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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109042, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461002

RESUMEN

The development of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is a growing public health concern. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from the Australian commercial egg layer industry. S. enterica subspecies enterica (n=307) isolated from Australian commercial layer flock environments (2015-2018) were obtained from reference, research and State Government laboratories from six Australian states. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution. Antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types (STs) were identified in significant isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three main serotypes were detected, S. Typhimurium (n=61, 19.9%), S. Senftenburg (n=45, 14.7%) and S. Agona (n=37, 12.1%). AST showed 293/307 (95.4%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents and all isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to streptomycin (2.3%, n=7), sulfisoxazole (2.0%, n=6), chloramphenicol (1.3%, n=4) and tetracycline (1.0%, n=3). Very low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to ampicillin (2/307; 0.7%) and cefoxitin (2/307; 0.7%). Two isolates (S. Havana and S. Montevideo), exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline and possessed corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA4, aac(6')-Iaa, sul1, tetB). One S. Typhimurium isolate was resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and possessed both tetA and blaTEM-1B. WGS also identified these isolates as belonging to ST4 (S. Montevideo), ST578 (S. Havana) and ST19 (S. Typhimurium). The absence of resistance to highest priority critically important antimicrobials as well as the extremely low level of AMR generally among Australian commercial egg layer Salmonella isolates likely reflect Australia's conservative antimicrobial registration policy in food-producing animals and low rates of antimicrobial use within the industry.

2.
Med Phys ; 48(2): e31-e35, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320364

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: A Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography quality assurance program is necessary to ensure that patients receive optimal imaging and care. We summarize the AAPM Task Group (TG) 126 report on acceptance and quality assurance (QA) testing of PET/CT systems. METHODS: TG 126 was charged with developing PET/CT acceptance testing and QA procedures. The TG aimed to develop procedures that would allow for standardized evaluation of existing short-axis cylindrical-bore PET/CT systems in the spirit of NEMA NU 2 standards without requiring specialized phantoms or proprietary software tools. RESULTS: We outline eight performance evaluations using common phantoms and freely available software whereby the clinical physicist monitors each PET/CT system by comparing periodic Follow-Up Measurements to Baseline Measurements acquired during acceptance testing. For each of the eight evaluations, we also summarize the expected testing time and materials necessary and the recommended pass/fail criteria. CONCLUSION: Our report provides a guideline for periodic evaluations of most clinical PET/CT systems that simplifies procedures and requirements outlined by other agencies and will facilitate performance comparisons across vendors, models, and institutions.

3.
EMBO J ; : e105496, 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283887

RESUMEN

Methylation of carbon-5 of cytosines (m5 C) is a post-transcriptional nucleotide modification of RNA found in all kingdoms of life. While individual m5 C-methyltransferases have been studied, the impact of the global cytosine-5 methylome on development, homeostasis and stress remains unknown. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans, we generated the first organism devoid of m5 C in RNA, demonstrating that this modification is non-essential. Using this genetic tool, we determine the localisation and enzymatic specificity of m5 C sites in the RNome in vivo. We find that NSUN-4 acts as a dual rRNA and tRNA methyltransferase in C. elegans mitochondria. In agreement with leucine and proline being the most frequently methylated tRNA isoacceptors, loss of m5 C impacts the decoding of some triplets of these two amino acids, leading to reduced translation efficiency. Upon heat stress, m5 C loss leads to ribosome stalling at UUG triplets, the only codon translated by an m5 C34-modified tRNA. This leads to reduced translation efficiency of UUG-rich transcripts and impaired fertility, suggesting a role of m5 C tRNA wobble methylation in the adaptation to higher temperatures.

