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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639647

RESUMEN

Zero and low alcohol products, particularly beer, are gaining consideration as a method to reduce consumption of ethanol. We do not know if this approach is likely to increase or decrease health inequalities. The aim of the study was to determine if the purchase and consumption of zero and low alcohol beers differs by demographic and socio-economic characteristics of consumers. Based on British household purchase data from 79,411 households and on British survey data of more than 104,635 adult (18+) respondents, we estimated the likelihood of buying and drinking zero (ABV = 0.0%) and low alcohol (ABV > 0.0% and ≤ 3.5%) beer by a range of socio-demographic characteristics. We found that buying and consuming zero alcohol beer is much more likely to occur in younger age groups, in more affluent households, and in those with higher social grades, with gaps in buying zero alcohol beer between households in higher and lower social grades widening between 2015 and 2020. Buying and drinking low alcohol beer had less consistent relationships with socio-demographic characteristics, but was strongly driven by households that normally buy and drink the most alcohol. Common to many health-related behaviours, it seems that it is the more affluent that lead the way in choosing zero or low alcohol products. Whilst the increased availability of zero and low alcohol products might be a useful tool to reduce overall ethanol consumption in the more socially advantageous part of society, it may be less beneficial for the rest of the population. Other evidence-based alcohol policy measures that lessen health inequalities, need to go hand-in-hand with those promoting the uptake of zero and low alcohol beer.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578805

RESUMEN

Alcohol is energy-dense, elicits weak satiety responses relative to solid food, inhibits dietary fat oxidation, and may stimulate food intake. It has, therefore, been proposed as a contributor to weight gain and obesity. The aim of this narrative review was to consolidate and critically appraise the evidence on the relationship of alcohol consumption with dietary intake and body weight, within mainstream (non-treatment) populations. Publications were identified from a PubMed keyword search using the terms 'alcohol', 'food', 'eating', 'weight', 'body mass index', 'obesity', 'food reward', 'inhibition', 'attentional bias', 'appetite', 'culture', 'social'. A snowball method and citation searches were used to identify additional relevant publications. Reference lists of relevant publications were also consulted. While limited by statistical heterogeneity, pooled results of experimental studies showed a relatively robust association between acute alcohol intake and greater food and total energy intake. This appears to occur via metabolic and psychological mechanisms that have not yet been fully elucidated. Evidence on the relationship between alcohol intake and weight is equivocal. Most evidence was derived from cross-sectional survey data which does not allow for a cause-effect relationship to be established. Observational research evidence was limited by heterogeneity and methodological issues, reducing the certainty of the evidence. We found very little qualitative work regarding the social, cultural, and environmental links between concurrent alcohol intake and eating behaviours. That the evidence of alcohol intake and body weight remains uncertain despite no shortage of research over the years, indicates that more innovative research methodologies and nuanced analyses are needed to capture what is clearly a complex and dynamic relationship. Also, given synergies between 'Big Food' and 'Big Alcohol' industries, effective policy solutions are likely to overlap and a unified approach to policy change may be more effective than isolated efforts. However, joint action may not occur until stronger evidence on the relationship between alcohol intake, food intake and weight is established.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046842, 2021 08 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429309

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To synthesise the published literature on practitioner, patient and carer views and experiences of shared medical appointments (SMAs) for the management of long-term conditions in primary care. DESIGN: Systematic review of qualitative primary studies. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science, Social Science Premium Collection (Proquest) and Scopus (SciVerse) from database starting dates to June 2019. Practitioner, patient and carer perspectives were coded separately. Deductive coding using a framework approach was followed by thematic analysis and narrative synthesis. Quality assessment was conducted using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme for qualitative studies. RESULTS: We identified 18 unique studies that reported practitioner (n=11), patient (n=14) and/or carer perspectivs(n=3). Practitioners reported benefits of SMAs including scope for comprehensive patient-led care, peer support, less repetition and improved efficiency compared with 1:1 care. Barriers included administrative challenges and resistance from patients and colleagues, largely due to uncertainties and unclear expectations. Skilled facilitators, tailoring of SMAs to patient groups, leadership support and teamwork were reported to be important for successful delivery. Patients' reported experiences were largely positive with the SMAs considered a supportive environment in which to share and learn about self-care, though the need for good facilitation was recognised. Reports of carer experience were limited but included improved communication between carer and patient. CONCLUSION: There is insufficient evidence to indicate whether views and experiences vary between staff, medical condition and/or patient characteristics. Participant experiences may be subject to reporting bias. Policies and guidance regarding best practice need to be developed with consideration given to resource requirements. Further research is needed to capture views about wider and co-occurring conditions, to hear from those without SMA experience and to understand which groups of patients and practitioners should be brought together in an SMA for best effect. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019141893.


