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1.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 885-890, 2020 Nov 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171563

RESUMEN

Objective: To observe the changes of peri-implant tissue around the individualized abutment that was grinded from zirconia provisional crown in one year. Methods: In this research, a prosthodontic-driven virtual implant planning and immediate provisionalization were conducted in computer assisted design software. And computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques were used to fabricate the zirconia provisional crown and surgical guide template before surgery. The implant was accurately placed with the surgical guide, and the zirconia provisional crown was immediately delivered after surgery. Three months later, the implant osseointegration was completed, and zirconia provisional crown was prepared intraorally to generate customized zirconia abutment for final prosthesis. The study included 30 patients with single anterior tooth loss, including 18 males and 12 females, aged from 26 to 50 years old, and the mean age was (36.2±6.1) years old. The patients were from the Center of Oral Implantology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical College from January 2017 to February 2018. After cementation of the final prosthesis, the cases were followed up at 6 and 12 months time intervals. Implant survival rate, probing depth, bleeding on probing, marginal bone level loss and papilla index score (PIS) were recorded in every appointment. Results: The survival rate of 30 implants was 100%, and the probing depths were less than 5 mm. The bone resorption at 6 and 12 months follow-up after the final delivery was 0 (0, 0) mm and 0 (-0.2, 0) mm, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The PIS was 3.0 (2.0, 4.0), 3.0 (2.8, 4.0) and 3.0 (3.0, 4.0) on the final delivery, 6 and 12 months after final delivery, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal bone level and bone loss were stable with this new implant clinical protocol at the one-year follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales de Diente Único , Implantes Dentales , Adulto , Coronas , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Circonio
2.
Earth Space Sci ; 7(4): e2020EA001147, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715026

RESUMEN

Tropical anvil clouds have a profound impact on Earth's weather and climate. Their role in Earth's energy balance and hydrologic cycle is heavily modulated by the vertical structure of the microphysical properties for various hydrometeors in these clouds and their dependence on the ambient environmental conditions. Accurate representations of the variability and covariability of such vertical structures are key to both the satellite remote sensing of cloud and precipitation and numerical modeling of weather and climate, which remain a challenge. This study presents a new method to combine vertically resolved observations from CloudSat radar reflectivity and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation cloud masks with probability distributions of cloud microphysical properties and the ambient atmospheric conditions from detailed in situ measurements on tropical anvils sampled during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration TC4 (Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling) mission. We focus on the microphysical properties of the vertical distribution of ice water content, particle size distributions, and effective sizes for different hydrometeors, including ice particles and supercooled liquid droplets. Results from this method are compared with those from in situ data alone and various CloudSat/Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation cloud retrievals. The sampling limitation of the field experiment and algorithm limitations in the current retrievals is highlighted, especially for the liquid cloud particles, while a generally good agreement with ice cloud microphysical properties is seen from different methods. While the method presented in this study is applied to tropical anvil clouds observed during TC4, it can be readily employed to study a broad range of ice clouds sampled by various field campaigns.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13059, 2019 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506462

RESUMEN

With the trend of amplified warming in the Arctic, we examine the observed and modeled top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative responses to surface air-temperature changes over the Arctic by using TOA energy fluxes from NASA's CERES observations and those from twelve climate models in CMIP5. Considerable inter-model spreads in the radiative responses suggest that future Arctic warming may be determined by the compensation between the radiative imbalance and poleward energy transport (mainly via transient eddy activities). The poleward energy transport tends to prevent excessive Arctic warming: the transient eddy activities are weakened because of the reduced meridional temperature gradient under polar amplification. However, the models that predict rapid Arctic warming do not realistically simulate the compensation effect. This role of energy compensation in future Arctic warming is found only when the inter-model differences in cloud radiative effects are considered. Thus, the dynamical response can act as a buffer to prevent excessive Arctic warming against the radiative response of 0.11 W m-2 K-1 as measured from satellites, which helps the Arctic climate system retain an Arctic climate sensitivity of 4.61 K. Therefore, if quantitative analyses of the observations identify contribution of atmospheric dynamics and cloud effects to radiative imbalance, the satellite-measured radiative response will be a crucial indicator of future Arctic warming.

4.
Nat Geosci ; 12: 602-607, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360220

RESUMEN

The formation of ice particles in the atmosphere strongly affects cloud properties and the climate. While mineral dust is known to be an effective ice nucleating particle, the role of aerosols from anthropogenic pollution in ice nucleation is still under debate. Here we probe the ice nucleation ability of different aerosol types by combining 11-year observations from multiple satellites and cloud-resolving model simulations. We find that, for strong convective systems, ice particle effective radius near cloud top decreases with increasing loading of polluted continental aerosols, because the ice formation is dominated by homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets that are smaller under more polluted conditions. In contrast, an increase in ice particle effective radius with polluted continental aerosols is found for moderate convection. Our model simulations suggest that this positive correlation is explained by enhanced heterogeneous ice nucleation and prolonged ice particle growth at larger aerosol loading, indicating that polluted continental aerosols contain a significant fraction of ice nucleating particles. Similar aerosol-ice relationships are observed for dust aerosols, further corroborating the ice nucleation ability of polluted continental aerosols. By catalyzing ice formation, aerosols from anthropogenic pollution could have profound impacts on cloud lifetime and radiative effect as well as precipitation efficiency.

5.
Dent Mater J ; 38(6): 981-986, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178546

RESUMEN

Prostheses and implants have been widely utilized in the orthopedic and dental fields. Nowadays, significant advances have been made in the structural and functional connection between living bone and prostheses, especially in the presence of compromised bone quantity/quality. Despite improvement in the treatment outcomes after augmentation, there are still challenges to meet the clinical demands due to limited materials available. In the current study, we investigated the effects of nano-nacre particles as an alternative material on stimulating bone cell differentiation and formation. Mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) were cultured on nano-nacre/type I collagen composite scaffold (NN-ICS) and type I collagen scaffold (ICS). Generated nano-nacre particles showed controlled release of protein and calcium for a period of 36 days. NN-ICS significantly contributed to the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblasts compared to ICS controls. Our data showed that nano-nacre particles could serve as a candidate of bone substitution material, which potentially contributed to treatment outcomes in cases with compromised bone quality and/or quality.


Asunto(s)
Nácar , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Colágeno Tipo I , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Ratones , Osteoblastos , Agua
6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7809, 2019 May 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127137

RESUMEN

Aerosol effects on convective clouds and associated precipitation constitute an important open-ended question in climate research. Previous studies have linked an increase in aerosol concentration to a delay in the onset of rain, invigorated clouds and stronger rain rates. Here, using observational data, we show that the aerosol effect on convective clouds shifts from invigoration to suppression with increasing aerosol optical depth. We explain this shift in trend (using a cloud model) as the result of a competition between two types of microphysical processes: cloud-core-based invigorating processes vs. peripheral suppressive processes. We show that the aerosol optical depth value that marks the shift between invigoration and suppression depends on the environmental thermodynamic conditions. These findings can aid in better parameterizing aerosol effects in climate models for the prediction of climate trends.

7.
Clim Dyn ; 52(9-10): 5759-5774, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073262

RESUMEN

Aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, resulting in changes in cloud droplet/particle number/size, and hence altering the radiation budget. This study investigates the interactions between aerosols and ice clouds by incorporating the latest ice clouds parameterization in an atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation shows a decrease in effective ice cloud crystal size corresponding to aerosol increase, referred to as the aerosol first indirect effect, which has not been comprehensively studied. Ice clouds with smaller particles reflect more shortwave radiation and absorb more infrared radiation, resulting in radiation change by 0.5-1.0 W/m2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The TOA radiation field is also influenced by cloud cover change due to aerosol-induced circulation change. Such aerosol effects on precipitation highly depend on the existence of a deep convection system: interactions between aerosols and ice clouds create dipole precipitation anomalies in the Asian monsoon regions; while in West Africa, enhanced convections are constrained by anticyclone effects at high levels and little precipitation increase is found. We also conduct an experiment to assess interactions between aerosols and liquid clouds and compare the climatic effects with that due to ice clouds. Radiation and temperature changes generated by liquid clouds are normally 1-2 times larger than those generated by ice clouds. The radiation change has a closer relationship to liquid cloud droplet size than liquid cloud cover, in contrast with what we find for ice clouds.

