and chronic condition burden as well as by healthcare market (Hospital Referral Region). We specified a patient-level linear regression adjustment model with HDAH as the outcome and incorporated market fixed effects as well as beneficiary age, sex, and Chronic Conditions Warehouse categories as covariates. We examined the impact of including home health visits in the measure, as well as the association between market demographics and health system characteristics and mean market HDAH. We examined how HDAH changed from 2013 to 2016. RESULTS: The 6,637,568 beneficiaries age 65 and older in our sample had a mean of 347.2 HDAH, those 80 and older had a mean of 325.3 while those with three or more chronic conditions had a mean of 333.7. The components that led to the largest reduction in HDAH were mortality (7.4 days), home health (2.7 visits), SNF utilization (2.4 days) and inpatient care (1.5 days). The worst performing market had 5.8 fewer adjusted HDAH on average compared to the national mean, while beneficiaries in the best-performing market had 5.0 more HDAH on average compared to the national mean, among all beneficiaries age 65 and older. CONCLUSIONS: HDAH is a population-based quality measure with substantial market-level variation. IMPLICATIONS: HDAH recognizes the multidimensional nature of healthcare and may afford providers greater flexibility to tailor quality-improvement initiatives to the unique needs of their patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.

13.
BMJ ; 367: l6326, 2019 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776110

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine how the UK National Health Service (NHS) is performing relative to health systems of other high income countries, given that it is facing sustained financial pressure, increasing levels of demand, and cuts to social care. DESIGN: Observational study using secondary data from key international organisations such as Eurostat and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. SETTING: Healthcare systems of the UK and nine high income comparator countries: Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 79 indicators across seven domains: population and healthcare coverage, healthcare and social spending, structural capacity, utilisation, access to care, quality of care, and population health. RESULTS: The UK spent the least per capita on healthcare in 2017 compared with all other countries studied (UK $3825 (£2972; €3392); mean $5700), and spending was growing at slightly lower levels (0.02% of gross domestic product in the previous four years, compared with a mean of 0.07%). The UK had the lowest rates of unmet need and among the lowest numbers of doctors and nurses per capita, despite having average levels of utilisation (number of hospital admissions). The UK had slightly below average life expectancy (81.3 years compared with a mean of 81.7) and cancer survival, including breast, cervical, colon, and rectal cancer. Although several health service outcomes were poor, such as postoperative sepsis after abdominal surgery (UK 2454 per 100 000 discharges; mean 2058 per 100 000 discharges), 30 day mortality for acute myocardial infarction (UK 7.1%; mean 5.5%), and ischaemic stroke (UK 9.6%; mean 6.6%), the UK achieved lower than average rates of postoperative deep venous thrombosis after joint surgery and fewer healthcare associated infections. CONCLUSIONS: The NHS showed pockets of good performance, including in health service outcomes, but spending, patient safety, and population health were all below average to average at best. Taken together, these results suggest that if the NHS wants to achieve comparable health outcomes at a time of growing demographic pressure, it may need to spend more to increase the supply of labour and long term care and reduce the declining trend in social spending to match levels of comparator countries.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Países Desarrollados/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Poblacional/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina Estatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Producto Interno Bruto , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Renta , Reino Unido
19.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 38(9): 1567-1575, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411912

RESUMEN

There is broad consensus that the US spends too much on health care. One proposed driver of the high US spending is low investment in social services. We examined the relationship between health spending and social spending across high-income countries. We found that US social spending (at 16.1 percent of gross domestic product [GDP] in 2015) is slightly below the average for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries (17.0 percent of GDP) and above that average when education spending is included (US: 19.7 percent of GDP; OECD: 17.7 percent of GDP). We found that countries that spent more on social services tended to spend more on health care. Adjusting for poverty and unemployment rates and the proportion of people older than age sixty-five did not meaningfully change these associations. In addition, when we examined changes over time, we found additional evidence for a positive relationship between social and health spending: Countries with the greatest increases in social spending also had larger increases in health care spending.

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