4.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289474

RESUMEN

Diarrhea remains a significant cause of child morbidity and mortality in Iraq. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of home-based management of diarrheal illnesses among Iraqi children. We surveyed mothers of children aged less than 5 years to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with maternal healthcare-seeking practices. A total of 500 mother-child pairs were interviewed in a cross-sectional household survey in Thi-Qar Governorate, southeastern Iraq, between March 2016 and February 2017. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used to infer sociodemographic predictors of the healthcare-seeking and alternative management practices adopted by the mothers. The interviewees reported that 35.2% of their children had diarrhea in the 2 weeks before the survey. The least likelihood of reported occurrence of diarrhea was among mother-child pairs where the mothers had received university education, as compared with mothers who were illiterate or received only primary or secondary education. Lower odds (odds ratio = 0.4, P-value < 0.001) of reported childhood diarrhea was revealed among mothers aged > 25 years than among those younger. Self-ordered medicine from a pharmacy was the most preferred alternative management option in almost half (52.4% [262/500]) of the interviewed mothers in Thi-Qar. Interestingly, 69.6% (348/500) of the mothers reported supplying their children suffering from diarrhea with antibiotics. Relative to mothers with university education, those with high school education had more likelihood of selecting medical center (relative risk ratio [rrr] = 2.4) and pharmacy (rrr = 3.7) as against no treatment. Lower maternal educational level, mothers' age < 25 years, and the district of residence were important factors associated with diarrhea occurrence among children younger than 5 years. In light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving healthcare seeking for managing diarrhea in Iraqi children should jointly consider the influence of mothers age, education, as well as the level of economic status of the communities in which mothers of these children reside. The results of this study indicate the need for enhancing public health education to improve the maternal management of diarrheal disease and the avoidance of unnecessary use of antimicrobials.

5.
RNA Biol ; : 1-12, 2020 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044912

RESUMEN

RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene regulatory mechanism based on RNA-RNA interaction conserved through eukaryotes. Surprisingly, many animals can take-up human-made double stranded RNA (dsRNA) from the environment to initiate RNAi suggesting a mechanism for dsRNA-based information exchange between organisms and their environment. However, no naturally occurring example has been identified since the discovery of the phenomenon 22 years ago. Therefore it remains enigmatic why animals are able to take up dsRNA. Here, we explore other possible functions by performing phenotypic studies of dsRNA uptake deficient sid-2 mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that SID-2 does not have a nutritional role in feeding experiments using genetic sensitized mutants. Furthermore, we use robot assisted imaging to show that sid-2 mutants accelerate growth rate and, by maternal contribution, body length at hatching. Finally, we perform transcriptome and lipidome analysis showing that sid-2 has no effect on energy storage lipids, but affects signalling lipids and the embryo transcriptome. Overall, these results suggest that sid-2 has mild effects on development and is unlikely functioning in the nutritional uptake of dsRNA. These findings broaden our understanding of the biological role of SID-2 and motivate studies identifying the role of environmental dsRNA uptake.

6.
Vet Microbiol ; 250: 108850, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011663

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and population structure of bovine mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and compare them to human isolates obtained from Western Australian hospitals and overseas strains to determine relatedness to human isolates from a zoonotic or reverse zoonotic aspect. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 202 S. aureus isolates of which 166 isolates underwent whole genome sequencing. Only resistance to penicillin (12.4%) and erythromycin (0.5%) was identified and of note, no resistance was demonstrated to oxacillin. Genomic characterisation identified 14 multilocus sequence types (STs), with most isolates belonging to clonal complexes 97, 705, and 1. Four distinct clades based on virulence gene composition were identified. The four clades were predominantly ST based, consisting of ST352, ST97, ST81/ST1, and ST705. Core genome comparison of the bovine and human S. aureus isolates demonstrated defined clustering by ST, with the Australian bovine S. aureus isolates clustering together according to their ST separately from human isolates. In addition, a bovine specific cluster comprising Australian ST151 and ST705 isolates, and ST151 isolates from Irish dairy cattle was clearly delineated. Examination of a detailed ST352 phylogeny provided evidence for geographical clustering of Australian strains into a distinct grouping separate from international strains. This study has identified Australian S. aureus isolates have limited genetic diversity and are genetically distinct from human and international bovine S. aureus isolates. Current first line therapies for bovine mastitis in Australian dairy cattle remain appropriate.

