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1.
Med ; 5(3): 176-178, 2024 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460495

RESUMEN

As frontline treatment of advanced urothelial cancer (UC) evolves, optimal sequencing of subsequent therapies remains unclear. The phase 3 THOR trial compared the efficacy of erdafitinib to chemotherapy or immunotherapy in FGFR3/2-altered advanced UC. THOR offers valuable data informing sequencing strategies, reinforcing the need for molecular testing in UC.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Inmunoterapia , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 972, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302476

RESUMEN

Epigenetic modulation is well established in hematologic malignancies but to a lesser degree in solid tumors. Here we report the results of a phase Ib/II study of guadecitabine and durvalumab in advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC; NCT03308396). Patients received guadecitabine (starting at 60 mg/m2 subcutaneously on days 1-5 with de-escalation to 45 mg/m2 in case of dose limiting toxicity) with durvalumab (1500 mg intravenously on day 8). The study enrolled 57 patients, 6 in phase Ib with safety being the primary objective and 51in phase II, comprising 2 cohorts: 36 patients in Cohort 1 were treatment naive to checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) with 0-1 prior therapies and 15 patients in Cohort 2 were treated with up to two prior systemic therapies including one CPI. The combination of guadecitabine 45 mg/m2 with durvalumab 1500 mg was deemed safe. The primary objective of overall response rate (ORR) in cohort 1 was 22%. Sixteen patients (44%) experienced stable disease (SD). Secondary objectives included overall survival (OS), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), clinical benefit rate, and safety as well as ORR for Cohort 2. Median PFS for cohort 1 and cohort 2 were 14.26 and 3.91 months respectively. Median OS was not reached. In cohort 2, one patient achieved a partial response and 60% achieved SD. Asymptomatic neutropenia was the most common adverse event. Even though the trial did not meet the primary objective in cohort 1, the tolerability and PFS signal in CPI naive patients are worth further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Carcinoma de Células Renales , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Renales/tratamiento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renales/genética , Azacitidina/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efectos adversos
3.
Cancer ; 2024 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376917

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can have a particularly detrimental effect on patients with cancer, but no studies to date have examined if the presence, or site, of metastatic cancer is related to COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: Using the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) registry, the authors identified 10,065 patients with COVID-19 and cancer (2325 with and 7740 without metastasis at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis). The primary ordinal outcome was COVID-19 severity: not hospitalized, hospitalized but did not receive supplemental O2 , hospitalized and received supplemental O2 , admitted to an intensive care unit, received mechanical ventilation, or died from any cause. The authors used ordinal logistic regression models to compare COVID-19 severity by presence and specific site of metastatic cancer. They used logistic regression models to assess 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Compared to patients without metastasis, patients with metastases have increased hospitalization rates (59% vs. 49%) and higher 30 day mortality (18% vs. 9%). Patients with metastasis to bone, lung, liver, lymph nodes, and brain have significantly higher COVID-19 severity (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 1.38, 1.59, 1.38, 1.00, and 2.21) compared to patients without metastases at those sites. Patients with metastasis to the lung have significantly higher odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted OR, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.00) when adjusting for COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with metastatic cancer, especially with metastasis to the brain, are more likely to have severe outcomes after COVID-19 whereas patients with metastasis to the lung, compared to patients with cancer metastasis to other sites, have the highest 30-day mortality after COVID-19.

