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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4037, 2020 Aug 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788704

RESUMEN

Excitons with binding energies of a few hundreds of meV control the optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Knowledge of the fine structure of these excitons is therefore essential to understand the optoelectronic properties of these 2D materials. Here we measure the exciton fine structure of MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers encapsulated in boron nitride by magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to 30 T. The experiments performed in transverse magnetic field reveal a brightening of the spin-forbidden dark excitons in MoS2 monolayer: we find that the dark excitons appear at 14 meV below the bright ones. Measurements performed in tilted magnetic field provide a conceivable description of the neutral exciton fine structure. The experimental results are in agreement with a model taking into account the effect of the exchange interaction on both the bright and dark exciton states as well as the interaction with the magnetic field.

2.
Nanoscale ; 12(35): 18153-18159, 2020 Sep 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853305

RESUMEN

Low temperature and polarization resolved magneto-photoluminescence experiments are used to investigate the properties of dark excitons and dark trions in a monolayer of WS2 encapsulated in hexagonal BN (hBN). We find that this system is an n-type doped semiconductor and that dark trions dominate the emission spectrum. In line with previous studies on WSe2, we identify the Coulomb exchange interaction coupled neutral dark and grey excitons through their polarization properties, while an analogous effect is not observed for dark trions. Applying the magnetic field in both perpendicular and parallel configurations with respect to the monolayer plane, we determine the g-factor of dark trions to be g ∼ -8.6. Their decay rate is close to 0.5 ns, more than 2 orders of magnitude longer than that of bright excitons.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(9): 096803, 2019 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524465

RESUMEN

Monolayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional direct-gap systems which host tightly bound excitons with an internal degree of freedom corresponding to the valley of the constituting carriers. Strong spin-orbit interaction and the resulting ordering of the spin-split subbands in the valence and conduction bands makes the lowest-lying excitons in WX_{2} (X being S or Se) spin forbidden and optically dark. With polarization-resolved photoluminescence experiments performed on a WSe_{2} monolayer encapsulated in a hexagonal boron nitride, we show how the intrinsic exchange interaction in combination with the applied in-plane and/or out-of-plane magnetic fields enables one to probe and manipulate the valley degree of freedom of the dark excitons.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 107, 2019 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631049

RESUMEN

Photon upconversion is an anti-Stokes process in which an absorption of a photon leads to a reemission of a photon at an energy higher than the excitation energy. The upconversion photoemission has been already demonstrated in rare earth atoms in glasses, semiconductor quantum wells, nanobelts, carbon nanotubes and atomically thin semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate a room temperature upconversion photoluminescence process in a monolayer semiconductor WS2, with energy gain up to 150 meV. We attribute this process to transitions involving trions and many phonons and free exciton complexes. These results are very promising for energy harvesting, laser refrigeration and optoelectronics at the nanoscale.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 28(39): 395702, 2017 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832017

RESUMEN

We report on detailed temperature dependent (T = 7-295 K) optical spectroscopy studies of WSe2, WS2, MoSe2 and MoS2 monolayers exfoliated onto the same SiO2/Si substrate. In the high energy region of absorption type (reflectivity contrast-RC) and emission (photo-luminescence-PL) spectra of all the monolayers resonances related to the neutral and charged excitons (X and T) are detected in the entire measured temperature range. The optical amplitudes of excitons and trions strongly depend on the temperature and two dimensional carrier gas (2DCG) concentration. In the low energy PL spectra of WSe2 and WS2 we detect a group of lines (L) which dominates the spectra at low temperatures but rapidly quenches with the increase in the temperature. Interestingly, in the same energy range of the RC spectra recorded for WS2, we observe an additional line (L 0), which behaves in the same way as the L lines in the PL spectra. The optical amplitude of L 0 and T resonances in the RC spectra strongly increases with the growth of the 2DCG concentration. On the base of these observations we identify the L 0 resonance in the RC spectra as arising from the fine structure of the trion. We also propose that the line interpreted previously in PL spectra of WSe2 and WS2 as related to the biexciton emission is a superposition of the biexciton, trion and localized exciton emission. We find that with the temperature increase from 7-295 K the total PL intensity decreases moderately in WSe2 and WS2, strongly in MoS2 and dramatically in MoSe2.

6.
Biol Sport ; 33(2): 139-44, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27274106

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

7.
Mater Med Pol ; 28(3): 83-6, 1996.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9167417

RESUMEN

Examinations were performed in 20 adult male and female patients (pts) suffering from acute back pain due to vertebral compression fracture secondary to osteoporosis proved by lateral X-rays of the dorso-lumbar spine (Th3-L5), and bone mineral density with the method of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The synthetic human calcitonin (SUC) (0.5 mg) was injected I.M. every day during 28 days. Analgesic effect was evaluated on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28th day by patient's assessment of functional capacity, and physician's assessment of pain and mobility. On the same days biochemical variables of Ca-P homeostasis were determined. Treatment with calcitonin resulted in a positive analgesic effect. The functional capacity and mobility of pts increased with diminution of pain. No significant alterations of Ca-P homeostasis was observed. Mild and transient side effects as nausea and tachycardia were negligible. SHC appears to have a significant analgesic effect in treatment of primary osteoporosis.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Calcitonina/uso terapéutico , Osteoporosis/complicaciones , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dolor/etiología
8.
Folia Neuropathol ; 33(1): 1-4, 1995.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8673414

RESUMEN

In rats 10-min clinical death was induced by intrathoracic compression of the cardiac vessel bundle. The animals were sacrificed from 15 min to 7 days after resuscitation. They were decapitated 15 sec after intracarotid injection of mixture of L-[U-14C]glutamic acid and tritiated water. Using by the dual label method the brain uptake index (BUI) and percent of injected dose of amino acid in the cerebral hemisphere were calculated. In 45% of animals an increase of amino acid transfer and rise of BUI revealed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) alterations. The most pronounced changes developed after 120 min and 1 day after resuscitation. The impaired vs. normal BBB state depends probably on uneven recovery of cerebral circulation in individual animals after resuscitation.


Asunto(s)
Barrera Hematoencefálica/fisiología , Muerte Encefálica/fisiopatología , Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Animales , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Femenino , Masculino , Permeabilidad , Trazadores Radiactivos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Resucitación
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