8.
J Geophys Res Atmos ; 124(12): 6554-6570, 2019 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455093

RESUMEN

We investigate the air quality impact of record-breaking wildfires in Southern California during 5-18 December 2017 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry in combination with satellite and surface observations. This wildfire event was driven by dry and strong offshore Santa Ana winds, which played a critical role in fire formation and air pollutant transport. By utilizing fire emissions derived from the high-resolution (375 × 375 m2) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire detections, the simulated magnitude and temporal evolution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations agree reasonably well with surface observations (normalized mean bias = 4.0%). Meanwhile, the model could generally capture the spatial pattern of aerosol optical depth from satellite observations. Sensitivity tests reveal that using a high spatial resolution for fire emissions and a reasonable treatment of plume rise (a fair split between emissions injected at surface and those lifted to upper levels) is important for achieving decent PM2.5 simulation results. Biases in PM2.5 simulation are relatively large (about 50%) during the period with the strongest Santa Ana wind, due to a possible underestimation of burning area and uncertainty in wind field variation. The 2017 December fire event increases the 14-day averaged PM2.5 concentrations by up to 231.2 µg/m3 over the downwind regions, which substantially exceeds the U.S. air quality standards, potentially leading to adverse health impacts. The human exposure to fire-induced PM2.5 accounts for 14-42% of the annual total PM2.5 exposure in areas impacted by the fire plumes.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3874, 2018 09 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250192

RESUMEN

Convective clouds produce a significant proportion of the global precipitation and play an important role in the energy and water cycles. We quantify changes of the convective cloud ice mass-weighted altitude centroid (ZIWC) as a function of aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Analyses are conducted in smoke, dust and polluted continental aerosol environments over South America, Central Africa and Southeast Asia, using the latest measurements from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites. We find aerosols can inhibit or invigorate convection, depending on aerosol type and concentration. On average, smoke tends to suppress convection and results in lower ZIWC than clean clouds. Polluted continental aerosol tends to invigorate convection and promote higher ZIWC. The dust aerosol effects are regionally dependent and their signs differ from place to place. Moreover, we find that the aerosol inhibition or invigoration effects do not vary monotonically with AOT and the variations depend strongly on aerosol type. Our observational findings indicate that aerosol type is one of the key factors in determining the aerosol effects on convective clouds.

10.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(15): 11247-11260, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068974

RESUMEN

The climatic and health effects of aerosols are strongly dependent on the intra-annual variations in their loading and properties. While the seasonal variations of regional aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been extensively studied, understanding the temporal variations in aerosol vertical distribution and particle types is also important for an accurate estimate of aerosol climatic effects. In this paper, we combine the observations from four satellite-borne sensors and several ground-based networks to investigate the seasonal variations of aerosol column loading, vertical distribution, and particle types over three populous regions: the Eastern United States (EUS), Western Europe (WEU), and Eastern and Central China (ECC). In all three regions, column AOD, as well as AOD at heights above 800 m, peaks in summer/spring, probably due to accelerated formation of secondary aerosols and hygroscopic growth. In contrast, AOD below 800m peaks in winter over WEU and ECC regions because more aerosols are confined to lower heights due to the weaker vertical mixing. In the EUS region, AOD below 800m shows two maximums, one in summer and the other in winter. The temporal trends in low-level AOD are consistent with those in surface fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations. AOD due to fine particles (< 0.7 µm diameter) is much larger in spring/summer than in winter over all three regions. However, the coarse mode AOD (> 1.4 µm diameter), generally shows small variability, except that a peak occurs in spring in the ECC region due to the prevalence of airborne dust during this season. When aerosols are classified according to sources, the dominant type is associated with anthropogenic air pollution, which has a similar seasonal pattern as total AOD. Dust and sea-spray aerosols in the WEU region peak in summer and winter, respectively, but do not show an obvious seasonal pattern in the EUS region. Smoke aerosols, as well as absorbing aerosols, present an obvious unimodal distribution with a maximum occurring in summer over the EUS and WEU regions, whereas they follow a bimodal distribution with peaks in August and March (due to crop residue burning) over the ECC region.