7.
Mol Plant ; 13(9): 1247-1249, 2020 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745560

Asunto(s)
Genoma , Soja , Genómica
8.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(11): 3201-3215, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833037

RESUMEN

KEY MESSAGE: We detected 213 lodging QTLs and demonstrated that drought-induced stem lodging in grain sorghum is substantially associated with stay-green and plant height suggesting a critical role of carbon remobilisation. Sorghum is generally grown in water limited conditions and often lodges under post-anthesis drought, which reduces yield and quality. Due to its complexity, our understanding on the genetic control of lodging is very limited. We dissected the genetic architecture of lodging in grain sorghum through genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2308 unique hybrids grown in 17 Australian sorghum trials over 3 years. The GWAS detected 213 QTLs, the majority of which showed a significant association with leaf senescence and plant height (72% and 71%, respectively). Only 16 lodging QTLs were not associated with either leaf senescence or plant height. The high incidence of multi-trait association for the lodging QTLs indicates that lodging in grain sorghum is mainly associated with plant height and traits linked to carbohydrate remobilisation. This result supported the selection for stay-green (delayed leaf senescence) to reduce lodging susceptibility, rather than selection for short stature and lodging resistance per se, which likely reduces yield. Additionally, our data suggested a protective effect of stay-green on weakening the association between lodging susceptibility and plant height. Our study also showed that lodging resistance might be improved by selection for stem composition but was unlikely to be improved by selection for classical resistance to stalk rots.

9.
Vet Microbiol ; 248: 108783, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827920

RESUMEN

This study investigated the prevalence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-associated sequence types (STs) from phylogenetic group B2 among 449 fluoroquinolone-susceptible dog clinical isolates from Australia. Isolates underwent PCR-based phylotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to determine clonal relatedness. Of the 317 so-identified group B2 isolates, 77 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS), whereas the remainder underwent PCR-based screening for ST complexes (STc) STc12, STc73, STc372, and ST131. The predominant ST was ST372 according to both WGS (31 % of 77) and ST-specific PCR (22 % of 240), followed by (per WGS) ST73 (17 %), ST12 (7 %), and ST80 (7 %). A WGS-based phylogenetic comparison of ST73 isolates from dogs, cats, and humans showed considerable overall phylogenetic diversity. Although most clusters were species-specific, some contained closely related human and animal (dog > cat) isolates. For dogs in Australia these findings both confirm ST372 as the predominant E. coli clonal lineage causing extraintestinal infections and clarify the importance of human-associated group B2 lineage ST73 as a cause of UTI, with some strains possibly being capable of bi-directional (i.e., dog-human and human-dog) transmission.

10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801178

RESUMEN

Globally, gulls have been associated with carriage of high levels of Escherichia coli strains resistant to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs), a major concern, as these antimicrobials are the sole alternative or one among only a few alternatives available to treat severe life-threatening infections in humans. Previous studies of Australian silver gulls demonstrated high levels of resistance to CIAs, particularly fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, among E. coli strains (carriage at 24% and 22%, respectively). This study aimed to identify and characterize strains from four distinct bird species inhabiting a common coastal environment, determine the frequency of carriage of CIA-resistant E. coli strains, and examine if these resistant clones and their resistance-encoding mobile genetic elements (MGEs) could be transmitted between species. CIA-resistant E. coli was detected in silver gulls (53%), little penguins (11%), and feral pigeons (10%), but not in bridled terns. In total, 37 different sequence types (STs) were identified, including clinically significant human-associated lineages, such as ST131, ST95, ST648, ST69, ST540, ST93, ST450, and ST10. Five main mobile genetic elements associated with bla CTX-M-positive E. coli strains isolated from three bird species were detected. Examination of clonal lineages and MGEs provided indirect evidence of transfer of resistance between bird species. The carriage of CIA-resistant E. coli by gulls and pigeons with proximity to humans, and in some instances food-producing animals, increases the likelihood of further bidirectional dissemination.IMPORTANCE It has been shown that 20% of Australian silver gulls carry drug-resistant Escherichia coli strains of anthropogenic origin associated with severe diseases, such as sepsis and urinary tract infections, in humans. To further characterize the dynamics of drug-resistant E. coli in wildlife populations, we investigated the carriage of critically important antimicrobial (CIA) drug-resistant E. coli in four bird species in a common environment. Our results indicated that gulls, pigeons, and penguins carried drug-resistant E. coli strains, and analysis of mobile genetic elements associated with resistance genes indicated interspecies resistance transfer. Terns, representing a bird species that forages on natural food sources at sea and distant from humans, did not test positive for drug-resistant E. coli This study demonstrates carriage of CIA-resistant bacteria in multiple bird species living in areas commonly inhabited by humans and provides further evidence for a leapfrog effect of resistance in wildlife, facilitated by feeding habits.