Asunto(s)
Citas Médicas Compartidas , Cuidadores , Comunicación , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Depresión/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Intoxicación Alcohólica/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Colombia/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Atención a la Salud , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/métodos , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Atención Primaria de Salud/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203334

RESUMEN

In the U.K., 270,705 adults were in contact with drug and alcohol treatment services between April 2019 and March 2020. Within the same time period, 118,995 individuals exited the treatment system, and just over a third (36%) left treatment without completing it. The latter includes individuals declining further treatment and unsuccessful transfers between services. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that affect drug and alcohol treatment uptake within a drug and alcohol service in North East England. A mixed-methods approach was adopted. The exploration of factors affecting treatment uptake was captured through a behavioural insights survey and 1:1 in-depth qualitative interviews with service users within one council area within the North East of England. There were 53 survey participants, and a further 15 participants took part in qualitative interviews. We triangulated data sources to report consistencies and discrepancies in the data. Findings show that treatment services aiming to reduce missed appointments and increase retention rates need to implement several strategies. Consistently distributing appointment cards, using text message reminders, displaying a timetable presenting all treatment options, and displaying information in a format to ensure it is accessible to individuals with lower health literacy and reducing wait times for appointments will all improve appointment attendance.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Adulto , Alcoholismo/terapia , Citas y Horarios , Inglaterra , Humanos , Sistemas Recordatorios
6.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(711): e762-e771, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950854

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Risk of harm from drinking is heightened in later life, owing to age-related sensitivities to alcohol. Primary care services have a key role in supporting older people (aged ≥50 years) to make healthier decisions about alcohol. AIM: To examine primary care practitioners' perceptions of factors that promote and challenge their work to support older people in alcohol risk-reduction. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews and focus groups with primary care practitioners in Northern England. METHOD: Thirty-five practitioners (GPs, practice/district nurses, pharmacists, dentists, social care practitioners, and domiciliary carers) participated in eight interviews and five focus groups. Data were analysed thematically, applying principles of constant comparison. RESULTS: Practitioners highlighted particular sensitivities to discussing alcohol among older people, and reservations about older people's resistance to making changes in old age; given that drinking practices could be established, and promote socialisation and emotional wellbeing in later life. Age-related health issues increased older people's contact with practitioners, but management of older people's long-term conditions was prioritised over discussion of alcohol. Dedicated time to address alcohol in routine consultations with older people and training in alcohol intervention facilitated practitioners, particularly pharmacists and practice nurses. CONCLUSION: There are clear opportunities to support older people in primary care to make healthier decisions about alcohol. Dedicated time to address alcohol, training in identification of alcohol-related risks (particularly those associated with old age), and tailored interventions for older people, feasible to implement in practice settings, would help primary care practitioners to address older people's alcohol use.