4.
Urol Pract ; 11(2): 339-346, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305777

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: With no recommended screening approach, urinary bladder cancer patients rely on referral to urologists to ensure timely diagnosis of bladder cancer. This requires coordination between primary and specialty care. We provide estimates of the relative association between primary care physician and urologist density on stage of urinary bladder cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We used 2010 to 2016 Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data to identify all adult patients diagnosed with bladder cancer. Our primary outcome was locoregional stage of diagnosis, since treatment modality changes and prognosis worsens beyond this stage. Based on patient's residential location at the time of diagnosis we defined both density of urologists and number of primary care providers (defined as providers per population) within the patient's county. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression to estimate the association between provider density and likelihood of locoregional stage of diagnosis. We also controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance type, and year. RESULTS: Our sample included 11,771 urinary bladder cancer patients with 10,607 diagnosed at locoregional stage and 1164 at distant stage. Multivariate regression results show primary care density was associated with significantly higher odds of locoregional stage of diagnosis (odds ratio of 1.05 [95% CI: 1.02-1.08]) while urologist density was associated with significantly lower odds of locoregional stage (odds ratio of 0.65 [95% CI: 0.48-0.89]). CONCLUSIONS: We found primary care density but not urologist density was associated with earlier stage of diagnosis, highlighting the importance of access to primary care and need for timely referral to urologic care.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Sistema Urinario , Urología , Adulto , Humanos , Urólogos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/diagnóstico , Atención Primaria de Salud
5.
Elife ; 122023 10 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37846664

RESUMEN

Background: Limited information is available for patients with breast cancer (BC) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially among underrepresented racial/ethnic populations. Methods: This is a COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) registry-based retrospective cohort study of females with active or history of BC and laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosed between March 2020 and June 2021 in the US. Primary outcome was COVID-19 severity measured on a five-level ordinal scale, including none of the following complications, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with COVID-19 severity. Results: 1383 female patient records with BC and COVID-19 were included in the analysis, the median age was 61 years, and median follow-up was 90 days. Multivariable analysis revealed higher odds of COVID-19 severity for older age (aOR per decade, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.32-1.67]); Black patients (aOR 1.74; 95 CI 1.24-2.45), Asian Americans and Pacific Islander patients (aOR 3.40; 95 CI 1.70-6.79) and Other (aOR 2.97; 95 CI 1.71-5.17) racial/ethnic groups; worse ECOG performance status (ECOG PS ≥2: aOR, 7.78 [95% CI, 4.83-12.5]); pre-existing cardiovascular (aOR, 2.26 [95% CI, 1.63-3.15])/pulmonary comorbidities (aOR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.20-2.29]); diabetes mellitus (aOR, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.66-3.04]); and active and progressing cancer (aOR, 12.5 [95% CI, 6.89-22.6]). Hispanic ethnicity, timing, and type of anti-cancer therapy modalities were not significantly associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. The total all-cause mortality and hospitalization rate for the entire cohort was 9% and 37%, respectively however, it varied according to the BC disease status. Conclusions: Using one of the largest registries on cancer and COVID-19, we identified patient and BC-related factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, underrepresented racial/ethnic patients experienced worse outcomes compared to non-Hispanic White patients. Funding: This study was partly supported by National Cancer Institute grant number P30 CA068485 to Tianyi Sun, Sanjay Mishra, Benjamin French, Jeremy L Warner; P30-CA046592 to Christopher R Friese; P30 CA023100 for Rana R McKay; P30-CA054174 for Pankil K Shah and Dimpy P Shah; KL2 TR002646 for Pankil Shah and the American Cancer Society and Hope Foundation for Cancer Research (MRSG-16-152-01-CCE) and P30-CA054174 for Dimpy P Shah. REDCap is developed and supported by Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research grant support (UL1 TR000445 from NCATS/NIH). The funding sources had no role in the writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit it for publication. Clinical trial number: CCC19 registry is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04354701.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , COVID-19 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios de Cohortes , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(10)2023 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37895250

RESUMEN

A key abiotic stress that negatively affects seed germination, plant development, and crop yield is moisture deficit stress. Achieving higher vigour and uniform germination under stress conditions is essential for crop establishment and productivity and to enhance the yield. Hence, revealing wheat's capacity to withstand moisture deficit stress during seed germination and early growth stages is fundamental in improving its overall performance. However, the genetic regulation of moisture deficit stress tolerance during the seed germination phase remains largely unexplored. In this study, a total of 193 wheat genotypes were subjected to simulated moisture deficit stress using PEG-6000 (-0.4 MPa) during the seed germination stage. The induced moisture deficit stress significantly reduced various seedling-vigour-related traits. The genetic regions linked to these traits were found using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The analysis identified 235 MTAs with a significance -log10(p) value of >4. After applying the Bonferroni correction, the study identified 47 unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are linked to candidate genes important for the trait of interest. The current study emphasises the effectiveness of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in identifying promising candidate genes, improving wheat seedling vigour and root traits, and offering essential information for the development of wheat cultivars tolerant to moisture deficit stress.


Asunto(s)
Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Plantones , Triticum/genética , Fenotipo , Genotipo
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 9(10): 1390-1400, 2023 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37589970

RESUMEN

Importance: Systematic data on the association between anticancer therapies and thromboembolic events (TEEs) in patients with COVID-19 are lacking. Objective: To assess the association between anticancer therapy exposure within 3 months prior to COVID-19 and TEEs following COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included patients who were hospitalized and had active cancer and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data were accrued from March 2020 to December 2021 and analyzed from December 2021 to October 2022. Exposure: Treatments of interest (TOIs) (endocrine therapy, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors/tyrosine kinase inhibitors [VEGFis/TKIs], immunomodulators [IMiDs], immune checkpoint inhibitors [ICIs], chemotherapy) vs reference (no systemic therapy) in 3 months prior to COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were (1) venous thromboembolism (VTE) and (2) arterial thromboembolism (ATE). Secondary outcome was severity of COVID-19 (rates of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, 30-day all-cause mortality following TEEs in TOI vs reference group) at 30-day follow-up. Results: Of 4988 hospitalized patients with cancer (median [IQR] age, 69 [59-78] years; 2608 [52%] male), 1869 had received 1 or more TOIs. Incidence of VTE was higher in all TOI groups: endocrine therapy, 7%; VEGFis/TKIs, 10%; IMiDs, 8%; ICIs, 12%; and chemotherapy, 10%, compared with patients not receiving systemic therapies (6%). In multivariable log-binomial regression analyses, relative risk of VTE (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.69) but not ATE (aRR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.56-1.16) was significantly higher in those exposed to all TOIs pooled together vs those with no exposure. Among individual drugs, ICIs were significantly associated with VTE (aRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.01-2.07). Also noted were significant associations between VTE and active and progressing cancer (aRR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.01-2.03), history of VTE (aRR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.38-4.04), and high-risk site of cancer (aRR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.75). Black patients had a higher risk of TEEs (aRR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.50) than White patients. Patients with TEEs had high intensive care unit admission (46%) and mechanical ventilation (31%) rates. Relative risk of death in patients with TEEs was higher in those exposed to TOIs vs not (aRR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.91-1.38) and was significantly associated with poor performance status (aRR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.30-2.40) and active/progressing cancer (aRR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.13-2.13). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, relative risk of developing VTE was high among patients receiving TOIs and varied by the type of therapy, underlying risk factors, and demographics, such as race and ethnicity. These findings highlight the need for close monitoring and perhaps personalized thromboprophylaxis to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19-related thromboembolism in patients with cancer.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Femenino , Tromboembolia Venosa/inducido químicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiología , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Agentes Inmunomoduladores
8.
J Biol Chem ; 299(9): 105107, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37517699