11.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(7)2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708598

RESUMEN

C4 photosynthesis has evolved in over 60 different plant taxa and is an excellent example of convergent evolution. Plants using the C4 photosynthetic pathway have an efficiency advantage, particularly in hot and dry environments. They account for 23% of global primary production and include some of our most productive cereals. While previous genetic studies comparing phylogenetically related C3 and C4 species have elucidated the genetic diversity underpinning the C4 photosynthetic pathway, no previous studies have described the genetic diversity of the genes involved in this pathway within a C4 crop species. Enhanced understanding of the allelic diversity and selection signatures of genes in this pathway may present opportunities to improve photosynthetic efficiency, and ultimately yield, by exploiting natural variation. Here, we present the first genetic diversity survey of 8 known C4 gene families in an important C4 crop, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, using sequence data of 48 genotypes covering wild and domesticated sorghum accessions. Average nucleotide diversity of C4 gene families varied more than 20-fold from the NADP-malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene family (θπ = 0.2 × 10-3) to the pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) gene family (θπ = 5.21 × 10-3). Genetic diversity of C4 genes was reduced by 22.43% in cultivated sorghum compared to wild and weedy sorghum, indicating that the group of wild and weedy sorghum may constitute an untapped reservoir for alleles related to the C4 photosynthetic pathway. A SNP-level analysis identified purifying selection signals on C4 PPDK and carbonic anhydrase (CA) genes, and balancing selection signals on C4 PPDK-regulatory protein (RP) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) genes. Allelic distribution of these C4 genes was consistent with selection signals detected. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of C4 pathway in sorghum paves the way for mining the natural allelic variation for the improvement of photosynthesis.

12.
Vet Microbiol ; 245: 108685, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456818

RESUMEN

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) can cause urinary tract and other types of infection in cats, but the relationship of cat ExPEC to human ExPEC remains equivocal. This study investigated the prevalence of ExPEC-associated sequence types (STs) from phylogenetic group B2 among fluoroquinolone-susceptible cat clinical isolates. For this, 323 fluoroquinolone-susceptible cat clinical E. coli isolates from Australia underwent PCR-based phylotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to determine clonal relatedness. Of the 274 group B2 isolates, 53 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS), whereas 221 underwent PCR-based screening for (group B2) sequence type complexes (STc) STc12, STc73, ST131, and STc372. Group B2 was the dominant phylogenetic group (274/323, 85 %), whereas within group B2 ST73 dominated, according to both WGS (43 % of 53; followed by ST127, ST12, and ST372 [4/53, 8 % each]) and ST-specific PCR (20 % of 221). In WGS-based comparisons of cat and reference human ST73 isolates, cat isolates had a relatively conserved virulence gene profile but were phylogenetically diverse. Although in the phylogram most cat and human ST73 isolates occupied host species-specific clusters within serotype-specific clades (O2:H1, O6:H1, O25:H1, O50/O2:H1), cat and human isolates were intermingled within two serotype-specific clades: O120:H31 (3 cat and 2 human isolates) and O22:H1 (3 cat and 5 human isolates). These findings confirm the importance of human-associated group B2 lineages as a cause of urinary tract infections in cats. The close genetic relationship of some cat and human ST73 strains suggests bi-directional transmission may be possible.

13.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(5): 576-586, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458580

RESUMEN

This observational study aimed to determine MRSA prevalence using strain-specific real-time PCR at the pig level, stratified by age groupings, within a pig enterprise. A total of 658 samples were collected from individual pigs (n = 618) and the piggery environment (n = 40), distributed amongst five different pig age groups. Presumptive MRSA isolates were confirmed by the presence of mecA, and MALDI-TOF was performed for species verification. All isolates were tested against 18 different antimicrobials. MRSA was isolated from 75.2% (95% CI 71.8-78.6) of samples collected from pigs, and 71% of the MRSA isolates from this source were identified as community-associated (CA)-MRSA ST93, while the remainder were livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA ST398. Amongst environmental isolates, 80% (CI 64.3-95.7) were ST93 and the remainder ST398. All MRSA isolates from pigs and the environment were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, linezolid, mupirocin, rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Phenotypic rates of resistance were penicillin (100%), clindamycin (97.6%), erythromycin (96.3%), ceftiofur (93.7%), chloramphenicol (81.2%), tetracycline (63.1%) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (63.9%). A low prevalence of resistance (9.2%) was observed against neomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. The probability of MRSA carriage in dry sows (42.2%) was found to be significantly lower (p < .001) when compared to other age groups: farrowing sows (76.8%, RR1.82), weaners (97.8%, RR 2.32), growers (94.2%, RR 2.23) and finishers (98.3%, RR 2.33). Amongst different production age groups, a significant difference was also found in antimicrobial resistance for amoxicillin-clavulanate, neomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Using the RT-PCR assay adopted in this study, filtering of highly prevalent ST93 and non-ST93 isolates was performed at high throughput and low cost. In conclusion, this study found that weaner pigs presented a higher risk for CA-MRSA and antimicrobial resistance compared to other age groups. These findings have major implications for how investigations of MRSA outbreaks should be approached under the One-Health context.

