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Mol Oncol ; 14(10): 2455-2470, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734688


Resistance of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to enzalutamide and abiraterone involves the expression of constitutively active, truncated androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (AR-Vs) that lack a C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Both full-length AR and truncated AR-Vs require a functional N-terminal domain (NTD) for transcriptional activity thereby providing rationale for the development of ralaniten (EPI-002) as a first-in-class antagonist of the AR-NTD. Here, we evaluated the antitumor effect of a next-generation analog of ralaniten (EPI-7170) as a monotherapy or in combination with enzalutamide in prostate cancer cells that express AR-V7 that were resistant to enzalutamide. EPI-7170 had 8-9 times improved potency compared to ralaniten. Enzalutamide increased levels of AR-V7 and expression of its target genes. Knockdown of AR-V7 restored sensitivity to enzalutamide, indicating a role for AR-V7 in the mechanism of resistance. EPI-7170 inhibited expression of genes transcriptionally regulated by full-length AR and AR-V7. A combination of EPI-7170 and enzalutamide resulted in synergistic inhibition of proliferation of enzalutamide-resistant cells that was consistent with results from cell cycle and clonogenic assays. In addition, this drug enhanced the antitumor effect of enzalutamide in enzalutamide-resistant CRPC preclinical models. Thus, a combination therapy targeting both the NTD and LBD of AR, and thereby blocking both full-length AR and AR-Vs, has potential for the treatment of enzalutamide-resistant CRPC.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci ; 2(6): 453-467, 2019 Dec 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259077


Inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Ralaniten (formally EPI-002) prevents AR transcriptional activity by binding to its N-terminal domain (NTD) which is essential for transcriptional activity. Ralaniten acetate (EPI-506) the triacetate pro-drug of ralaniten, remains the only AR-NTD inhibitor to have entered clinical trials (NCT02606123). While well tolerated, the trial was ultimately terminated due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and resulting pill burden. Here we discovered that ralaniten was glucuronidated which resulted in decreased potency. Long-term treatment of prostate cancer cells with ralaniten results in upregulation of UGT2B enzymes with concomitant loss of potency. This has proven to be a useful model with which to facilitate the development of more potent second-generation AR-NTD inhibitors. Glucuronidated metabolites of ralaniten were also detected in the serum of patients in Phase 1 clinical trials. Therefore, we tested an analogue of ralaniten (EPI-045) which was resistant to glucuronidation and demonstrated superiority to ralaniten in our resistant model. These data support that analogues of ralaniten designed to mitigate glucuronidation may optimize clinical responses to AR-NTD inhibitors.

JCI Insight ; 1(11)2016 Jul 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525313


Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) lacking ligand-binding domain (LBD) are a mechanism of resistance to androgen receptor LBD-targeted (AR LBD-targeted) therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). There is a strong unmet clinical need to identify prostate cancer patients with AR-V-positive lesions to determine whether they will benefit from further AR LBD-targeting therapies or should receive taxanes or investigational drugs like EPI-506 or galeterone. Both EPI-506 (NCT02606123) and galeterone (NCT02438007) are in clinical trials and are proposed to have efficacy against lesions that are positive for AR-Vs. AR activation function-1 (AF-1) is common to the N-terminal domains of full-length AR and AR-Vs. Here, we provide proof of concept for developing imaging compounds that directly bind AR AF-1 to detect both AR-Vs and full-length AR. 123I-EPI-002 had specific binding to AR AF-1, which enabled direct visualization of CRPC xenografts that express full-length AR and AR-Vs. Our findings highlight the potential of 123I-EPI-002 as an imaging agent for the detection of full-length AR and AR-Vs in CRPC.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 55(12): 1755-7, 2007 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18057754


Several diaryl ethers were synthesized and tested in vitro against seven phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternate, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum and Alternaria brassicae. Compared to a commercial agricultural fungicide, hymexazol, especially compounds a, b, e, g and k were found to be more effective at 50 mug/ml against F. graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum. Meantime, some structure-activity relationships were also observed.

Antifúngicos/síntesis química , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Éteres/síntesis química , Éteres/farmacología , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Relación Estructura-Actividad