RESUMEN

Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) form the foundation of any cell signaling network. Considering that PPIs are highly dynamic processes, cellular assays are often essential for their study because they closely mimic the biological complexities of cellular environments. However, incongruity may be observed across different PPI assays when investigating a protein partner of interest; these discrepancies can be partially attributed to the fusion of different large functional moieties, such as fluorescent proteins or enzymes, which can yield disparate perturbations to the protein's stability, subcellular localization, and interaction partners depending on the given cellular assay. Owing to their smaller size, epitope tags may exhibit a diminished susceptibility to instigate such perturbations. However, while they have been widely used for detecting or manipulating proteins in vitro, epitope tags lack the in vivo traceability and functionality needed for intracellular biosensors. Herein, we develop NbV5, an intracellular nanobody binding the V5-tag, which is suitable for use in cellular assays commonly used to study PPIs such as BRET, NanoBiT, and Tango. The NbV5:V5 tag system has been applied to interrogate G protein-coupled receptor signaling, specifically by replacing larger functional moieties attached to the protein interactors, such as fluorescent or luminescent proteins (∼30 kDa), by the significantly smaller V5-tag peptide (1.4 kDa), and for microscopy imaging which is successfully detected by NbV5-based biosensors. Therefore, the NbV5:V5 tag system presents itself as a versatile tool for live-cell imaging and a befitting adaptation to existing cellular assays dedicated to probing PPIs.

9.
J Cancer Educ ; 38(5): 1690-1696, 2023 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37336800

RESUMEN

Cancer patients have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes and were recommended to be vaccinated, wear a mask, practice social distancing, and increase hand hygiene. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to identify constructs that were associated with the likelihood of adhering to and advocating for CDC COVID-19 prevention recommendations. We surveyed adult cancer patients who had an onsite appointment at the Penn State Cancer Institute or at the Hematology and Oncology Associates of Northeastern Pennsylvania. Survey measures included adherence to and informing others of COVID-19 recommendations as well as HBM constructs. Relationships between HBM constructs and outcomes were assessed with Spearman's correlation and multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Of the 106 participants who completed the survey for our objectives of interest, 76% always wore a mask, 29% always practiced social distancing, and 24% washed their hands at least 10 times a day. Limited advocacy behaviors were captured for the COVID-19 vaccine (30%), social distancing (36%), and wearing masks (27%). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues-to-action were positively associated with the likelihood of adherence or advocacy of COVID-19 recommendations among cancer patients, whereas perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy were negatively associated with the likelihood of adherence or advocacy of COVID-19 recommendations among cancer patients. Perceived benefits may be the strongest predictor for adherence and advocacy for specific COVID-19 guidelines. Future messaging and educational campaigns focused on improving adherence to or advocacy of specific health behaviors should be informed by the HBM and originate from multiple outlets.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Modelo de Creencias sobre la Salud
10.
medRxiv ; 2023 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37205429

RESUMEN

Background: Limited information is available for patients with breast cancer (BC) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially among underrepresented racial/ethnic populations. Methods: This is a COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) registry-based retrospective cohort study of females with active or history of BC and laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosed between March 2020 and June 2021 in the US. Primary outcome was COVID-19 severity measured on a five-level ordinal scale, including none of the following complications, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with COVID-19 severity. Results: 1,383 female patient records with BC and COVID-19 were included in the analysis, the median age was 61 years, and median follow-up was 90 days. Multivariable analysis revealed higher odds of COVID-19 severity for older age (aOR per decade, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.32 - 1.67]); Black patients (aOR 1.74; 95 CI 1.24-2.45), Asian Americans and Pacific Islander patients (aOR 3.40; 95 CI 1.70 - 6.79) and Other (aOR 2.97; 95 CI 1.71-5.17) racial/ethnic groups; worse ECOG performance status (ECOG PS ≥2: aOR, 7.78 [95% CI, 4.83 - 12.5]); pre-existing cardiovascular (aOR, 2.26 [95% CI, 1.63 - 3.15])/pulmonary comorbidities (aOR, 1.65 [95% CI, 1.20 - 2.29]); diabetes mellitus (aOR, 2.25 [95% CI, 1.66 - 3.04]); and active and progressing cancer (aOR, 12.5 [95% CI, 6.89 - 22.6]). Hispanic ethnicity, timing and type of anti-cancer therapy modalities were not significantly associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. The total all-cause mortality and hospitalization rate for the entire cohort was 9% and 37%, respectively however, it varied according to the BC disease status. Conclusions: Using one of the largest registries on cancer and COVID-19, we identified patient and BC related factors associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, underrepresented racial/ethnic patients experienced worse outcomes compared to Non-Hispanic White patients.