11.
Hydrol Process ; 32(22): 3365-3390, 2018 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073260

RESUMEN

Accurate and reliable reservoir inflow forecast is instrumental to the efficient operation of the hydroelectric power systems. It has been discovered that natural and anthropogenic aerosols have a great influence on meteorological variables such as temperature, snow water equivalent, and precipitation, which in turn impact the reservoir inflow. Therefore, it is imperative for us to quantify the impact of aerosols on reservoir inflow and to incorporate the aerosol models into future reservoir inflow forecasting models. In this paper, a comprehensive framework was developed to quantify the impact of aerosols on reservoir inflow by integrating the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) and a dynamic regression model. The statistical dynamic regression model produces forecasts for reservoir inflow based on the meteorological output variables from the WRF-Chem model. The case study was performed on the Florence Lake and Lake Thomas Alva Edison of the Big Creek Hydroelectric Project in the San Joaquin Region. The simulation results show that the presence of aerosols results in a significant reduction of annual reservoir inflow by 4-14%. In the summer, aerosols reduce precipitation, snow water equivalent, and snowmelt that leads to a reduction in inflow by 11-26%. In the spring, aerosols increase temperature and snowmelt which leads to an increase in inflow by 0.6-2%. Aerosols significantly reduce the amount of inflow in the summer when the marginal value of water is extremely high and slightly increase the inflow in the spring when the run-off risk is high. In summary, the presence of aerosols is detrimental to the optimal utilization of hydroelectric power systems.

12.
J Adv Model Earth Syst ; 10(10): 2514-2526, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031881

RESUMEN

The direct radiative forcing of black carbon aerosol (BC) on the Earth system remains unsettled, largely due to the uncertainty with physical properties of BC throughout their lifecycle. Here we show that ambient chamber measurements of BC properties provide a novel constraint on the crude BC aging representation in climate models. Observational evidence for significant absorption enhancement of BC can be reproduced when the aging processes in the four-mode version of the Modal Aerosol Module (MAM4) aerosol scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 are calibrated by the recent in situ chamber measurements. An observation-based scaling method is developed in the aging timescale calculation to alleviate the influence of biases in the simulated model chemical composition. Model sensitivity simulations suggest that the different monolayer settings in the BC aging parameterization of MAM4 can cause as large as 26% and 24% differences in BC burden and radiative forcing, respectively. We also find that an increase in coating materials (e.g., sulfate and secondary organic aerosols) reduces BC lifetime by increasing the hygroscopicity of the mixture but enhances its absorption, resulting in a net increase in BC direct radiative forcing. Our results suggest that accurate simulations of BC aging processes as well as other aerosol species are equally important in reducing the uncertainty of BC forcing estimation.