14.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334838

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Vat-polymerization additive manufacturing (AM) technologies can be used to fabricate clear silicone indices for diagnostic trial restorations, interim restorations, and direct composite resin restorations. Different support parameters, including print orientation of the virtual design of the silicone index, need to be determined when a dental device is fabricated with AM. However, the optimal printing angulation for minimal surface texture remains unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the surface roughness of the AM clear silicone indices manufactured by using a vat-polymerization 3D printer with different print orientations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A virtual design of a facial silicone index was obtained, and the standard tessellation language file was exported and used to manufacture all the specimens using a vat-polymerization 3D printer. All the specimens were placed on the build platform with the same parameters, except for the print orientation which was selected as the only manufacturing variable. Therefore, the 5 different groups were 0, 25, 45, 75, and 90 degrees. To minimize variation in the procedure, all the specimens (N=50) were manufactured at the same time in the selected printer at a constant room temperature of 23°C. The printer had been previously calibrated following the manufacturer's recommendations. Surface roughness was measured in the intaglio of the left central maxillary incisor using an optical profilometer with a magnification of ×20 and an array size of 640×480. Three measurements per specimen were recorded. The Shapiro-Wilk test revealed that the data were normally distributed, and the data were analyzed by using 1-way ANOVA, followed by the post hoc Sidak test (α=.05). RESULTS: The 0-degree angulation printing group reported the least mean ±standard deviation surface roughness (0.9 ±0.3 µm), followed by the 90-degree group (3.0 ±0.6 µm), the 75-degree group (12.4 ±1.0 µm), the 25-degree group (13.1 ±0.9 µm), and the 45-degree group (13.5 ±1.0 µm). However, no statistically significant difference was found in the surface roughness between the 25-degree and 45-degree print orientation groups (P=.296). CONCLUSIONS: Print orientation significantly influenced the surface roughness measured on the intaglio of the facial AM silicone indices tested.

15.
Plant Dis ; 104(5): 1390-1399, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223639

RESUMEN

Late and early leaf spot, respectively caused by Nothopassalora personata and Passalora arachidicola, are damaging diseases of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) capable of defoliating canopies and reducing yield. Although one of these diseases may be more predominant in a given area, both are important on a global scale. To assist informed management decisions and quantify relationships between end-of-season defoliation and yield loss, meta-analyses were conducted over 140 datasets meeting established criteria. Slopes of proportion yield loss with increasing defoliation were estimated separately for Virginia and runner market type cultivars. Yield loss for Virginia types was described by an exponential function over the range of defoliation levels, with a loss increase of 1.2 to 2.2% relative to current loss levels per additional percent defoliation. Results for runner market type cultivars showed yield loss to linearly increase 2.2 to 2.8% per 10% increase in defoliation for levels up to approximately 95% defoliation, after which the rate of yield loss was exponential. Defoliation thresholds to prevent economic yield loss for Virginia and runner types were estimated at 40 and 50%, respectively. Although numerous factors remain important in mitigating overall yield losses, the integration of these findings should aid recommendations about digging under varying defoliation intensities and peanut maturities to assist in minimizing yield losses.


