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2.
Fam Pract ; 2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478922

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Primary care clinicians have key responsibilities in obesity prevention and weight management. AIMS: We aimed to identify risk factors for developing obesity among people aged ≥45 years. METHODS: We conducted a record linkage longitudinal study of residents of metropolitan Sydney, Australia using data from the: (1) 45 and Up Study at baseline (2005-2009) and first follow-up (2012-2015); (2) Medicare claims; (3) Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme; and (4) deaths registry. We examined risk factors for developing obesity (body mass index [BMI]: 30-40) at follow-up, separately for people within the: (1) healthy weight range (BMI 18.5-<25) and (2) overweight range (BMI 25-<30) at baseline. Covariates included demographics, modifiable behaviours, health status, allied health use, and medication use. Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. RESULTS: At follow-up, 1.1% (180/16,205) of those in the healthy weight range group, and 12.7% (1,939/15,266) of those in the overweight range group developed obesity. In both groups, the following were associated with developing obesity: current smoking at baseline, physical functioning limitations, and allied health service use through team care planning, while any alcohol consumption and adequate physical activity were found to be associated with a lower risk of developing obesity. In the healthy weight group, high psychological distress and the use of antiepileptics were associated with developing obesity. In the overweight group, female sex and full-time work were associated with developing obesity, while older age was found to be associated with a lower risk of developing obesity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may inform the targeting of preventive interventions for obesity in clinical practice and broader public health programs.


Early intervention to prevent weight gain requires a targeted multidisciplinary team-based approach to improve diet, increase physical activity, and change behaviour. However, the capacity to provide this within primary care is limited and there is little funding for consultations with allied health professionals. There is a need to identify priority at-risk groups to help primary care clinicians target interventions to those in most need. We have identified, using a longitudinal study of residents of metropolitan Sydney, key characteristics of older adults who are at risk of gaining weight and developing obesity, including risk behaviours (smoking and physical inactivity), and chronic conditions or their treatment (physical function, psychological distress, and use of anti-epileptic medications). These findings may help alert clinicians to the need for preventive interventions in selected cases, as well as informing the targeting of public health programs.

3.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 12: e45942, 2024 Feb 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38335014

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Health eLiteracy for Prevention in General Practice trial is a primary health care-based behavior change intervention for weight loss in Australians who are overweight and those with obesity from lower socioeconomic areas. Individuals from these areas are known to have low levels of health literacy and are particularly at risk for chronic conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The intervention comprised health check visits with a practice nurse, a purpose-built patient-facing mobile app (mysnapp), and a referral to telephone coaching. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess mysnapp app use, its user profiles, the duration and frequency of use within the Health eLiteracy for Prevention in General Practice trial, its association with other intervention components, and its association with study outcomes (health literacy and diet) to determine whether they have significantly improved at 6 months. METHODS: In 2018, a total of 22 general practices from 2 Australian states were recruited and randomized by cluster to the intervention or usual care. Patients who met the main eligibility criteria (ie, BMI>28 in the previous 12 months and aged 40-74 years) were identified through the clinical software. The practice staff then provided the patients with details about this study. The intervention consisted of a health check with a practice nurse and a lifestyle app, a telephone coaching program, or both depending on the participants' choice. Data were collected directly through the app and combined with data from the 6-week health check with the practice nurses, the telephone coaching, and the participants' questionnaires at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The analyses comprised descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Of the 120 participants who received the intervention, 62 (52%) chose to use the app. The app and nonapp user groups did not differ significantly in demographics or prior recent hospital admissions. The median time between first and last app use was 52 (IQR 4-95) days, with a median of 5 (IQR 2-10) active days. App users were significantly more likely to attend the 6-week health check (2-sided Fisher exact test; P<.001) and participate in the telephone coaching (2-sided Fisher exact test; P=.007) than nonapp users. There was no association between app use and study outcomes shown to have significantly improved (health literacy and diet) at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and engagement were difficult for this study in disadvantaged populations with low health literacy. However, app users were more likely to attend the 6-week health check and participate in telephone coaching, suggesting that participants who opted for several intervention components felt more committed to this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12617001508369; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=373505. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023239.