13.
Atmos Chem Phys ; 18: 1065-1078, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31534446

RESUMEN

The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. In particular, the impact of aerosols on ice crystal effective radius (R ei), which is a key parameter determining ice clouds' net radiative effect, is highly uncertain due to limited and conflicting observational evidence. Here we investigate the effects of aerosols on R ei under different meteorological conditions using 9-year satellite observations. We find that the responses of R ei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters. While there is a significant negative correlation between R ei and aerosol loading in moist conditions, consistent with the "Twomey effect" for liquid clouds, a strong positive correlation between the two occurs in dry conditions. Simulations based on a cloud parcel model suggest that water vapor modulates the relative importance of different ice nucleation modes, leading to the opposite aerosol impacts between moist and dry conditions. When ice clouds are decomposed into those generated from deep convection and formed in situ, the water vapor modulation remains in effect for both ice cloud types, although the sensitivities of R ei to aerosols differ noticeably between them due to distinct formation mechanisms. The water vapor modulation can largely explain the difference in the responses of R ei to aerosol loadings in various seasons. A proper representation of the water vapor modulation is essential for an accurate estimate of aerosol-cloud radiative forcing produced by ice clouds.

14.
Geophys Res Lett ; 45(7): 3297-3306, 2018 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631917

RESUMEN

Aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in external forcings on our climate system. Compared with liquid clouds, the observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice clouds is much more limited and shows conflicting results, partly because the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types were seldom considered. Using 9-year satellite retrievals, we find that, for convection-generated (anvil) ice clouds, cloud optical thickness, cloud thickness, and cloud fraction increase with small-to-moderate aerosol loadings (<0.3 aerosol optical depth) and decrease with further aerosol increase. For in situ formed ice clouds, however, these cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. An increase in loading of smoke aerosols generally reduces cloud optical thickness of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution aerosols. These relationships between different cloud/aerosol types provide valuable constraints on the modeling assessment of aerosol-ice cloud radiative forcing.

15.
Earth Space Sci ; 4(8): 574-587, 2017 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104900

RESUMEN

This paper describes a forward radiative transfer model and retrieval system (FMRS) for the Tropospheric Water and cloud ICE (TWICE) CubeSat instrument. We use the FMRS to simulate radiances for the TWICE's 14 millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength channels for a tropical atmospheric state produced by a Weather Research and Forecasting model simulation. We also perform simultaneous retrievals of cloud ice particle size, ice water content (IWC), water vapor content (H2O), and temperature from the simulated TWICE radiances using the FMRS. We show that the TWICE instrument is capable of retrieving ice particle size in the range of ~50-1000 µm in mass mean effective diameter with approximately 50% uncertainty. The uncertainties of other retrievals from TWICE are about 1 K for temperature, 50% for IWC, and 20% for H2O.

16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4453, 2017 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28667308

RESUMEN

Aerosol-cloud interactions (aerosol indirect effects) play an important role in regional meteorological variations, which could further induce feedback on regional air quality. While the impact of aerosol-cloud interactions on meteorology and climate has been extensively studied, their feedback on air quality remains unclear. Using a fully coupled meteorology-chemistry model, we find that increased aerosol loading due to anthropogenic activities in China substantially increases column cloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path (LWP), which further leads to a reduction in the downward shortwave radiation at surface, surface air temperature and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. The shallower PBL and accelerated cloud chemistry due to larger LWP in turn enhance the concentrations of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) by up to 33.2 µg m-3 (25.1%) and 11.0 µg m-3 (12.5%) in January and July, respectively. Such a positive feedback amplifies the changes in PM2.5 concentrations, indicating an additional air quality benefit under effective pollution control policies but a penalty for a region with a deterioration in PM2.5 pollution. Additionally, we show that the cloud processing of aerosols, including wet scavenging and cloud chemistry, could also have substantial effects on PM2.5 concentrations.

17.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15771, 2017 06 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589940

RESUMEN

The change of global-mean precipitation under global warming and interannual variability is predominantly controlled by the change of atmospheric longwave radiative cooling. Here we show that tightening of the ascending branch of the Hadley Circulation coupled with a decrease in tropical high cloud fraction is key in modulating precipitation response to surface warming. The magnitude of high cloud shrinkage is a primary contributor to the intermodel spread in the changes of tropical-mean outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and global-mean precipitation per unit surface warming (dP/dTs) for both interannual variability and global warming. Compared to observations, most Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 models underestimate the rates of interannual tropical-mean dOLR/dTs and global-mean dP/dTs, consistent with the muted tropical high cloud shrinkage. We find that the five models that agree with the observation-based interannual dP/dTs all predict dP/dTs under global warming higher than the ensemble mean dP/dTs from the ∼20 models analysed in this study.