7.
Health Sociol Rev ; 30(2): 111-126, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018913

RESUMEN

Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS) are increasingly used drugs globally. There is limited evidence about what shapes ATS use at critical turning points located within drug using pathways. Using turning point theory, as part of a life course approach, the ATTUNE study aimed to understand which social, economic and individual factors shape pathways into and out of ATS use. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews (n = 70) were undertaken with individuals who had used ATS, or had been exposed to them at least once. Our findings show that turning points for initiation were linked to pleasure, curiosity, boredom and declining mental health; increased use was linked to positive effects experienced at initiation and multiple life-stressors, leading to more intense use. Decreased use was prompted by pivotal events and sustained through continued wellbeing, day-to-day structure, and non-using social networks. We argue that the heterogeneity of these individuals challenges stereotypes of stimulant use allied to nightclubs and 'hedonism'. Further, at critical turning points for recovery, the use of services for problematic ATS consumption was low because users prioritised their alcohol or opioid use when seeking help. There is a need to develop service provision, training, and better outreach to individuals who need support at critical turning points.

8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988281

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health concerns in older adults are common, with increasing age-related risks to physical health, mobility and social isolation. Community-based approaches are a key focus of public health strategy in the UK, and may reduce the impact of these risks, protecting mental health and promoting wellbeing. We conducted a review of UK community-based interventions to understand the types of intervention studied and mental health/wellbeing impacts reported. METHOD: We conducted a scoping review of the literature, systematically searching six electronic databases (2000-2020) to identify academic studies of any non-clinical community intervention to improve mental health or wellbeing outcomes for older adults. Data were extracted, grouped by population targeted, intervention type, and outcomes reported, and synthesised according to a framework categorising community actions targeting older adults. RESULTS: In total, 1,131 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility and 54 included in the final synthesis. Example interventions included: link workers; telephone helplines; befriending; digital support services; group social activities. These were grouped into: connector services, gateway services/approaches, direct interventions and systems approaches. These interventions aimed to address key risk factors: loneliness, social isolation, being a caregiver and living with long-term health conditions. Outcome measurement varied greatly, confounding strong evidence in favour of particular intervention types. CONCLUSION: The literature is wide-ranging in focus and methodology. Greater specificity and consistency in outcome measurement are required to evidence effectiveness - no single category of intervention yet stands out as 'promising'. More robust evidence on the active components of interventions to promote older adult's mental health is required.

9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931550

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a period of global economic uncertainty. Financial strain, personal debt, recent job loss and housing insecurity are important risk factors for the mental health of working-age adults. Community interventions have the potential to attenuate the mental health impact of these stressors. We examined the effectiveness of community interventions for protecting and promoting the mental health of working-age adults in high-income countries during periods of financial insecurity. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were systematically screened for experimental and observational studies published since 2000 measuring the effectiveness of community interventions on mental health outcomes. We included any non-clinical intervention that aimed to address the financial, employment, food or housing insecurity of participants. A review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42019156364) and results are reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: From 2326 studies screened, 15 met our inclusion criteria. Five categories of community intervention were identified: advice services colocated in healthcare settings; link worker social prescribing; telephone debt advice; food insecurity interventions; and active labour market programmes. In general, the evidence for effective and cost-effective community interventions delivered to individuals experiencing financial insecurity was lacking. From the small number of studies without a high risk of bias, there was some evidence that financial insecurity and associated mental health problems were amenable to change and differences by subpopulations were observed. CONCLUSION: There is a need for well-controlled studies and trials to better understand effective ingredients and to identify those interventions warranting wider implementation.

10.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(8): e557-e565, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058125