11.
Eur Urol Open Sci ; 50: 1-9, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37101768

RESUMEN

Background: Erdafitinib is indicated for the treatment of adults with locally advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and susceptible FGFR3/2 alterations progressing on/after one or more lines of prior platinum-based chemotherapy. Objective: To better understand the frequency and management of select treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) to enable optimal fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor (FGFRi) treatment. Design setting and participants: Longer-term efficacy and safety results of the BLC2001 (NCT02365597) trial in patients with locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma were studied. Intervention: Erdafitinib schedule of 8 mg/d continuous in 28-d cycles, with uptitration to 9 mg/d if serum phosphate level was <5.5 mg/dl and no significant TEAEs occurred. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Adverse events were graded using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The Kaplan-Meier methodology was used for the cumulative incidence of the first onset of TEAEs by grade. Time to resolution of TEAEs was summarized descriptively. Results and limitations: At data cutoff, the median treatment duration was 5.4 mo among 101 patients receiving erdafitinib. Select TEAEs (total; grade 3) were hyperphosphatemia (78%; 2.0%), stomatitis (59%; 14%), nail events (59%; 15%), non-central serous retinopathy (non-CSR) eye disorders (56%; 5.0%), skin events (55%; 7.9%), diarrhea (55%; 4.0%), and CSR (27%; 4.0%). Select TEAEs were mostly of grade 1 or 2, and were managed effectively with dose modifications, including dose reductions or interruptions, and/or supportive concomitant therapies, resulting in few events leading to treatment discontinuation. Further work is needed to determine whether management is generalizable to the nonprotocol/general population. Conclusions: Identification of select TEAEs and appropriate management with dose modification and/or concomitant therapies resulted in improvement or resolution of most TEAEs in patients, allowing for continuation of FGFRi treatment to ensure maximum benefit. Patient summary: Early identification and proactive management are warranted to mitigate or possibly prevent erdafitinib side effects to allow for maximum drug benefit in patients with locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer.

12.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 19: 100445, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36818595

RESUMEN

Background: Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections following vaccination against COVID-19 are of international concern. Patients with cancer have been observed to have worse outcomes associated with COVID-19 during the pandemic. We sought to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with cancer who developed breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections after 2 or 3 doses of mRNA vaccines. Methods: We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with cancer who developed breakthrough infections using data from the multi-institutional COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19; NCT04354701). Analysis was restricted to patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 diagnosed in 2021 or 2022, to allow for a contemporary unvaccinated control population; potential differences were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model after inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for potential baseline confounding variables. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality, with key secondary endpoints of hospitalization and ICU and/or mechanical ventilation (ICU/MV). Findings: The analysis included 2486 patients, of which 564 and 385 had received 2 or 3 doses of an mRNA vaccine prior to infection, respectively. Hematologic malignancies and recent receipt of systemic anti-neoplastic therapy were more frequent among vaccinated patients. Vaccination was associated with improved outcomes: in the primary analysis, 2 doses (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44-0.88) and 3 doses (aOR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.11-0.36) were associated with decreased 30-day mortality. There were similar findings for the key secondary endpoints of ICU/MV (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.45-0.82 and 0.37, 95% CI: 0.24-0.58) and hospitalization (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.48-0.75 and 0.35, 95% CI: 0.26-0.46) for 2 and 3 doses, respectively. Importantly, Black patients had higher rates of hospitalization (aOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.12-1.92), and Hispanic patients presented with higher rates of ICU/MV (aOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06-2.44). Interpretation: Vaccination against COVID-19, especially with additional doses, is a fundamental strategy in the prevention of adverse outcomes including death, among patients with cancer. Funding: This study was partly supported by grants from the National Cancer Institute grant number P30 CA068485 to C-YH, YS, SM, JLW; T32-CA236621 and P30-CA046592 to C.R.F; CTSA 2UL1TR001425-05A1 to TMW-D; ACS/FHI Real-World Data Impact Award, P50 MD017341-01, R21 CA242044-01A1, Susan G. Komen Leadership Grant Hunt to MKA. REDCap is developed and supported by Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research grant support (UL1 TR000445 from NCATS/NIH).