Asunto(s)
Aplicaciones Móviles , Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Pueblos de Australasia , Australia , Medicina General , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano
4.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e078762, 2024 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199624

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: As life expectancy increases, older people are living longer with multimorbidity (MM, co-occurrence of ≥2 chronic health conditions) and complex multimorbidity (CMM, ≥3 chronic conditions affecting ≥3 different body systems). We assessed the impacts of MM and CMM on healthcare service use in Australia, as little was known about this. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional data linkage study. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 248 496 people aged ≥45 years who completed the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study baseline questionnaire. PRIMARY OUTCOME: High average annual healthcare service use (≥2 hospital admissions, ≥11 general practice visits and ≥2 emergency department (ED) visits) during the 3-year baseline period (year before, year of and year after recruitment). METHODS: Baseline questionnaire data were linked with hospital, Medicare claims and ED datasets. Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted and unadjusted prevalence ratios for high service use with 95% CIs. Using a count of chronic conditions (disease count) as an alternative morbidity metric was requested during peer review. RESULTS: Prevalence of MM and CMM was 43.8% and 15.5%, respectively, and prevalence increased with age. Across three healthcare settings, MM was associated with a 2.02-fold to 2.26-fold, and CMM was associated with a 1.83-fold to 2.08-fold, increased risk of high service use. The association was higher in the youngest group (45-59 years) versus the oldest group (≥75 years), which was confirmed when disease count was used as the morbidity metric in sensitivity analysis.When comparing impact using three categories with no overlap (no MM/CMM, MM with no CMM, and CMM), CMM had greater impact than MM across all settings. CONCLUSION: Increased healthcare service use among older adults with MM and CMM impacts on the demand for primary care and hospital services. Which of MM or CMM has greater impact on risk of high healthcare service use depends on the analytic method used. Ageing populations living longer with increasing burdens of MM and CMM will require increased Medicare funding and provision of integrated care across the healthcare system to meet their complex needs.


Asunto(s)
Multimorbilidad , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Atención a la Salud , Enfermedad Crónica , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud
6.
Vaccine ; 41(37): 5454-5460, 2023 08 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37507273

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on pneumonia in children is well-documented but data on 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are lacking. Between 2001 and 2011, Indigenous children in Western Australia (WA) were recommended to receive PPV23 at 18-24 months of age following 3 doses of 7-valent PCV. We evaluated the incremental effectiveness of PPV23 against pneumonia hospitalisation. METHODS: Indigenous children born in WA between 2001 and 2012 who received PCV dose 3 by 12 months of age were followed from 18 to 60 months of age for the first episode of pneumonia hospitalisation (all-cause and 3 subgroups: presumptive pneumococcal, other specified causes, and unspecified). We used Cox regression modelling to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for pneumonia hospitalisation among children who had, versus had not, received PPV23 between 18 and 30 months of age after adjustment for confounders. RESULTS: 11,120 children had 327 first episodes of all-cause pneumonia hospitalisation, with 15 (4.6%) coded as presumptive pneumococcal, 46 (14.1%) as other specified causes and 266 (81.3%) unspecified. No statistically significant reduction in all-cause pneumonia was seen with PPV23 (HR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.87-1.43), but the direction of the association differed for presumptive pneumococcal (HR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.16-1.35) and specified (HR 0.89; 95% CI: 0.49-1.62) from unspecified causes (HR 1.13; 95% CI: 0.86-1.49). During the baseline period before PPV23 vaccination (12-18 months), all-cause pneumonia risk was higher among PPV23-vaccinated than unvaccinated children (RR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.30-2.28). CONCLUSION: In this high-risk population, no statistically significant incremental effect of a PPV23 booster at 18-30 months was observed against hospitalised all-cause pneumonia or the more specific outcome of presumptive pneumococcal pneumonia. Confounding by indication may explain the slight trend towards an increased risk against all-cause pneumonia. Larger studies with better control of confounding are needed to further inform PPV23 vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Neumocócicas , Neumonía Neumocócica , Humanos , Niño , Lactante , Preescolar , Australia , Neumonía Neumocócica/epidemiología , Neumonía Neumocócica/prevención & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacunas Neumococicas , Hospitalización , Vacunas Conjugadas/uso terapéutico , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/prevención & control
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(7): 824, 2023 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37291439

