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Clin Exp Hypertens ; 41(4): 336-341, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902061


The study aimed to assess whether the Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) can detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in overweight/obese people with hypertension (HTN) after an exercise intervention evaluating the equation presented in the previous research by Jurio-Iriarte et al. Participants (N= 248) performed a peak cardiorespiratory exercise test (CPET) and MSWT before and after 16-weeks of different types of aerobic exercise intervention. The formula of Jurio-Iriarte et al. was used to predict peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak). The correlation between measured and predicted V̇O2peak was strong (r= 0.76, P< 0.001) with a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 4.9 mL·kg-1·min-1; SEE%= 17%. The intraclass correlation coefficient indicates a moderate level of association and agreement (ICC= 0.69; 95% CI 0.34-0.82; P< 0.001) between the measured and predicted V̇O2peak. When analyzing obese participants alone (N= 128), MSWT equation was more accurate compared to the whole sample (ICC= 0.76; 95% CI 0.52-0.87). The relationship between the change of measured and predicted V̇O2peak at follow-up was weak (r= 0.42, P< 0.001) with a 31% SEE, and a low level of association and agreement (ICC= 0.31; 95% CI 0.06-0.49; P< 0.001). In conclusion, although MSWT does not accurately predict CRF in people with HTN after exercise intervention and questions its validity, the new equation may have practical application to estimate V̇O2peak for obese people with HTN when CPET is not available. Abbreviations: AC: Attention Control; BM: Body Mass; BP: Blood Pressure; CI: Confidence Interval; CRF: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; CPET: Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test; HTN: Primary Hypertension; HR: Heart Rate; HV-HIIT: High-Volume and High-Intensity Interval Training; ICC: Intraclass Correlation Coefficient; LV-HIIT: Low-Volume and High-Intensity Interval Training; MICT: Moderate-intensity continuous training; MSWT: Modified Shuttle Walk Test; SD: Standard Deviation; SEE: Standard Error of Estimate; V̇O2peak: Peak Oxygen Uptake.

Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Hipertensión Esencial/fisiopatología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Prueba de Paso , Presión Sanguínea , Hipertensión Esencial/complicaciones , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Consumo de Oxígeno , Prueba de Paso/métodos
Health Promot Pract ; 20(3): 390-400, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29742935


The goal of the study was to compare the effects of two supervised aerobic exercise programs (moderate-intensity continuous training [MICT] vs. high-intensity interval training [HIIT]) after 8-, 12-, and 16-week intervention periods on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in overweight/obese adults diagnosed with hypertension. Participants ( N = 64) were divided into three intervention cohorts (control group [CG], MICT, and HIIT) and each of these, in turn, into three intervention length cohorts (8, 12, and 16 weeks). Supervised groups exercised twice a week. There were no statistical changes in postintervention periods in CG ( g < 0.1). CRF as assessed by peak oxygen uptake (mL kg-1·min-1) increased ( p < .001) in exercise groups (MICT, 3.8 ± 3.3, g = 0.6; HIIT, 4.2 ± 4.7, g = 0.7). The effect of exercise interventions compared with CG was substantial ( p < .02, g > .8) and mostly consequence of HIIT-related effects. The improvements on CRF occurred after 12 and 16 weeks in exercise interventions, rather than in the 8-week group or CG, where Hedges's g index indicated small effect. This study may suggest that both MICT and HIIT exert cardioprotector effects on hypertension in the overweight/obese population. However, short-term training duration (<12 weeks) does not seem to improve CRF, and HIIT intervention might generate higher aerobic capacity, which seems to grow as intervention lengthens.

Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Hipertensión/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Femenino , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad/métodos , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Masculino , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Proyectos Piloto
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 78(7-8): 613-620, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474427


Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is positively associated with enhanced cardiovascular health. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine associations between CRF and the biochemical profile of overweight/obese adults diagnosed with primary hypertension (HTN). Does cardiorespiratory fitness (exposure) positively affect the biochemical profile (outcome) in overweight/obese individuals suffering from HTN? Assessment with anthropometric, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24 h), CRF (peak oxygen uptake, V̇O2peak) and biochemical analysis was performed on 214 participants (138 men, 76 women). A series of linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Participants were divided into CRF tertiles (classified as low, moderate and high CRF). The CRF was independently and inversely associated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST; ß = -0.328, p < .05) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT; ß = -0.376, p < .01) concentrations. C-reactive protein, AST/ALT ratio, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), were all associated, but not independently, with CRF in linear and/or unadjusted logistic regression models. However, independently, logistic regression revealed that glucose was associated with the moderate CRF group. Findings suggest that a lower CRF is associated with an unhealthy biochemical profile in non-physically active and overweight/obese individuals with HTN. As such, this population should look to increase physical activity in order to improve their CRF and biochemical profile.

Capacidad Cardiovascular , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Monitoreo Ambulatorio de la Presión Arterial , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidad/complicaciones , Consumo de Oxígeno
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 40(2): 141-149, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783384


The main purpose of this study was to determine some key physical, physiological, clinical, and nutritional markers of health status in obese and sedentary adults (54.0 ± 8.1 years, 141 men and 68 women) with primary hypertension (HTN) characterized by sex and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) level. The studied population showed a high cardiovascular risk (CVR) profile including metabolically abnormal obese, with poor CRF level (22.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg-1·min-1), exercise-induced HTN (Systolic Blood Pressure>210 mmHg in men and >190 mmHg in women at the end of the exercise test) and with non-healthy adherence to dietary pattern (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, 46.3%; Mediterranean Diet, 41.1%; and Healthy Diet Indicator, 37.1%). Women showed a better biochemical and dietary pattern profile than men (lower values, P < 0.05, in triglycerides, mean difference = 26.3; 95% CI = 0.9-51.7 mg/dL, aspartate transaminase, mean difference = 4.2; 95% CI = 0.3-8.0 U/L; alanine transaminase, mean difference = 8.2; 95% CI = 1.6-14.8 U/L; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, mean difference = 11.0; 95% CI = -1.1-23.2 U/L and higher values, P = 0.002, in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mean difference = 5.0, 95% CI = -13.3-3.3 mg/dL), but physical and peak exercise physiological characteristics were poorer. A higher CRF level might contribute to the attenuation of some CVR factors, such as high body mass index, non-dipping profile, and high hepatic fat. The results strongly suggest that targeting key behaviors such as improving nutritional quality and CRF via regular physical activity will contribute to improving the health with independent beneficial effects on CVR factors.

Capacidad Cardiovascular , Dieta Saludable , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Cooperación del Paciente , Adulto , Anciano , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/sangre , Presión Sanguínea , Índice de Masa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Factores Sexuales , Triglicéridos/sangre , Adulto Joven , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/sangre
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 11(4): 186-195, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28302456


The aims of the study were to evaluate the relationship between Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) with peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) in overweight/obese people with primary hypertension (HTN) and to develop an equation for the MSWT to predict V˙O2peak. Participants (N = 256, 53.9 ± 8.1 years old) with HTN and overweight/obesity performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test to peak exertion on an upright bicycle ergometer using an incremental ramp protocol and the 15-level MSWT. The formula of Singh et al was used as a template to predict V˙O2peak, and a new equation was generated from the measured V˙O2peak-MSWT relationship in this investigation. The correlation between measured and predicted V˙O2peak for Singh et al equation was moderate (r = 0.60, P < .001) with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 4.92 mL·kg-1 minute-1, SEE% = 21%. The correlation between MSWT and measured V˙O2peak as well as for the new equation was strong (r = 0.72, P < .001) with a SEE of 4.35 mL·kg-1 minute-1, SEE% = 19%. These results indicate that MSWT does not accurately predict functional capacity in overweight/obese people with HTN and questions the validity of using this test to evaluate exercise intolerance. A more accurate determination from a new equation in the current study incorporating more variables from MSWT to estimate V˙O2peak has been performed but still results in substantial error.

Capacidad Cardiovascular , Hipertensión/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Prueba de Paso/métodos , Electrocardiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/diagnóstico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/complicaciones