13.
J Immunother Cancer ; 11(2)2023 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36822667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Patients with bladder cancer (BC) who are cisplatin ineligible or have unresectable disease have limited treatment options. Previously, we showed targeting programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) with durvalumab (durva) and radiation therapy (RT) combination was safe in BC. We now report results from a phase II study evaluating the toxicity and efficacy of durva and RT in localized BC. METHODS: This is a single-arm, multi-institutional phase II study; N=26. Enrolled patients had pure or mixed urothelial BC (T2-4 N0-2 M0) with unresectable tumors and were unfit for surgery or cisplatin ineligible. Patients received durva concurrently with RT ×7 weeks, followed by adjuvant durva × 1 year. PRIMARY ENDPOINTS: (A) progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 year and (B) disease control rate (DCR) post adjuvant durva. Key secondary endpoints: (A) complete response (CR) post durvaRT (8 weeks), (B) overall survival (OS), (C) PFS and (D) toxicity. Correlative studies included evaluation of baseline tumor and blood (baseline, post durvaRT) for biomarkers. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 27 months. Evaluable patients: 24/26 post durvaRT, 22/26 for DCR post adjuvant durva, all patients for PFS and OS. Post adjuvant durva, DCR was seen in 72.7%, CR of 54.5%. 1-year PFS was 71.5%, median PFS was 21.8 months. 1-year OS was 83.8%, median OS was 30.8 months. CR at 8 weeks post durvaRT was 62.5%. Node positive (N+) patients had similar median PFS and OS. DurvaRT was well tolerated. Grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events: anemia, high lipase/amylase, immune-nephritis, transaminitis, dyspnea (grade 4-COPD/immune), fatigue, rash, diarrhea and scleritis. No difference in outcome was observed with PD-L1 status of baseline tumor. Patients with CR/PR or SD had an increase in naïve CD4 T cells, a decrease in PD-1+CD4 T cells at baseline and an increase in cytokine-producing CD8 T cells, including interferon gamma (IFNγ) producing cells, in the peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: Durva with RT followed by adjuvant durva was safe with promising efficacy in localized BC patients with comorbidities, including N+ patients. Larger randomized studies, like S1806 and EA8185, are needed to evaluate the efficacy of combining immunotherapy and RT in BC. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02891161.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Cisplatino , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/tratamiento farmacológico
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 371: 128617, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640815

RESUMEN

The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of freshwater green microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana for diclofenac sodium (DFS) removal, and metabolic response of alga to comprehend the metabolic pathways involved/affected during DFS decontamination. Results showed 91.51 % removal of DFS could be achieved within 9 days of algal treatment along with recovery of enhanced value-added bioresources i.e. chlorophyll, carotenoids, and lipids from the spent biomass. DFS also had an effect on enzyme activity including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (MDA). Furthermore, metabolomics profiling provided an in-depth insight into changes in the metabolic response of C. sorokiniana wherein DFS induced 32 metabolites in microalgae compared to unexposed-control. This study offers microalgae as a green option for DFS removal, and the metabolomics study complemented with DFS could be an approach to understand the stress-induced strategies of C. sorokiniana for concomitant value-added products recovery in presence of DFS.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella , Microalgas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Chlorella/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo , Lípidos , Metabolómica , Biomasa
16.
Semin Radiat Oncol ; 33(1): 35-50, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36517192