RESUMEN

Bangladesh is one of the most polluted nations in the world, with an average Air Quality Index (AQI) of 161 in 2021; its capital, Dhaka, has the worst air quality of any major city in the world. The present study aims to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of air quality indicators in the greater Dhaka region, forecast weekly AQI, and assess the performance of a novel particulate matter filtration unit in removing particulate matter. Air quality indicators remained highest during the dry season with an average of 128.5 µm/m3, while the lowest concentration was found in the monsoon season with an average of 19.096 µm/m3. Analysis revealed a statistically significant annual increasing trend of CO, which was associated with the growing number of brick kilns and usage of high-sulfur diesel. Except for the pre-monsoon AQI, concentrations of both seasonal and yearly AQI and PM2.5 showed decreasing trend, though predominantly insignificant, demonstrating the improvement in air quality. Prevailing winds influenced the seasonal distribution of tropospheric CO & NO2. The study also employed a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to forecast weekly AQI values. ARIMA (3,0,4) (3,1,3) at the 7-periodicity level performed best forecasting the AQI values among all developed models with low root mean square error (RMSE)-29.42 and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE)-13.11 values. The predicted AQI values suggested that the air quality would remain unhealthy for most weeks. The experimental simulation of the particulate matter filtration unit, designed in the shape of a road divider, generated substantial cyclonic motion while maintaining a very minimal pressure drop. In the real-world scenario, using only cyclonic separation and dry deposition, the suggested air filtration system removed 40%, 44%, and 42% of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP, respectively. Without employing filters, the device removed significant amounts of particulate matter, implying enormous potential to be used in the study area. The study could be useful for policy makers to improve urban air quality and public health in Bangladesh and in other developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Material Particulado/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Bangladesh , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e060393, 2022 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450426

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a multifaceted intervention on diet, physical activity and health literacy of overweight and obese patients attending primary care. DESIGN: A pragmatic two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Urban general practices in lower socioeconomic areas in Sydney and Adelaide. PARTICIPANTS: We aimed to recruit 800 patients in each arm. Baseline assessment was completed by 215 patients (120 intervention and 95 control). INTERVENTION: A practice nurse-led preventive health check, a mobile application and telephone coaching. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months, and included patient health and eHealth literacy, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure. Secondary outcomes included changes in diet and physical activity, preventive advice and referral, blood lipids, quality of life and costs. Univariate and multivariate analyses of difference-in-differences (DiD) estimates for each outcome were conducted. RESULTS: At 6 months, the intervention group, compared with the control group, demonstrated a greater increase in Health Literacy Questionnaire domain 8 score (ability to find good health information; mean DiD 0.22; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.44). There were similar differences for domain 9 score (understanding health information well enough to know what to do) among patients below the median at baseline. Differences were reduced and non-statistically significant at 12 months. There was a small improvement in diet scores at 6 months (DiD 0.78 (0.10 to 1.47); p=0.026) but not at 12 months. There were no differences in eHealth literacy, physical activity scores, body mass index, weight, waist circumference or blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted recruitment and engagement were challenging in this population. While the intervention was associated with some improvements in health literacy and diet, substantial differences in other outcomes were not observed. More intensive interventions and using codesign strategies to engage the practices earlier may produce a different result. Codesign may also be valuable when targeting lower socioeconomic populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12617001508369) (http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12617001508369.aspx). TRIAL PROTOCOL: The protocol for this trial has been published (open access; https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/6/e023239).


Asunto(s)
Alfabetización en Salud , Telemedicina , Humanos , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Calidad de Vida , Australia , Obesidad/prevención & control , Enfermedad Crónica , Atención Primaria de Salud
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e060001, 2022 07 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35882467

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Multimorbidity (MM, co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions) and complex multimorbidity (CMM, three or more chronic conditions affecting three or more different body systems) are used in the assessment of complex healthcare needs and their impact on health outcomes. However, little is known about the impacts of MM and CMM on mortality in Australia. DESIGN: Community-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: People aged 45 years and over who completed the baseline survey of the 45 and Up Study. MEASURES: Baseline survey data from the 45 and Up Study were linked with deaths registry data. Deaths that occurred within 8 years from the baseline survey date were the study outcome. Eleven self-reported chronic conditions (cancer, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, Parkinson's disease, depression/anxiety, asthma, allergic rhinitis, hypertension, thrombosis and musculoskeletal conditions) from the baseline survey were included in the MM and CMM classifications. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted and unadjusted 8-year mortality hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Of 251 689 people (53% female and 54% aged ≥60 years) in the cohort, 111 084 (44.1%) were classified as having MM and 39 478 (15.7%) as having CMM. During the 8-year follow-up, there were 25 891 deaths. Cancer (34.7%) was the most prevalent chronic condition and the cardiovascular system (50.9%) was the body system most affected by a chronic condition. MM and CMM were associated with a 37% (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.40) and a 22% (adjusted HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.25) increased risk of death, respectively. The relative impact of MM and CMM on mortality decreased as age increased. CONCLUSION: MM and CMM were common in older Australian adults; and MM was a better predictor of all-cause mortality risk than CMM. Higher mortality risk in those aged 45-59 years indicates tailored, person-centred integrated care interventions and better access to holistic healthcare are needed for this age group.