Asunto(s)
Arachis , Ascomicetos , Virginia
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(8)2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033955

RESUMEN

In a structured survey of all major chicken-meat producers in Australia, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni (n = 108) and C. coli (n = 96) from cecal samples of chickens at slaughter (n = 200). The majority of the C. jejuni (63%) and C. coli (86.5%) samples were susceptible to all antimicrobials. Fluoroquinolone resistance was detected among both C. jejuni (14.8%) and C. coli (5.2%), although this only included three sequence types (STs) and one ST, respectively. Multidrug resistance among strains of C. jejuni (0.9%) and C. coli (4.1%) was rare, and fluoroquinolone resistance, when present, was never accompanied by resistance to any other agent. Comparative genome analysis demonstrated that Australian isolates were found dispersed on different branches/clusters within the international collection. The major fluoroquinolone-resistant STs of C. jejuni (ST7323, ST2083, and ST2343) and C. coli (ST860) present in Australian chickens were similar to those of international isolates and have been reported previously in humans and animals overseas. The detection of a subpopulation of Campylobacter isolates exclusively resistant to fluoroquinolone was unexpected since most critically important antimicrobials such as fluoroquinolones are excluded from use in Australian livestock. A number of factors, including the low level of resistance to other antimicrobials, the absence of fluoroquinolone use, the adoption of measures for preventing spread of contagion between flocks, and particularly the genomic identities of isolates, all point to humans, pest species, or wild birds as being the most plausible source of organisms. This study also demonstrates the need for vigilance in the form of surveillance for AMR based on robust sampling to manage AMR risks in the food chain.IMPORTANCE Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in humans, with infections frequently resulting from exposure to undercooked poultry products. Although human illness is typically self-limiting, a minority of cases do require antimicrobial therapy. Ensuring that Campylobacter originating from meat chickens does not acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones is therefore a valuable outcome for public health. Australia has never legalized the use of fluoroquinolones in commercial chickens and until now fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter has not been detected in the Australian poultry. This structured survey of meat chickens derived from all major Australian producers describes the unexpected emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Genetic characterization suggests that these isolates may have evolved outside the Australian poultry sector and were introduced into poultry by humans, pest species, or wild birds. The findings dramatically underline the critical role of biosecurity in the overall fight against antimicrobial resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/veterinaria , Campylobacter coli/efectos de los fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/microbiología , Campylobacter coli/fisiología , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiología , Pollos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología
18.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(3): W75-W81, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032249

RESUMEN

The chest radiograph is the most frequently performed imaging in radiology and by including the heart and central vessels can suggest the presence of cardiovascular disease. Dual-energy subtraction radiography of the chest provides improved detection of a wide variety of cardiovascular pathologies including coronary artery disease, valvular pathologies, and pericardial disease given the presence of calcification in many subtypes of these diseases. We review the principles of dual-energy subtraction radiography and demonstrate its added value in the assessment of cardiovascular disease.

20.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 36(4): 385-389, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917766

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is used for many clean-contaminated surgeries or clean surgeries with an implant, but its value for clean orbital surgery has not been determined. This study investigated infection risks and adverse effects related to antibiotics in patients undergoing orbital surgery. METHODS: A prospective, nonrandomized comparative case series of all patients undergoing orbital surgery with participating surgeons between October 1, 2013, and March 1, 2015. Types of surgery, antibiotic regimens, corticosteroid use, antibiotic side effects, and surgical site infections (SSIs) were entered into an electronic database and subsequently analyzed. Cases in which patients received postoperative oral antibiotics were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Of 1,250 consecutive orbital surgeries, 1,225 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1208 patients were included in the primary analysis: 603 received no antibiotic prophylaxis (group A), and 605 received a single dose of intravenous antibiotic (group B). Five patients (0.42%) developed an SSI, 3 in group A and 2 in group B. The difference in SSI rates was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (p = 0.66). Antibiotic prophylaxis, alloplastic implants, paranasal sinus entry, and corticosteroid use were not associated with differences in SSI rates. All SSIs resolved on a single course of oral antibiotics; an implant was removed in 1 case. There were no complications associated with a single dose of intravenous prophylaxis. However, 12% of 17 patients (group C) who received 1 week of oral postoperative prophylactic antibiotics developed antibiotic-related complications (diarrhea, renal injury), yielding a number needed to harm of 8.5. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series, antibiotic prophylaxis does not appear to have reduced the already low incidence of SSI following orbital surgery. Given the detriments of systemic antibiotics, the rarity of infections related to orbital surgery, and the efficacy of treating such infections should they occur, patients undergoing orbital surgery should be educated to the early symptoms of postoperative infection and followed closely, but do not routinely require perioperative antibiotics.

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