18.
J Clim ; 30(1): 317-336, 2017 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690981

RESUMEN

Partitioning of convective ice into precipitating and detrained condensate presents a challenge for GCMs since partitioning depends on the strength and microphysics of the convective updraft. It is an important issue because detrainment of ice from updrafts influences the development of stratiform anvils, impacts radiation, and can affect GCM climate sensitivity. Recent studies have shown that the CMIP5 configurations of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM simulated upper-tropospheric ice water content (IWC) that exceeded an estimated upper bound by a factor of 2. Partly in response to this bias, a new GCM parameterization of convective cloud ice has been developed that incorporates new ice particle fall speeds and convective outflow particle size distributions (PSDs) from the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4), DOE ARM-NASA Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), and DOE ARM Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS) field campaigns. The new parameterization assumes a normalized gamma PSD with two novel developments: no explicit assumption for particle habit in the calculation of mass distributions, and a formulation for translating ice particle fall speeds as a function of maximum diameter into fall speeds as a function of melted-equivalent diameter. Two parameters (particle volume- and projected area-weighted equivalent diameter) are diagnosed as a function of temperature and IWC in the convective plume, and these parameters constrain the shape and scale of the normalized gamma PSD. The diagnosed fall speeds and PSDs are combined with the GCM's parameterized convective updraft vertical velocity to partition convective updraft condensate into precipitating and detrained components. A 5-yr prescribed sea surface temperature GCM simulation shows a 30%-50% decrease in upper-tropospheric deep convective IWC, bringing the tropical and global mean ice water path into closer agreement with CloudSat best estimates.

19.
Macromol Biosci ; 17(5)2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27918641

RESUMEN

This blinded controlled prospective randomized study investigates the biocompatibility of polypyrrole (PPy) polymer that will be used for intracranial triggered release of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Three by three millimeters PPy are implanted subdurally in six adult female genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg. Each rat has a polymer implanted on one side of the cortex and a sham craniotomy performed on the other side. After a period of seven weeks, rats are euthanized and parallel series of coronal sections are cut throughout the implant site. Four series of 15 sections are histological (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemically (neuron-specific nuclear protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and anti-CD68 antibody) stained and evaluated by three investigators. The results show that implanted PPy mats do not induce obvious inflammation, trauma, gliosis, and neuronal toxicity. Therefore the authors conclude the PPy used offer good histocompatibility with central nervous system cells and that PPy sheets can be used as intracranial, AED delivery implant.


Asunto(s)
Anticonvulsivantes/administración & dosificación , Materiales Biocompatibles , Implantes de Medicamentos , Duramadre , Polímeros/administración & dosificación , Pirroles/administración & dosificación , Animales , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacología , Craneotomía , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Femenino , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Neuroglía/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Polímeros/farmacología , Pirroles/farmacología , Ratas
20.
Comp Med ; 66(3): 220-4, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27298247

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral enrofloxacin on the epileptic status of Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Five adult female GAERS rats, with implanted extradural electrodes for EEG monitoring, were declared free of clonic seizures after an 8-wk observation period. Enrofloxacin was then added to their drinking water (42.5 mg in 750 mL), and rats were observed for another 3 days. The number of spike-and-wave discharges and mean duration of a single discharge did not differ before and after treatment, but 2 of the 5 rats developed clonic seizures after treatment. Enrofloxacin should be used with caution in GAERS rats because it might induce clonic seizures.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/efectos adversos , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Fluoroquinolonas/efectos adversos , Convulsiones/inducido químicamente , Administración Oral , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Electroencefalografía , Enrofloxacina , Epilepsia Tipo Ausencia/complicaciones , Epilepsia Tipo Ausencia/genética , Femenino , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Proyectos Piloto , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
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