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As a policy option to reduce consumption of alcohol and the harm it does, on May 1, 2018, Scotland introduced a minimum price of 50 British pence (p) per unit of alcohol (8 g) sold; Wales followed suit on March 2, 2020, with the same minimum unit price (MUP). We analysed household purchase data based on bar codes to assess the impact of these policy options in the medium term for Scotland and in the immediate term for Wales. METHODS: For these location-controlled, interrupted time series regression analyses, the data source was Kantar WorldPanel's household shopping panel, which, at the time of our analysis, included 35 242 British households providing detailed information on 1·24 million separate alcohol purchases in 2015-18 and the first half of 2020. With no data exclusions, we analysed the impact of introducing MUP in Scotland, using purchases in northern England as control, and in Wales, using western England as control. The studied changes associated with MUP were price paid per gram of alcohol purchased, grams of alcohol purchased, and amount of money spent on alcohol. FINDINGS: In Scotland, price increases and purchase decreases following the introduction of MUP in 2018 were maintained during the first half of 2020. The difference between Scotland and northern England in 2020 was a price increase of 0·741 p per gram (95% CI 0·724-0·759), a 7·6% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·063 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·656-7·470), a 7·7% decrease. In Wales, the introduction of MUP led to similar results. The difference between Wales and western England was a price increase 0·841 of 0·841 p per gram (0·732-0·951), an 8·2% increase, and a purchase decrease of 7·052 g per adult per household per day that an alcohol purchase was made (6·463-7·640), an 8·6% decrease. For both Scotland and Wales, reductions in overall purchases of alcohol were largely restricted to households that bought the most alcohol. The introduction of MUP was not associated with an increased expenditure on alcohol by households that generally bought small amounts of alcohol and, in particular, those with low incomes. The changes were not affected by the introduction of COVID-19 confinement in the UK on March 26, 2020. INTERPRETATION: The evidence base supporting the positive, targeted impact of MUP is strengthened by the comparable results for Scotland and Wales. The short-term impact of MUP in Scotland during 2018 is maintained during the first half of 2020. MUP is an effective alcohol policy option to reduce off-trade purchases of alcohol and should be widely considered. FUNDING: None.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/economía , Comercio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Humanos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Escocia , Gales
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810478

RESUMEN

Young people in care have a four-fold increased risk of drug and alcohol use compared to their peers. The SOLID study aimed to deliver two behaviour change interventions to reduce risky substance use (illicit drugs and alcohol) and improve mental health in young people in care. The study was carried out in 6 local authorities in the North East of England. Young people in care aged 12-20 years, who self-reported substance use within the previous 12 months were randomised to Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Social Behaviour and Network Therapy or control. In-depth 1:1 interviews and focus groups were used with young people in care, foster carers, residential workers, social workers and drug and alcohol practitioners to explore the key lessons from implementing the interventions. The Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research framed the analysis. Findings illustrated that the everyday interaction between individuals, service level dynamics and external policy related factors influenced the implementation of these new interventions at scale. We concluded that unless interventions are delivered in a way that can accommodate the often-complex lives of young people in care and align with the drug and alcohol practitioners' and social workers priorities, it is unlikely to be successfully implemented and become part of routine practice.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Niño , Inglaterra , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
12.
Subst Abus ; : 1-9, 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849396

RESUMEN

Background: Screening for unhealthy alcohol use in routine consultations can aid primary health care (PHC) providers in detecting patients with hazardous or harmful consumption and providing them with appropriate care. As part of larger trial testing strategies to improve implementation of alcohol screening in PHC, this study investigated the motivational (role security, therapeutic commitment, self-efficacy) and organizational context (leadership, work culture, resources, monitoring, community engagement) factors that were associated with the proportion of adult patients screened with AUDIT-C by PHC providers in Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Additionally, the study investigated whether the effect of the factors interacted with implementation strategies and the country. Methods: Pen-and-paper questionnaires were completed by 386 providers at the start of their study participation (79% female, Mage = 39.5, 37.6% doctors, 15.0% nurses, 9.6% psychologists, 37.8% other professional roles). They were allocated to one of four intervention arms: control group; short training only; short training in presence of municipal support; and standard (long) training in presence of municipal support. Providers documented their screening practice during the five-month implementation period. Data were collected between April 2019 and March 2020. Results: Negative binomial regression analysis found an inverse relationship of role security with the proportion of screened patients. Self-efficacy was associated with an increase in the proportion of screened patients only amongst Mexican providers. Support from leadership (formal leader in organization) was the only significant organizational context factor, but only in non-control arms. Conclusion: Higher self-efficacy is a relevant factor in settings where screening practice is already ongoing. Leadership support can enhance effects of implementation strategies.

13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012823, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723860

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parental substance use is a substantial public health and safeguarding concern. There have been a number of trials of interventions relating to substance-using parents that have sought to address this risk factor, with potential outcomes for parent and child. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in reducing parental substance use (alcohol and/or illicit drugs, excluding tobacco). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases from their inception to July 2020: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE; Embase; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Applied Social Science (ASSIA); Sociological Abstracts; Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP, and TRoPHI. We also searched key journals and the reference lists of included papers and contacted authors publishing in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included data from trials of complex psychosocial interventions targeting substance use in parents of children under the age of 21 years. Studies were only included if they had a minimum follow-up period of six months from the start of the intervention and compared psychosocial interventions to comparison conditions. The primary outcome of this review was a reduction in the frequency of parental substance use. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 22 unique studies with a total of 2274 participants (mean age of parents ranged from 26.3 to 40.9 years), examining 24 experimental interventions. The majority of studies intervened with mothers only (n = 16; 73%). Heroin, cocaine, and alcohol were the most commonly reported substances used by participants. The interventions targeted either parenting only (n = 13; 59%); drug and alcohol use only (n = 5; 23%); or integrated interventions which addressed both (n = 6; 27%). Half of the studies (n = 11; 50%) compared the experimental intervention to usual treatment. Other comparison groups were minimal intervention, attention controls, and alternative intervention. Eight of the included studies reported data relating to our primary outcome at 6- and/or 12-month follow-up and were included in a meta-analysis. We investigated intervention effectiveness separately for alcohol and drugs. Studies were found to be mostly at low or unclear risk for all 'Risk of bias' domains except blinding of participants and personnel and outcome assessment.  We found moderate-quality evidence that psychosocial interventions are probably more effective at reducing the frequency of parental alcohol misuse than comparison conditions at 6-month (mean difference (MD) -0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.51 to -0.13; 6 studies, 475 participants) and 12-month follow-up (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.25, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.03; 4 studies, 366 participants). We found a significant reduction in frequency of use at 12 months only (SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.01; 6 studies, 514 participants, moderate-quality evidence). We examined the effect of the intervention type. We found low-quality evidence that psychosocial interventions targeting substance use only may not reduce the frequency of alcohol (6 months: SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.16; 2 studies, 89 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.86 to 0.61; 1 study, 34 participants) or drug use (6 months: SMD 0.01, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.44; 2 studies; 87 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.81 to 0.65; 1 study, 32 participants). A parenting intervention only, without an adjunctive substance use component, may not reduce frequency of alcohol misuse (6 months: SMD -0.21, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.04, 3 studies; 273 participants, low-quality evidence and 12 months: SMD -0.11, 95% CI -0.64 to 0.41; 2 studies; 219 participants, very low-quality evidence) or frequency of drug use  (6 months: SMD 0.10, 95% CI -0.11 to 0.30; 4 studies; 407 participants, moderate-quality evidence and 12 months: SMD -0.13, 95% CI -0.52 to 0.26; 3 studies; 351 participants, very low-quality evidence). Parents receiving integrated interventions which combined both parenting- and substance use-targeted components may reduce alcohol misuse with a small effect size (6 months: SMD -0.56, 95% CI -0.96 to -0.16 and 12 months: SMD -0.42, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.03; 2 studies, 113 participants) and drug use (6 months: SMD -0.39, 95% CI -0.75 to -0.03 and 12 months: SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.80 to -0.07; 2 studies, 131 participants). However, this evidence was of low quality. Psychosocial interventions in which the child was present in the sessions were not effective in reducing the frequency of parental alcohol or drug use, whilst interventions that did not involve children in any of the sessions were found to reduce frequency of alcohol misuse (6 months: SMD -0.47, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.18; 3 studies, 202 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.00; 2 studies, 147 participants) and drug use at 12-month follow-up (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.01; 2 studies, 141 participants). The quality of this evidence was low. Interventions appeared to be more often beneficial for fathers than for mothers. We found low- to very low-quality evidence of a reduction in frequency of alcohol misuse for mothers at six months only (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.04; 4 studies, 328 participants), whilst in fathers there was a reduction in frequency of alcohol misuse (6 months: SMD -0.43, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.09; 2 studies, 147 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.00; 2 studies, 147 participants) and drug use (6 months: SMD -0.31, 95% CI -0.66 to 0.04; 2 studies, 141 participants and 12 months: SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.69 to 0.01; 2 studies, 141 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate-quality evidence that psychosocial interventions probably reduce the frequency at which parents use alcohol and drugs. Integrated psychosocial interventions which combine parenting skills interventions with a substance use component may show the most promise. Whilst it appears that mothers may benefit less than fathers from intervention, caution is advised in the interpretation of this evidence, as the interventions provided to mothers alone typically did not address their substance use and other related needs. We found low-quality evidence from few studies that interventions involving children are not beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Parental , Padres/psicología , Intervención Psicosocial/métodos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia , Adulto , Alcoholismo/terapia , Sesgo , Niño , Protección a la Infancia , Trastornos Relacionados con Cocaína/terapia , Intervalos de Confianza , Familia , Padre , Femenino , Dependencia de Heroína/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673199

RESUMEN

It is estimated that over 100 million people worldwide are affected by the substance use of a close relative and often experience related adverse health and social outcomes. There is a growing body of literature evaluating psychosocial interventions intended to reduce these adverse outcomes. We searched the international literature, using rigorous systematic methods to search and review the evidence for effective interventions to improve the wellbeing of family members affected by the substance use of an adult relative. We synthesised the evidence narratively by intervention type, in line with the systematic search and review approach. Sixty-five papers (from 58 unique trials) meeting our inclusion criteria were identified. Behavioural interventions delivered conjointly with the substance user and the affected family members were found to be effective in improving the social wellbeing of family members (reducing intimate partner violence, enhancing relationship satisfaction and stability and family functioning). Affected adult family members may derive psychological benefit from an adjacent individually focused therapeutic intervention component. No interventions fully addressed the complex multidimensional adversities experienced by many families affected by substance use. Further research is needed to determine the effect of a multi-component psychosocial intervention, which seeks to support both the substance user and the affected family member.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Familia , Humanos , Intervención Psicosocial , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/terapia
15.
Int J Drug Policy ; 93: 103113, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487528

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and related harm increase rapidly from the age of 12 years. We evaluated whether alcohol screening and brief intervention is effective and cost-effective in delaying hazardous or harmful drinking amongst low-risk or abstaining adolescents attending Emergency Departments (EDs). METHODS: This ten-centre, three-arm, parallel-group, single-blind, pragmatic, individually randomised trial screened ED attenders aged between 14 and 17 years for alcohol consumption. We sampled at random one third of those scoring at most 2 on AUDIT-C who had access to the internet and, if aged under 16, were Gillick competent or had informed consent from parent or guardian. We randomised them between: screening only (control intervention); one session of face-to-face Personalised Feedback and Brief Advice (PFBA); and PFBA plus an electronic brief intervention (eBI) on smartphone or web. We conducted follow-up after six and 12 months. The principal outcomes were alcohol consumed over the 3 months before 12-month follow up, measured by AUDIT-C; and quality-adjusted life-years. FINDINGS: Between October 2014 and May 2015, we approached 5,016 eligible patients of whom 3,326 consented to be screened and participate in the trial; 2,571 of these were low-risk drinkers or abstainers, consuming an average 0.14 units per week. We randomised: 304 to screening only; 285 to PFBA; and 294 to PFBA and eBI. We found no significant difference between groups, notably in weekly alcohol consumption: those receiving screening only drank 0.10 units (95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.18); PFBA 0.12 (0.06 to 0.21); PFBA and eBI 0.10 (0.05 to 0.19). INTERPRETATION: While drinking levels remained low in this population, this trial found no evidence that PFBA with or without eBI was more effective than screening alone in reducing or delaying alcohol consumption.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Humanos , Método Simple Ciego
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(9): 2663-2671, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469752