Asunto(s)
Multimorbilidad , Neoplasias , Adulto , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Australas J Ageing ; 41(4): e328-e338, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761510

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate characteristics of frequent users of general practice (GP; ≥21 visits in a year), medical specialist (≥10 visits), emergency department (ED; ≥2 presentations) and hospital services (≥2 overnight hospitalisations) and the association with mortality for people aged over 75 years. METHODS: The study included residents from Central and Eastern Sydney, Australia, aged over 75 years who participated in a large community-dwelling cohort study. Demographic, social and health characteristics data were extracted from the 45 and Up Study survey. Health service (GP, medical specialist, ED and hospitalisations) use and mortality data were extracted from linked administrative data. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios to identify independent characteristics associated with frequent users of services at baseline (approx. 2008) and adjusted hazard ratios to assess the association between frequent users of services and mortality. RESULTS: Frequent users of services (GPs, medical specialists, EDs and hospitals) were more likely to be associated with ever having had heart disease and less likely to be associated with reporting good quality of life. Characteristics varied by service type. Frequent users of services were 1.5-2.0 times more likely to die within 7 years compared to those who were less frequent service users after controlling for all significant factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis found that frequent service users aged over 75 years had poorer quality of life, more complex health conditions and higher mortality and so their health service use was not inappropriate. However, better management of these frequent service users may lead to better health outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Calidad de Vida , Humanos , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Servicios de Salud , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital
11.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(9): 391-399, 2022 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35640283

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Children with chronic medical conditions are at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), but little is known about the effectiveness of the primary course of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in these children. METHODS: A cohort born in 2001-2004 from two Australian states and identified as medically at-risk (MAR) of IPD either using ICD-coded hospitalizations (with conditions of interest identified by 6 months of age) or linked perinatal data (for prematurity) were followed to age 5 years for notified IPD by serotype. We categorized fully vaccinated children as either receiving PCV dose 3 by <12 months of age or ≥1 PCV dose at ≥12 months of age. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for confounders, and vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as (1-HR) × 100. RESULTS: A total of 9220 children with MAR conditions had 53 episodes of IPD (43 vaccine-type); 4457 (48.3%) were unvaccinated and 4246 (46.1%) were fully vaccinated, with 1371 (32.3%) receiving dose 3 by 12 months and 2875 (67.7%) having ≥1 dose at ≥12 months. Estimated VE in fully vaccinated children was 85.9% (95% CI: 33.9-97.0) against vaccine-type IPD and 71.5% (95% CI: 26.6-88.9) against all-cause IPD. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study evaluating the effectiveness of PCV in children with MAR conditions using record linkage. Our study provides evidence that the VE for vaccine-type and all-cause IPD in MAR children in Australia is high and not statistically different from previously reported estimates for the general population. This method can be replicated in other countries to evaluate VE in MAR children.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Neumocócicas , Vacunas Neumococicas , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/prevención & control , Serogrupo , Vacunas Conjugadas , Adulto Joven
12.
RSC Adv ; 12(13): 7961-7972, 2022 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35424743

RESUMEN

Inorganic metal-halide cubic perovskite semiconductors have become more popular in industrial applications of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Among various perovskites, lead-free materials are currently most explored due to their non-toxic effect on the environment. In this study, the structural, electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of lead-free cubic perovskite materials FrBX3 (B = Ge, Sn; X = Cl, Br, I) are investigated through first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. These materials are found to exhibit semiconducting behavior with direct bandgap energy and mechanical phase stability. The observed variation in the bandgap is explained based on the substitutions of cations and anions sitting over B and X-sites of the FrBX3 compounds. The high absorption coefficient, low reflectivity, and high optical conductivity make these materials suitable for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic device applications. It is observed that the material containing Ge (germanium) in the B-site has higher optical absorption and conductivity than Sn containing materials. A systematic analysis of the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties suggests that among all the perovskite materials, FrGeI3 would be a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications. The radioactive element Fr-containing perovskite FrGeI3 may have applications in nuclear medicine and diagnosis such as X-ray imaging technology.

