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Toxins (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 07 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878233


Bites from venomous marine annelid 'bloodworms' (e.g., Glycera spp.) do not appear to have been described in the medical literature despite being seemingly well-known to bait diggers and fishermen. The few laboratory study reports describe their venom composition and physiological effects in vitro to be primarily proteolytic enzymes and neurotoxins apparently used for predation and defense. Herein, we present the report of a symptomatic envenoming suffered by a marine ecologist bitten while performing her field research. The local effects included a rapid onset of pain, swelling, and numbness at the bite site "as if injected with local anesthetic". Additional signs and symptoms appearing over a two-week period were consistent with both delayed venom effects and potentially secondary infection. The late signs and symptoms resolved during a course of antibiotic treatment with doxycycline prescribed as a precaution and lack of resources to consider a wound culture. Comments about annelid bites sporadically appear in the popular literature, especially pertaining to the fishing industry, under names such as 'bait-diggers hand'. While these bites are not known to be dangerously venomous, they seem to produce painful local symptoms and possibly increase the risk of marine bacterial infections that could be associated with more serious outcomes. More cases need to be formally described to better understand the natural history of these types of envenomation.

Poliquetos , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Antivenenos , Femenino , Neurotoxinas , Mordeduras de Serpientes/terapia , Ponzoñas/toxicidad
PLoS One ; 6(5): e19092, 2011 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21589933


BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is among the most common sexually transmitted pathogens in the United States and worldwide. HSV has a high incidence of undetected cases. In addition, there is no treatment, and there is a lack of knowledge why disparities among populations exist. Research studies suggest that fat tissue may participate in body's immune responses, and the impact of obesity on susceptibility to HSV1 infection is not clear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether obesity is a risk factor for HSV1 infection using a large sample from the general population. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Examination and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2007-2008. Variables, gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, poverty level, and diabetes represented potential confounders and were included in analyses. The two-tailed Pearson's chi square, student's t test, and a multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to evaluate associations using a significance value of p≤0.05. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval represented the degree of these associations. The prevalence of HSV1 infection in US population between 20 and 49 years old was 60.3% (n = 1,536). In this study, having a BMI classified as the obese group (BMI 30-39.9) was significantly associated with HSV1 infection before [unadjusted OR = 1.74 (95% CI 1.20-2.51), p = 0.006] and after controlling for socio-demographic factors [adjusted OR = 1.50 (95%CI 1.06-2.13)], p = 0.026]. This association was stronger than three already established risk factors of age, female gender, and poverty level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that obesity may play a role in the susceptibility to HSV1 infection. Findings from this study suggest that obesity should be considered when designing preventive measures for HSV1 infection. These results may also explain why some people acquire HSV1 infections and some do not. Further, these findings may justify an increased emphasis on the control and prevention of HSV1 transmission and other pathogens in overweight and obese populations.

Herpes Simple/complicaciones , Obesidad/complicaciones , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Herpes Simple/sangre , Herpesvirus Humano 1/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estados Unidos
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 47(5): 10-7, 2008 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18947164


Spironucleus muris is an unacceptable infectious agent for most rodent colonies. Exposure of sentinel mice to dirty bedding and examination of sentinel intestinal smears was not sufficient for identification of the extent of spironucleosis within 1 mouse room. Clinical abnormalities were not reported in the animals housed in the room despite extensive breeding and a preponderance of mice genetically engineered to have nonfunctional T and B cells. In addition, researchers reported that the infection had not altered their research data. During investigation of the outbreak, direct intestinal smears performed on related animals (conspecifics, offspring, or siblings) revealed that immunodeficient mice often tested negative whereas the immunocompetent cohort tested positive. In this study, we used culled colony animals and compared direct intestinal exam test results with histologic results. The comparison showed the extent of false negatives that may occur when direct intestinal exam alone is used to detect this protozoon. Sensitivity of the direct intestinal exam for detection of S. muris was calculated to be 71%, while histology sensitivity was 91%. In light of the study results and an extensive literature review, we revised our health surveillance plan so that the age and duration of exposure to dirty bedding among sentinel mice is varied at the time of testing.

Diplomonadida/aislamiento & purificación , Huésped Inmunocomprometido/genética , Infecciones Protozoarias en Animales/prevención & control , Enfermedades de los Roedores/prevención & control , Vigilancia de Guardia , Animales , Vivienda para Animales , Ratones
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 47(5): 39-43, 2008 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18947169


The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid DNA isolation method and a sensitive and specific PCR assay for detecting Spironucleus muris in mouse tissue and fecal samples. A PCR assay based on the carboxy terminus of the elongation factor 1a gene was developed; the PCR product was confirmed by nucleic acid sequencing and nested PCR. The new PCR assay then was used to test feces from animals that had been screened for S. muris by using direct intestinal examination and histology. The PCR assay was determined to be a more sensitive test than either direct intestinal examination or intestinal histology. To our knowledge, this assay represents the first use of a PCR-based diagnostic screening method to confirm the presence of S. muris in murine tissue and fecal samples.

ADN Protozoario/aislamiento & purificación , Diplomonadida/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/parasitología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Roedores/parasitología , Animales , Ratones , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
J Med Primatol ; 34(4): 215-8, 2005 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16053500


The perineal or perineal and facial skin were evaluated on 53 rhesus macaques as part of a necropsy protocol. Microscopic evaluation of H & E stained skin sections revealed 19 animals positive for Demodex spp. Mites were seen within all portions of the hair follicles. Infestation varied from minimal to severe. Mites were found in macaques of all ages and in both sexes. Reaction to the mites ranged from no reaction, to minimal follicular epidermal hyperplasia to furunculosis. Immune status of the animal did not determine infestation but immune compromised macaques had more severe lesions. This is the first known report of Demodex spp. in rhesus macaques.

Folículo Piloso/parasitología , Macaca mulatta , Infestaciones por Ácaros/veterinaria , Ácaros/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedades de los Monos/parasitología , Enfermedades de la Piel/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Histocitoquímica , Masculino , Infestaciones por Ácaros/parasitología , Enfermedades de la Piel/parasitología
J Med Entomol ; 42(6): 948-52, 2005 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16465733


Species of Demodex live in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of many species of mammals. Demodex macaci n .sp. is described (all life stages) from a captive rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta (Zimmermann, 1780). Mites were found at all levels of the hair follicles and occasionally in sebaceous glands of the skin of the perineal region. This is the first description of a demodectic hair follicle mite from the primate family Cercopithecidae.

Macaca mulatta/parasitología , Infestaciones por Ácaros/veterinaria , Ácaros/anatomía & histología , Ácaros/clasificación , Enfermedades de los Monos/parasitología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/veterinaria , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Infestaciones por Ácaros/parasitología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/parasitología