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We aimed to test the effects of providing municipal support and training to primary health care providers compared to both training alone and to care as usual on the proportion of adult patients having their alcohol consumption measured. METHODS: We undertook a quasi-experimental study reporting on a 5-month implementation period in 58 primary health care centres from municipal areas within Bogotá (Colombia), Mexico City (Mexico), and Lima (Peru). Within the municipal areas, units were randomized to four arms: (1) care as usual (control); (2) training alone; (3) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a less intensive clinical and training package; and (4) training and municipal support, designed specifically for the study, using a more intense clinical and training package. The primary outcome was the cumulative proportion of consulting adult patients out of the population registered within the centre whose alcohol consumption was measured (coverage). RESULTS: The combination of municipal support and training did not result in higher coverage than training alone (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8). Training alone resulted in higher coverage than no training (IRR = 9.8, 95% CI = 4.1 to 24.7). Coverage did not differ by intensity of the clinical and training package (coefficient = 0.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Training of providers is key to increasing coverage of alcohol measurement amongst primary health care patients. Although municipal support provided no added value, it is too early to conclude this finding, since full implementation was shortened due to COVID-19 restrictions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov ID: NCT03524599; Registered 15 May 2018; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03524599.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiología
17.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e4, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504413

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Providing alcohol screening and brief advice (SBA) in primary health care (PHC) can be an effective measure to reduce alcohol consumption. To aid successful implementation in an upper middle-income country context, this study investigates the perceived appropriateness of the programme and the perceived barriers to its implementation in PHC settings in three Latin American countries: Colombia, Mexico and Peru, as part of larger implementation study (SCALA). METHODS: An online survey based on the Tailored Implementation for Chronic Diseases (TICD) implementation framework was disseminated in the three countries to key stakeholders with experience in the topic and/or setting (both health professionals and other roles, for example regional health administrators and national experts). In total, 55 respondents participated (66% response rate). For responses to both appropriateness and barriers questions, frequencies were computed, and country comparisons were made using Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests. RESULTS: Alcohol SBA was seen as an appropriate programme to reduce heavy alcohol use in PHC and a range of providers were considered suitable for its delivery, such as general practitioners, nurses, psychologists and social workers. Contextual factors such as patients' normalised perception of their heavy drinking, lack of on-going support for providers, difficulty of accessing referral services and lenient alcohol control laws were the highest rated barriers. Country differences were found for two barriers: Peruvian respondents rated SBA guidelines as less clear than Mexican (Mann-Whitney U = -18.10, P = 0.001), and more strongly indicated lack of available screening instruments than Colombian (Mann-Whitney U = -12.82, P = 0.035) and Mexican respondents (Mann-Whitney U = -13.56, P = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the need to address contextual factors for successful implementation of SBA in practice. General congruence between the countries suggests that similar approaches can be used to encourage widespread implementation of SBA in all three studied countries, with minor tailoring based on the few country-specific barriers.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Colombia , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría) , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú , Adulto Joven
18.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 56(3): 307-316, 2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211796

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate if COVID-19 confinement led to excess alcohol purchases by British households. METHODS: We undertake controlled interrupted time series analysis of the impact of COVID-19 confinement introduced on 26 March 2020, using purchase data from Kantar Worldpanel's of 23,833 British households during January to early July 2020, compared with 53,428 British households for the same time period during 2015-2018. RESULTS: Excess purchases due to confinement during 2020 were 178 g of alcohol per 100 households per day (adjusted for numbers of adults in each household) above an expected base of 438 g based on averaged 2015-2018 data, representing a 40.6% increase. However, when adjusting for expected normal purchases from on-licenced premises (i.e. bars, restaurants, etc.), there was evidence for no excess purchases of grams of alcohol (a 0.7% increase). With these adjustments, beer purchases dropped by 40%, wine purchases increased by 15% and spirits purchases by 22%. Excess purchases increased the richer the household and the lower the age of the main shopper. Confinement was associated with a shift in purchases from lower to higher strength beers. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 confinement, the evidence suggests that households did not buy more alcohol for the expected time of the year, when adjusting for what they normally would have purchased from on-licenced premises.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , COVID-19 , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Cerveza , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis de Series de Tiempo Interrumpido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Pública , Restaurantes , SARS-CoV-2 , Clase Social , Reino Unido , Vino , Adulto Joven
19.
Addiction ; 116(2): 412-425, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067856