13.
Nutrients ; 14(3)2022 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277068

RESUMEN

Most studies disregard long-term dairy consumption behaviour and how it relates to mortality. We examined four different types of long-term milk consumption, namely whole milk, reduced fat milk, skim milk and soy milk, in relation to mortality among adults diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD). A retrospective population-based study was conducted in Australia (the 45 and Up Study) linking baseline (2006-2009) and follow-up data (2012-2015) to hospitalisation and mortality data up to 30 September 2018. A total of 1,101 deaths occurred among 7236 participants with CVD over a mean follow-up of 8.4 years. Males (Hazard Ratio, HR = 0.69, 95% CI (0.54; 0.89)) and females (HR = 0.59 (0.38; 0.91)) with long-term reduced fat milk consumption had the lowest risk of mortality compared to counterparts with long-term whole milk consumption. Among participants with ischemic heart disease, males with a long-term reduced fat milk consumption had the lowest risk of mortality (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43; 0.92). We conclude that among males and females with CVD, those who often consume reduced fat milk over the long-term present with a 31-41% lower risk of mortality than those who often consume whole milk, supporting dairy advice from the Heart Foundation of replacing whole milk with reduced fat milk to achieve better health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Leche , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
14.
Resuscitation ; 171: 114-120, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848275

RESUMEN

AIM: To determine the safety and feasibility of an early (12 h) waking and extubation protocol for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients receiving targeted temperature management (TTM). METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective, non-randomised, observational, safety and feasibility pilot study which included successfully resuscitated OHCA patients, of presumed cardiac cause. Inclusion criteria were: OHCA patients aged over 18 years with a return of spontaneous circulation, who were going to receive TTM33 (TTM at 33 °C for 24 h and prevention of hyperthermia for 72 h) as part of their post cardiac arrest care. Clinical stability was measured against physiological and neurological parameters as well as clinical assessment. RESULTS: 50 consecutive patients were included (median age 65.5 years, 82% male) in the study. Four (8%) patients died within the first twelve hours and were excluded from the final cohort (n = 46). Twenty-three patients (46%) were considered clinically stable and suitable for early waking based on the intention to treat analysis; 12 patients were extubated early based on a variety of clinical factors (21.4 ± 8.6 h) whilst continuing to receive TTM33 with a mean core temperature of 34.2 °C when extubated. Of these, five patients were discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) <48 h after admission with a mean ICU length of stay 1.8 ± 0.4 days. Twenty-eight patients (56%) were discharged from the ICU with a modified Rankin Score of 0-2. The overall intra-hospital mortality was 50% (n = 25). CONCLUSIONS: It is safe and feasible to wake selected comatose OHCA patients at 12 h, allowing for earlier positive neuro-prognostication and reduced ICU stay.


Asunto(s)
Hipotermia Inducida , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Hipotermia Inducida/efectos adversos , Hipotermia Inducida/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251605, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979412

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Rumors and conspiracy theories, can contribute to vaccine hesitancy. Monitoring online data related to COVID-19 vaccine candidates can track vaccine misinformation in real-time and assist in negating its impact. This study aimed to examine COVID-19 vaccine rumors and conspiracy theories circulating on online platforms, understand their context, and then review interventions to manage this misinformation and increase vaccine acceptance. METHOD: In June 2020, a multi-disciplinary team was formed to review and collect online rumors and conspiracy theories between 31 December 2019-30 November 2020. Sources included Google, Google Fact Check, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, fact-checking agency websites, and television and newspaper websites. Quantitative data were extracted, entered in an Excel spreadsheet, and analyzed descriptively using the statistical package R version 4.0.3. We conducted a content analysis of the qualitative information from news articles, online reports and blogs and compared with findings from quantitative data. Based on the fact-checking agency ratings, information was categorized as true, false, misleading, or exaggerated. RESULTS: We identified 637 COVID-19 vaccine-related items: 91% were rumors and 9% were conspiracy theories from 52 countries. Of the 578 rumors, 36% were related to vaccine development, availability, and access, 20% related to morbidity and mortality, 8% to safety, efficacy, and acceptance, and the rest were other categories. Of the 637 items, 5% (30/) were true, 83% (528/637) were false, 10% (66/637) were misleading, and 2% (13/637) were exaggerated. CONCLUSIONS: Rumors and conspiracy theories may lead to mistrust contributing to vaccine hesitancy. Tracking COVID-19 vaccine misinformation in real-time and engaging with social media to disseminate correct information could help safeguard the public against misinformation.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/farmacología , Comunicación , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/ética , Salud Pública , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/métodos
16.
Vaccine ; 39(12): 1727-1735, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622589