RESUMEN

There are limited data regarding the optimal management of patients with pelvic node-positive, but non-metastatic, bladder cancer. Increasing data demonstrate that this is a distinct clinical entity with outcomes bridging between bladder-confined muscle-invasive bladder cancer and metastatic advanced bladder cancer. Guidelines and staging systems have formalized the need to incorporate the unique considerations of management of pelvic node-positive bladder cancer. However, there remains an absence of a definite standard of care. Treatment options include systemic therapy alone, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy, or bladder-preserving trimodality therapy. Furthermore, ongoing studies aim to determine the benefit of incorporating immunotherapy into these treatment paradigms. In this review article, we will discuss the key considerations for management of patients with pelvic node-positive bladder cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Humanos , Terapia Combinada , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Invasividad Neoplásica/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/radioterapia , Cistectomía , Terapia Neoadyuvante
18.
JAMA Oncol ; 9(1): 128-134, 2023 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326731

RESUMEN

Importance: Cytokine storm due to COVID-19 can cause high morbidity and mortality and may be more common in patients with cancer treated with immunotherapy (IO) due to immune system activation. Objective: To determine the association of baseline immunosuppression and/or IO-based therapies with COVID-19 severity and cytokine storm in patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based retrospective cohort study included 12 046 patients reported to the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) registry from March 2020 to May 2022. The CCC19 registry is a centralized international multi-institutional registry of patients with COVID-19 with a current or past diagnosis of cancer. Records analyzed included patients with active or previous cancer who had a laboratory-confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction and/or serologic findings. Exposures: Immunosuppression due to therapy; systemic anticancer therapy (IO or non-IO). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a 5-level ordinal scale of COVID-19 severity: no complications; hospitalized without requiring oxygen; hospitalized and required oxygen; intensive care unit admission and/or mechanical ventilation; death. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of cytokine storm. Results: The median age of the entire cohort was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR], 54-74) years and 6359 patients were female (52.8%) and 6598 (54.8%) were non-Hispanic White. A total of 599 (5.0%) patients received IO, whereas 4327 (35.9%) received non-IO systemic anticancer therapies, and 7120 (59.1%) did not receive any antineoplastic regimen within 3 months prior to COVID-19 diagnosis. Although no difference in COVID-19 severity and cytokine storm was found in the IO group compared with the untreated group in the total cohort (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.56-1.13, and aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.41-1.93, respectively), patients with baseline immunosuppression treated with IO (vs untreated) had worse COVID-19 severity and cytokine storm (aOR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.38-8.01, and aOR, 4.41; 95% CI, 1.71-11.38, respectively). Patients with immunosuppression receiving non-IO therapies (vs untreated) also had worse COVID-19 severity (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.36-2.35) and cytokine storm (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.42-3.79). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that in patients with cancer and COVID-19, administration of systemic anticancer therapies, especially IO, in the context of baseline immunosuppression was associated with severe clinical outcomes and the development of cytokine storm. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04354701.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Prueba de COVID-19 , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/etiología , Terapia de Inmunosupresión , Inmunoterapia/efectos adversos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia
19.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 21(2): 301-308, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344399

RESUMEN

After several decades of therapeutic stagnation, the treatment of patients with urothelial carcinoma has met a revolutionary wave, anticipated by the advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and followed by newer therapeutic options in the post-ICI setting. These achievements were made in a very short time-frame, thus making the treatment of this disease particularly susceptible to geographical health disparity due to the differences in healthcare systems and approval processes of the regulatory authorities. Furthermore, additional barriers to access innovative care are represented by a limited coverage of clinical trials availability, that is consistent in focusing on selected geographical areas, across trials and clinical settings. Here, we present the current picture of new drug approvals in urothelial carcinoma worldwide, and we also focus our considerations onto the spectrum of ongoing trial inclusion possibilities, trying to understand what are the current gaps in clinical research and routine practice, identifying a way to move forward.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Transicionales , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria , Neoplasias Urológicas , Humanos , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/tratamiento farmacológico , Inmunoterapia , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Políticas
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