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Nature ; 539(7629): 407-410, 2016 11 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786173


Energy dissipation is a fundamental process governing the dynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems. It is also one of the main characteristics that distinguish quantum from classical phenomena. In particular, in condensed matter physics, scattering mechanisms, loss of quantum information or breakdown of topological protection are deeply rooted in the intricate details of how and where the dissipation occurs. Yet the microscopic behaviour of a system is usually not formulated in terms of dissipation because energy dissipation is not a readily measurable quantity on the micrometre scale. Although nanoscale thermometry has gained much recent interest, existing thermal imaging methods are not sensitive enough for the study of quantum systems and are also unsuitable for the low-temperature operation that is required. Here we report a nano-thermometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device with a diameter of less than 50 nanometres that resides at the apex of a sharp pipette: it provides scanning cryogenic thermal sensing that is four orders of magnitude more sensitive than previous devices-below 1 µK Hz-1/2. This non-contact, non-invasive thermometry allows thermal imaging of very low intensity, nanoscale energy dissipation down to the fundamental Landauer limit of 40 femtowatts for continuous readout of a single qubit at one gigahertz at 4.2 kelvin. These advances enable the observation of changes in dissipation due to single-electron charging of individual quantum dots in carbon nanotubes. They also reveal a dissipation mechanism attributable to resonant localized states in graphene encapsulated within hexagonal boron nitride, opening the door to direct thermal imaging of nanoscale dissipation processes in quantum matter.

Phys Rev Lett ; 110(10): 105502, 2013 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23521270


Recently, Geblinger et al. [Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 195 (2008)] reported the experimental realization of carbon nanotube S-like shaped nanostructures, the so-called carbon nanotube serpentines. We report here results from multimillion fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of their formation. We consider one-µm-long carbon nanotubes placed on stepped substrates with and without a catalyst nanoparticle on the top free end of the tube. A force is applied to the upper part of the tube during a short period of time and turned off; then the system is set free to evolve in time. Our results show that these conditions are sufficient to form robust serpentines and validates the general features of the "falling spaghetti model" proposed to explain their formation.

Nano Lett ; 12(8): 4110-6, 2012 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22731916


In this work, an atomic force microscope (AFM) is combined with a confocal Raman spectroscopy setup to follow in situ the evolution of the G-band feature of isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) under transverse deformation. The SWNTs are pressed by a gold AFM tip against the substrate where they are sitting. From eight deformed SWNTs, five exhibit an overall decrease in the Raman signal intensity, while three exhibit vibrational changes related to the circumferential symmetry breaking. Our results reveal chirality dependent effects, which are averaged out in SWNT bundle measurements, including a previously elusive mode symmetry breaking that is here explored using molecular dynamics calculations.

Phys Rev Lett ; 103(18): 186101, 2009 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19905816


We develop a theory of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems, and report supporting experimental results for carbon nanotubes. The enhancement is established by a laser-irradiated nanoplasmonic structure acting as an optical antenna. The near-field Raman intensity is inversely proportional to the 10th power of the separation between the enhancing structure and the one-dimensional system. Experimental data obtained from single-wall carbon nanotubes indicate that the Raman enhancement process is not significantly influenced by the specific phonon eigenvector, and is mainly defined by the properties of the nanoplasmonic structure.

Science ; 289(5476): 94-7, 2000 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10884232


A concept for molecular electronics exploiting carbon nanotubes as both molecular device elements and molecular wires for reading and writing information was developed. Each device element is based on a suspended, crossed nanotube geometry that leads to bistable, electrostatically switchable ON/OFF states. The device elements are naturally addressable in large arrays by the carbon nanotube molecular wires making up the devices. These reversible, bistable device elements could be used to construct nonvolatile random access memory and logic function tables at an integration level approaching 10(12) elements per square centimeter and an element operation frequency in excess of 100 gigahertz. The viability of this concept is demonstrated by detailed calculations and by the experimental realization of a reversible, bistable nanotube-based bit.

Nature ; 394(6688): 52-5, 1998 Jul 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9665127


Carbon nanotubes combine a range of properties that make them well suited for use as probe tips in applications such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their high aspect ratio, for example, opens up the possibility of probing the deep crevices that occur in microelectronic circuits, and the small effective radius of nanotube tips significantly improves the lateral resolution beyond what can be achieved using commercial silicon tips. Another characteristic feature of nanotubes is their ability to buckle elastically, which makes them very robust while limiting the maximum force that is applied to delicate organic and biological samples. Earlier investigations into the performance of nanotubes as scanning probe microscopy tips have focused on topographical imaging, but a potentially more significant issue is the question of whether nanotubes can be modified to create probes that can sense and manipulate matter at the molecular level. Here we demonstrate that nanotube tips with the capability of chemical and biological discrimination can be created with acidic functionality and by coupling basic or hydrophobic functionalities or biomolecular probes to the carboxyl groups that are present at the open tip ends. We have used these modified nanotubes as AFM tips to titrate the acid and base groups, to image patterned samples based on molecular interactions, and to measure the binding force between single protein-ligand pairs. As carboxyl groups are readily derivatized by a variety of reactions, the preparation of a wide range of functionalized nanotube tips should be possible, thus creating molecular probes with potential applications in many areas of chemistry and biology.

Carbono , Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica , Sondas Moleculares , Biología , Fenómenos Químicos , Química , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados