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1.
J Smok Cessat ; 12(1): 15-21, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28243318

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) and National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) are both well-positioned to promote the use of population-based tobacco cessation interventions, such as state quitlines and Web-based interventions. AIMS: This paper outlines the methodology used to conduct a comparative effectiveness research study of traditional and Web-based tobacco cessation and quitline promotion approaches. METHODS: A mixed-methods study with three components was designed to address the effect of promotional activities on service usage and the comparative effectiveness of population-based smoking cessation activities across multiple states. RESULTS/FINDINGS: The cessation intervention component followed 7,902 smokers (4,307 quitline users and 3,595 Web intervention users) to ascertain prevalence of 30-day abstinence rates 7 months after registering for smoking cessation services. User characteristics and quit success was compared across the two modalities. In the promotions component, reach and use of traditional and innovative promotion strategies were assessed for 24 states, including online advertising, state Web sites, social media, mobile applications, and their effects on quitline call volume. The partnership intervention component studied the extent of collaboration among six selected NCCCPs and NTCPs. CONCLUSIONS: This study will guide program staff and clinicians with evidence-based recommendations and best practices for implementation of tobacco cessation within their patient and community populations and establish an evidence base that can be used for decision making.

2.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0170381, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207744

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess state coverage and utilization of Medicaid smoking cessation medication benefits among fee-for-service enrollees who smoked cigarettes. METHODS: We used the linked National Health Interview Survey (survey years 1995, 1997-2005) and the Medicaid Analytic eXtract files (1999-2008) to assess utilization of smoking cessation medication benefits among 5,982 cigarette smokers aged 18-64 years enrolled in Medicaid fee-for-service whose state Medicaid insurance covered at least one cessation medication. We excluded visits during pregnancy, and those covered by managed care or under dual enrollment (Medicaid and Medicare). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine correlates of cessation medication benefit utilization among Medicaid fee-for-service enrollees, including measures of drug coverage (comprehensive cessation medication coverage, number of medications in state benefit, varenicline coverage), individual-level demographics at NHIS interview, age at Medicaid enrollment, and state-level cigarette excise taxes, statewide smoke-free laws, and per-capita tobacco control funding. RESULTS: In 1999, the percent of smokers with ≥1 medication claims was 5.7% in the 30 states that covered at least one Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved cessation medication; this increased to 9.9% in 2008 in the 44 states that covered at least one FDA-approved medication (p<0.01). Cessation medication utilization was greater among older individuals (≥ 25 years), females, non-Hispanic whites, and those with higher educational attainment. Comprehensive coverage, the number of smoking cessation medications covered and varenicline coverage were all positively associated with utilization; cigarette excise tax and per-capita tobacco control funding were also positively associated with utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of medication benefits among fee-for-service Medicaid enrollees increased from 1999-2008 and varied by individual and state-level characteristics. Given that the Affordable Care Act bars state Medicaid programs from excluding any FDA-approved cessation medications from coverage as of January 2014, monitoring Medicaid cessation medication claims may be beneficial for informing efforts to increase utilization and maximize smoking cessation.


Asunto(s)
Planes de Aranceles por Servicios/economía , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicaid/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Tabaquismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
3.
Cancer ; 122(7): 1126-33, 2016 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854479

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Comparative effectiveness studies of state tobacco quitlines and Web-based tobacco cessation interventions are limited. In 2009, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention undertook a study of the comparative effectiveness of state quitlines and Web-based tobacco cessation interventions. METHODS: Standardized questionnaires were administered to smokers who enrolled exclusively in either quitlines or Web-based tobacco cessation services in 4 states in 2011-2012. The primary outcome was the 30-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) rate at 7 months both between and within interventions. RESULTS: A total of 4086 participants were included in the analysis. Quitline users were significantly older, more heterogeneous in terms of race and ethnicity, less educated, less likely to be employed, and more often single than Web-based users. The 7-month 30-day PPA rate was 32% for quitline users and 27% for Web-based users. Multivariate models comparing 30-day PPA rates between interventions indicated that significantly increased odds of quitting were associated with being partnered, not living with another smoker, low baseline cigarette use, and more interactions with the intervention. After adjustments for demographic and tobacco use characteristics, quitline users had 1.26 the odds of being abstinent in comparison with Web-based users (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.58; P = .053). CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the largest comparative effectiveness studies of state tobacco cessation interventions to date. These findings will help public health agencies develop and tailor evidence-based tobacco cessation programs. Further research should focus on users of Web-based cessation interventions sponsored by state health departments and their cost-effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/métodos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Teléfono/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 12: E83, 2015 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26020547

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Historically, federal funding streams to address cancer and tobacco use have been provided separately to state health departments. This study aims to document the impact of a recent focus on coordinating chronic disease efforts through collaboration between the 2 programs. METHODS: Through a case-study approach using semistructured interviews, we collected information on the organizational context, infrastructure, and interaction between cancer and tobacco control programs in 6 states from March through July 2012. Data were analyzed with NVivo software, using a grounded-theory approach. RESULTS: We found between-program activities in the state health department and coordinated implementation of interventions in the community. Factors identified as facilitating integrated interventions in the community included collaboration between programs in the strategic planning process, incorporation of one another's priorities into state strategic plans, co-location, and leadership support for collaboration. Coalitions were used to deliver integrated interventions to the community. Five states perceived high staff turnover as a barrier to collaboration, and all 5 states felt that federal funding requirements were a barrier. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer and tobacco programs are beginning to implement integrated interventions to address chronic disease. Findings can inform the development of future efforts to integrate program activities across chronic disease prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interinstitucionales , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Personal Administrativo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Atención Integral de Salud , Teoría de las Decisiones , Prestación Integrada de Atención de Salud , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Teoría Fundamentada , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Política para Fumadores , Fumar/economía , Gobierno Estatal , Tabaquismo/prevención & control , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 63(51): 1217-21, 2015 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25551593

RESUMEN

Smoking caused an average of 480,000 deaths per year in the United States from 2005 to 2009, and three in 10 cancer deaths in the United States are tobacco related. Tobacco cessation is a high public health priority, and all states offer some form of tobacco cessation service. Quitlines provide telephone-based counseling services and are an effective intervention for tobacco cessation. In addition to telephone services, 96% of all U.S. quitlines offer Web-based cessation services. Evidence is limited on the number of tobacco users who use more than one type of service, and studies report mixed results on whether combined telephone and Web-based counseling improves long-term cessation compared with telephone alone. CDC conducted a survey of users of telephone and Web-based cessation services in four states to determine the cessation success of users of these interventions. After adjusting for multiple variables, persons who used both telephone and Web-based services were more likely to report abstinence from smoking for 30 days at follow up (odds ratio = 1.3) compared with telephone-only users and with Web-only users (odds ratio = 1.5). These findings suggest that states might consider offering both types of cessation services to increase cessation success.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/métodos , Líneas Directas/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Cese del Uso de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos
6.
J Community Health ; 39(4): 800-9, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24515948

RESUMEN

An estimated 43.5 million American adults currently smoke cigarettes. Well-designed tobacco education campaigns with adequate reach increase cessation and reduce tobacco use. Smokers report great interest in quitting but few use effective treatments including quitlines (QLs). This review examined traditional (TV, radio, print ads) versus innovative tobacco cessation (internet, social media) promotions for QL services. Between November 2011 and January 2012, searches were conducted on EBSCO, PubMed, Wilson, OCLC, CQ Press, Google Scholar, Gale, LexisNexis, and JSTOR. Existing literature shows that the amount of radio and print advertising, and promotion of free cessation medications increases QL call volume. Television advertising volume seems to be the best predictor of QL service awareness. Much of the literature on Internet advertising compares the characteristics of participants recruited for studies through various channels. The majority of the papers indicated that Internet-recruited participants were younger; this was the only demographic characteristic with high agreement across studies. Traditional media was only studied within mass media campaigns with TV ads having a consistent impact on increasing calls to QLs, therefore, it is hard to distinguish the impact of traditional media as an independent QL promotion intervention. With innovative media, while many QL services have a presence on social media sites, there is no literature on evaluating the effectiveness of these channels for quitline promotion.


Asunto(s)
Información de Salud al Consumidor/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Líneas Directas , Comercialización de los Servicios de Salud/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto , Publicidad , Bases de Datos Bibliográficas , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Internet , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Innovación Organizacional , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Calif J Health Promot ; 12(3): 35-45, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239304

RESUMEN

Digital media are often used to encourage smoking cessation by increasing quitline call volume through direct promotion to smokers or indirect promotion to smoker proxies. The documentation of a program's experiences utilizing digital media is necessary to develop both the knowledge base and a set of best practices. This case study highlights the use of digital media in a proxy-targeted campaign to promote the California Smokers' Helpline to health care professionals from October 2009 to September 2012. We describe the iterative development of the campaign's digital media activities and report campaign summaries of web metrics (website visits, webinar registrations, downloads of online materials, online orders for promotional materials) and media buy (gross impressions) tracking data. The campaign generated more than 2.7 million gross impressions from digital media sources over 3 years. Online orders for promotional materials increased almost 40% over the course of the campaign. A clearly defined campaign strategy ensured that there was a systematic approach in developing and implementing campaign activities and ensuring that lessons learned from previous years were incorporated. Discussion includes lessons learned and recommendations for future improvements reported by campaign staff to inform similar efforts using digital media.

8.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 9: E130, 2012.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22814236

RESUMEN

Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking has declined in the United States, little documentation exists to ascertain which health care providers (HCPs) promote smoking cessation. We used data from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 Cancer Control Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey to examine changes in the number of adults who received smoking cessation advice from their HCP. The percentage of smokers who received cessation advice was 53.3% in 2000, 58.9% in 2005, and 50.7% in 2010. To affect noticeably declining rates, HCPs should increase their efforts to advise smokers to quit.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consejo/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/tendencias , Humanos , Cobertura del Seguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 8(10): 3871-88, 2011 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22073018

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥ 18 years) smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. METHODS: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor's advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor's advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely to have made a quit attempt than white non-menthol users. CONCLUSIONS: Most correlates of quit attempts were similar across all racial/ethnic groups. Therefore population-based comprehensive tobacco control programs that increase quit attempts and successful cessation among all racial/ethnic groups should be continued and expanded. Additional strategies may be needed to encourage quit attempts among less educated, older, and more addicted smokers.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/etnología , Fumar/etnología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 8(4): A84, 2011 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21672408

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Visual impairment, a common cause of disability in the United States, is associated with shorter life expectancy and lower quality of life. The relationship between smoking and visual impairment is not clearly understood. We assessed the association between smoking and visual impairment among older adults with age-related eye diseases. METHODS: We analyzed Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 2005 through 2008 on older adults with age-related eye diseases (cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy; age ≥50 y, N = 36,522). Visual impairment was defined by self-reported difficulty in recognizing a friend across the street or difficulty in reading print or numbers. Current smokers were respondents who reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes ever and still smoked at the time of interview. Former smokers were respondents who reported having ever smoked at least 100 cigarettes but currently did not smoke. We used multivariate logistic regressions to examine the association and to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among respondents with age-related eye diseases, the estimated prevalence of visual impairment was higher among current smokers (48%) than among former smokers (41%, P < .05) and respondents who had never smoked (42%, P < .05). After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and general health status, current smokers with age-related eye diseases were more likely to have visual impairment than respondents with age-related eye diseases who had never smoked (odds ratio, 1.16, P < .05). Furthermore, respondents with cataract who were current smokers were more likely to have visual impairment than respondents with cataract who had never smoked (predictive margin, 44% vs 40%, P = .03), and the same was true for respondents with age-related macular degeneration (65% of current smokers vs 57% of never smokers, P = .02). This association did not hold true among respondents with glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. CONCLUSION: Smoking is linked to self-reported visual impairment among older adults with age-related eye diseases, particularly cataract and age-related macular degeneration. Longitudinal evaluation is needed to assess smoking cessation's effect on vision preservation.


Asunto(s)
Ceguera/etiología , Catarata/complicaciones , Estado de Salud , Degeneración Macular/complicaciones , Fumar/efectos adversos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , Ceguera/epidemiología , Ceguera/prevención & control , Catarata/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Degeneración Macular/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Calidad de Vida , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 6(1): 51-68, 2009 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19440269

RESUMEN

Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually. In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/economía , Prevención del Hábito de Fumar , Políticas de Control Social/economía , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Humanos , Fumar/economía , Fumar/legislación & jurisprudencia
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 6(3): 1095-106, 2009 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19440435

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to assess disparities in health care utilization, by smoking status, among adults in the United States. We used 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 15,332 adults. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between smoking status (current, former, and never smoker), with health care utilization. After controlling for demographic characteristics, current smokers and former smokers who quit either <2 years or > or =10 years prior to the survey were more likely to have had inpatient admission in the past year than never smokers. Current smokers did not differ from never smokers on whether they had an outpatient visit in the past year. They were, however, more likely than never smokers to have > or =4 outpatient visits. Smokers who quit either <2 years ago or > or =10 years ago were more likely to have had an outpatient visit than never smokers. Former smokers were more likely than never smokers to have > or =4 outpatient visits regardless of when they quit. Our results show that cigarette smoking is associated with higher health care utilization for current and former smokers than for never smokers. Frequent hospitalization and outpatient visits translate into higher medical costs. Therefore, more efforts are needed to promote interventions that discourage smoking initiation and encourage cessation.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Fumar , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
13.
Am J Health Behav ; 31(6): 602-11, 2007.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17691873

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the current-period cost of treating 4 major smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Analyses are based on the MarketScan database, a medical claims database from large employers. RESULTS: We found that total expenditures to treat ischemic heart disease were highest, followed by those to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). When median expenditures per claim and disease severity were considered, lung cancer was the most expensive condition to treat and ischemic heart disease the least expensive. Median treatment expenditures increased as the severity of disease increased. CONCLUSION: Treating smoking-related diseases is costly in the current-period and over a lifetime.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/economía , Isquemia Miocárdica/economía , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/economía , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/economía , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiología , Trastornos Cerebrovasculares/terapia , Bases de Datos Factuales , Quimioterapia/economía , Humanos , Incidencia , Revisión de Utilización de Seguros , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiología , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Prevalencia , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/terapia , Fumar/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Am J Public Health ; 97(8): 1503-9, 2007 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17600268

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Each year, nearly 2 in 5 cigarette smokers try to quit, but fewer than 10% succeed. Taking a multifaceted approach to examine the predictors of successfully quitting smoking, we identified factors associated with successful quitting so that cessation programs could be tailored to those at highest risk for relapse. METHODS: Using data from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey, we employed multiple regression analysis to compare demographic, behavioral, and environmental characteristics of current smokers who tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months with characteristics of those able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months before the survey. RESULTS: Successful quitters were more likely than those unable to quit to have rules against smoking in their homes, less likely to have switched to light cigarettes for health concerns, and more likely to be aged 35 years or older, married or living with a partner, and non-Hispanic White, and to have at least a college education. CONCLUSIONS: Programs promoting smoking cessation might benefit by involving family or other household members to encourage smoke-free homes.


Asunto(s)
Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multivariante , Núcleo Familiar/psicología , Recurrencia , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Medio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
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