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Risk-based recommendations are common for pneumococcal vaccines but little is known about their uptake. In Australia, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was funded only for Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) children and those with underlying medical conditions in 2001, and then there were different booster dose recommendations depending on risk after the introduction of universal PCV vaccination in 2005. METHODS: We measured coverage of PCV dose 3 and additional PCV and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) doses by risk group among children born in July 2001-December 2012 in two Australian states using linked immunisation and hospitalisation data (available until December 2013). We ascertained medical risk conditions using hospitalisation diagnosis codes and Indigenous status using an established algorithm, comparing coverage for children born pre (2001-2004) and post (2005-2012) universal PCV funding. RESULTS: Among 1.3 million children, 63,897 (4.9%) were Indigenous and 32,934 (2.5%) had at least one medically at-risk condition identified by age 6 months. For births in 2001-2004, coverage for PCV dose 3 by 1 year of age was 37% for Indigenous, 15% for medically at-risk and 11% in other children, increasing to 83%, 91% and 92%, respectively for births in 2005-2012. In children with medically at-risk conditions, PCV dose 4 coverage by 2 years was 1% for 2001-2004 births, increasing to 9% for 2005-2012 births, with PPV23 coverage by 6 years 3% in both cohorts. Among eligible Indigenous children, PPV23 coverage by 3 years was 45% for 2001-2004 births and 51% for 2005-2012 births. CONCLUSIONS: Coverage with additional recommended booster doses was very low among children with medical conditions, and only modest among Indigenous children. If additional PCV doses are recommended for some risk groups, especially in the context of routine schedules with reduced doses (e.g. 2 + 1 and 1 + 1), measures to improve implementation will be required.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Neumocócicas , Vacunas Neumococicas , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Lactante , Infecciones Neumocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Neumocócicas/prevención & control , Grupos de Población , Vacunación , Vacunas Conjugadas
17.
Cardiol J ; 28(1): 41-48, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912578

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) uses pressure-based measurements to assess the severity of a coronary stenosis. Distal pressure (Pd) is often at a different vertical height to that of the proximal aortic pressure (Pa). The difference in pressure between Pd and Pa due to hydrostatic pressure, may impact FFR calculation. METHODS: One hundred computed tomography coronary angiographies were used to measure height differences between the coronary ostia and points in the coronary tree. Mean heights were used to calculate the hydrostatic pressure effect in each artery, using a correction factor of 0.8 mmHg/cm. This was tested in a simulation of intermediate coronary stenosis to give the "corrected FFR" (cFFR) and percentage of values, which crossed a threshold of 0.8. RESULTS: The mean height from coronary ostium to distal left anterior descending (LAD) was +5.26 cm, distal circumflex (Cx) -3.35 cm, distal right coronary artery-posterior left ventricular artery (RCA-PLV) -5.74 cm and distal RCA-posterior descending artery (PDA) +1.83 cm. For LAD, correction resulted in a mean change in FFR of +0.042, -0.027 in the Cx, -0.046 in the PLV and +0.015 in the PDA. Using 200 random FFR values between 0.75 and 0.85, the resulting cFFR crossed the clinical treatment threshold of 0.8 in 43% of LAD, 27% of Cx, 47% of PLV and 15% of PDA cases. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant vertical height differences between the distal artery (Pd) and its point of normalization (Pa). This is likely to have a modest effect on FFR, and correcting for this results in a proportion of values crossing treatment thresholds. Operators should be mindful of this phenomenon when interpreting FFR values.