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Digital interventions are effective for reducing alcohol consumption but evidence is limited regarding smartphone apps. Drink Less is a theory- and evidence-informed app to help people reduce their alcohol consumption that has been refined in terms of its content and design for usability across the sociodemographic spectrum. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of recommending Drink Less at reducing alcohol consumption compared with usual digital care. DESIGN: Two-arm individually randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Online trial in the United Kingdom (UK). PARTICIPANTS: Hazardous or harmful drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] score ≥8) aged 18+ who want to drink less alcohol (n = 5562). Participants will be recruited from July 2020 to May 2022 using multiple strategies with a focus on remote digital methods. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Participants will be randomised to receive either an email recommending that they use Drink Less (intervention) or view the National Health Service (NHS) webpage on alcohol advice (comparator). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome is change in self-reported weekly alcohol consumption, assessed using the extended AUDIT-Consumption, between baseline and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in self-reported weekly alcohol consumption assessed at 1- and 3-month follow-ups, and the proportion of hazardous drinkers; alcohol-related problems and injury; health-related quality of life; and use of health services assessed at 6-month follow-up. Effectiveness will be examined with adjusted regression models, adjusting for baseline alcohol consumption and using an intention-to-treat approach. A mixed-methods process evaluation will assess engagement, acceptability and mechanism of action. Economic evaluations will be conducted using both a short- and longer-term time horizon. COMMENTS: This study will establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Drink Less app at reducing alcohol consumption among hazardous and harmful adult drinkers and will be the first randomised controlled trial of an alcohol reduction app for the general population in the United Kingdom. This study will inform the decision on whether it is worth investing resources in large-scale implementation.

20.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 6(1): 180, 2020 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Rates of aggression in inpatient secure care are higher than in other psychiatric inpatient settings. People with intellectual disabilities in secure care require adapted psychological treatments. Interpersonal art psychotherapy incorporates the use of creative art making approaches by participants, thus reducing sole reliance upon verbal interactions during psychotherapy for people who may have communication difficulties. During interpersonal art psychotherapy, participants are individually supported by their therapist to consider how they conduct relationships. This includes the influence and impact of interpersonal issues resulting in repeated patterns of conflict. The key feasibility objectives were to assess recruitment and retention rates, follow-up rates and trial procedures such as randomisation, allocation and identifying any practical or ethical problems. In addition, a preliminary 'signal' for the intervention was considered and an indicative sample size calculation completed. The acceptability of a potential third trial arm attentional control condition, mindful colouring-in, was assessed using four single-case design studies and a UK trial capacity survey was conducted. METHODS: Adult patients with intellectual disabilities in secure care were recruited and randomised to either interpersonal art psychotherapy or delayed treatment in this multi-site study. Outcomes were assessed using weekly observations via the Modified Overt Aggression Scale and a range of self-report measures. Within study reporting processes, qualitative interviews and a survey were completed to inform trial feasibility. RESULTS: Recruitment procedures were successful. The target of recruiting 20 participants to the trial from multiple sites was achieved within 8 months of the study opening. All participants recruited to the treatment arm completed interpersonal art psychotherapy. Between-group differences of interpersonal art psychotherapy versus the delayed treatment control showed a 'signal' effect-size of .65 for total scores and .93 in the verbal aggression sub-scale. There were no amendments to the published protocol. The assessment of key feasibility objectives were met and the trial procedures were acceptable to all involved in the research. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that a randomised controlled trial of interpersonal art psychotherapy is acceptable and feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN14326119 (Retrospectively Registered).

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