Asunto(s)
Estenosis Coronaria , Reserva del Flujo Fraccional Miocárdico , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Angiografía Coronaria/métodos , Estenosis Coronaria/fisiopatología , Vasos Coronarios/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Presión Hidrostática
18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(7): 1309-1317, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329200

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of stent optimization by NC-balloon postdilatation (PD) during primary-PCI for STEMI with the use of coronary physiology and intracoronary imaging. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study (ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT02788396). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and physiological measurements were performed immediately before and after PD with the operators blinded to all measurements. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), coronary flow reserve (CFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were measured. OCT analysis was performed for assessment of stent expansion, malapposition, in-stent plaque-thrombus prolapse (PTP) and stent-edge dissections (SED). The change in IMR before and after PD as a measure of microvascular injury was the primary objective of the study. RESULTS: Thirty-two STEMI patients undergoing primary-PCI had physiological measurements before and after PD. All patients received second-generation DES (diameter 3.1 ± 0.5 mm, length 29.9 ± 10.7 mm) and postdilatation with NC-balloons (diameter 3.6 ± 0.6 mm, inflation pressure 19.3 ± 2.0 atm). IMR (44.9 ± 25.6 vs. 48.8 ± 34.2, p = 0.26) and CFR (1.60 ± 0.89 vs. 1.58 ± 0.71, p = 0.87) did not change, while FFR increased after PD (0.91 ± 0.08 vs. 0.93 ± 0.06, p = 0.037). At an individual patient level, IMR increased in half of the cases. PD improved significantly absolute and relative stent expansion, reduced malapposition, and increased PTP. There was no difference in clinically relevant SED. CONCLUSION: In this exploratory, hypothesis-generating study, postdilatation during primary-PCI for STEMI improved stent expansion, apposition and post-PCI FFR, without a significant effect on coronary microcirculation overall. Nevertheless, IMR increased in a group of patients and larger studies are warranted to explore predictors of microcirculatory response to postdilatation.


Asunto(s)
Reserva del Flujo Fraccional Miocárdico , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST , Angiografía Coronaria , Vasos Coronarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Vasos Coronarios/cirugía , Humanos , Microcirculación , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea/efectos adversos , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/diagnóstico por imagen , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/cirugía , Stents , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Foods ; 10(1)2020 Dec 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375293

RESUMEN

Tomatoes are consumed worldwide as fresh vegetables because of their high contents of essential nutrients and antioxidant-rich phytochemicals. Tomatoes contain minerals, vitamins, proteins, essential amino acids (leucine, threonine, valine, histidine, lysine, arginine), monounsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids), carotenoids (lycopene and ß-carotenoids) and phytosterols (ß-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol). Lycopene is the main dietary carotenoid in tomato and tomato-based food products and lycopene consumption by humans has been reported to protect against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, cognitive function and osteoporosis. Among the phenolic compounds present in tomato, quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin, caffeic acid and lutein are the most common. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the human body against various oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary tomatoes increase the body's level of antioxidants, trapping reactive oxygen species and reducing oxidative damage to important biomolecules such as membrane lipids, enzymatic proteins and DNA, thereby ameliorating oxidative stress. We reviewed the nutritional and phytochemical compositions of tomatoes. In addition, the impacts of the constituents on human health, particularly in ameliorating some degenerative diseases, are also discussed.

20.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086578

RESUMEN

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria and viruses are highly contagious and can easily be transmitted via air, water, body fluids, etc. Throughout human civilization, there have been several pandemic outbreaks, such as the Plague, Spanish Flu, Swine-Flu, and, recently, COVID-19, amongst many others. Early diagnosis not only increases the chance of quick recovery but also helps prevent the spread of infections. Conventional diagnostic techniques can provide reliable results but have several drawbacks, including costly devices, lengthy wait time, and requirement of trained professionals to operate the devices, making them inaccessible in low-resource settings. Thus, a significant effort has been directed towards point-of-care (POC) devices that enable rapid diagnosis of bacterial and viral infections. A majority of the POC devices are based on plasmonics and/or microfluidics-based platforms integrated with mobile readers and imaging systems. These techniques have been shown to provide rapid, sensitive detection of pathogens. The advantages of POC devices include low-cost, rapid results, and portability, which enables on-site testing anywhere across the globe. Here we aim to review the recent advances in novel POC technologies in detecting bacteria and viruses that led to a breakthrough in the modern healthcare industry.

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