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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763830

RESUMEN

Treatment with anti-neoplastic agents, including cyclophosphamide (CP), is associated with several adverse reactions. Here, we distinguished the potential protective effect of allicin against CP-mediated hepatotoxicity in rats. To assess the effect of allicin, four experimental groups were used, with 7 rats per group, including control, allicin (10 mg/kg), CP (200 mg/kg), and allicin + CP-treated groups. All groups were treated for 10 days. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical, molecular, and histological analyses. Treatment with CP led to deformations in the liver tissue that were associated with higher liver function markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase). Additionally, a disturbance in the redox balance was observed after CP exposure, as indicated by increased levels of oxidants, including malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and the decreased levels of endogenous antioxidants, including glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. At the molecular level, CP treatment resulted in reduced expression of the Nrf2/ARE pathway and other genes related to this pathway, including NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. CP also led to a hyper-inflammatory response in hepatic tissue, with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interlukin-1beta, and upregulation of nitric oxide synthase 2. CP also enhanced the immunoreactivity of the profibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta, in liver tissue. Upregulation of caspase 3 and Bcl-2-associated X protein and downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 were also observed in response to CP treatment. Treatment with allicin reversed the molecular, biochemical, and histological changes that occurred with CP exposure. These results suggest that allicin can be used in combination with CP to avoid hepatotoxicity.

2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 337: 109392, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497687

RESUMEN

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid abundantly found in nature and used in many industries. Consumption of contaminated water mainly results in human exposure to arsenic. Toxicity (arsenicosis) resulting from arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenol derived from edible plants, has antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the neuroprotective potential of PCA against arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) orally administered physiological saline, (ii) orally administered 100 mg/kg PCA, (iii) orally administered 5 mg/kg NaAsO2, and (iv) orally administered 100 mg/kg PCA 120 min prior to oral administration of 5 mg/kg NaAsO2. Each group received its respective treatment for 1 week, after which cortical tissues from each group were analyzed for various parameters of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related proteins, and changes in histopathology. NaAsO2-treatment resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOs), and NO levels, with a decrease in the levels of both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione) antioxidant markers. Arsenic increased proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß) levels, enhanced caspase-3 and Bax expression, and reduced Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, arsenic-exposure in mice decreased significantly acetylcholinesterase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the cerebral cortex. Histopathological examination revealed changes in nerve cell cyto-architecture and distribution in arsenic-exposed brain tissue sections. PCA treatment before arsenic administration resulted in a positive shift in the oxidative stress and cytokine levels with decreased levels of LPO, iNOS, and NO. PCA pre-treatment considerably attenuated arsenic-associated histopathological changes in murine brain tissue. This study suggested that the presence of PCA may be responsible for the prevention of arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Arseniatos/toxicidad , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacología , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Animales , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patología , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
3.
Neurotox Res ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141427

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity, inducing a number of hazardous effects to humans and animals including neurotoxicity. This experiment was aimed to investigate the potential effect of kaempferol (KPF) against Cd-induced cortical injury. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups. The control rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), the cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated rats were i.p. injected with 4.5 mg/kg of CdCl2, the KPF-treated rats were orally gavaged with 50 mg/kg of KPF, and the KPF + CdCl2-treated rats were administered orally 50 mg/kg of KPF 120 min before receiving i.p. injection of 4.5 mg/kg CdCl2. CdCl2 exposure for 30 days led to the accumulation of Cd in the cortical tissue, accompanied by a reduction in the content of monoamines and acetylcholinesterase activity. Additionally, CdCl2 induced a state of oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of lipid peroxidation and nitrate/nitrite levels, while glutathione content and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were decreased. Moreover, CdCl2 mediated inflammatory events in the cortical tissue through increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels and upregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) were elevated, while Bcl-2, the anti-apoptotic protein, was decreased. Also, histological alterations were observed obviously following CdCl2. However, KPF pretreatment restored significantly the examined markers to be near the normal values. Hence, the obtained data provide evidences that KPF pretreatment has the protective effect to preserve the cortical tissues in CdCl2-exposed rats by restraining oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis, neurochemical modulation, and improving the histological changes.

4.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096600

RESUMEN

Bovine papillomatosis is a viral disease of cattle causing cutaneous warts. A diagnosis of this viral infection is very mandatory for combating the resulting economic losses. Given the limited data available about bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in Egypt, the present study involved the molecular diagnosis of bovine papillomavirus type-1 (BPV-1), -2, -4, -5, and -10 in cattle presenting cutaneous warts on the head and neck from New Valley Province, Egypt. The phylogenetic analysis of the detected types of BPV was also performed, followed by developing a point-of-need molecular assay for the rapid identification of identified BPV types. In this regard, a total of 308 cattle from private farms in Egypt were clinically examined, of which 13 animals presented cutaneous warts due to suspected BPV infection. The symptomatic animals were treated surgically, and biopsies from skin lesions were collected for BPV-1, -2, -4, -5, and -10 molecular identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presence of BPV-1 DNA was confirmed in 11 collected samples (84.6%), while BPV-2, -4, -5, and -10 were not detected. Sequencing of the PCR products suggested the Egyptian virus is closely related to BPV found in India. An isothermal nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) with labeled primers specific for the BPV-1 L1 gene sequence, and based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), in combination with a lateral flow strip assay for the detection of RPA products, was developed and tested. The point-of-need molecular assay demonstrated a diagnostic utility comparable to PCR-based testing. Taken together, the present study provides interesting molecular data related to the occurrence of BPV-1 in Egypt and reveals the genetic relatedness of the Egyptian BPV-1 with BPV-1 found in buffalo in India. In addition, a simple, low-cost combined test was also validated for diagnosis of the infection. The present study suggests the necessity of future investigations about the circulating strains of the virus among the cattle in Egypt to assess their genetic relatedness and better understand the epidemiological pattern of the disease.

5.
J Food Biochem ; : e13505, 2020 Oct 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047361

RESUMEN

Here, we examined the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2 )-mediated reproductive toxicity in male rats. Animals were divided into four groups: control, FA (20 mg/kg), CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg), and FA + CdCl2 . CdCl2 treatment evoked a significant increase in testis cadmium concentration in addition to obvious increase in testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Moreover, CdCl2 -induced oxidative damage through exhausting the cellular defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione) and downregulating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression accompanied by increases of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide contents. Testicular inflammation was evident indicated by increased levels of interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α in CdCl2 -treated rats. CdCl2 exposure also decreased the expression of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen and augmented apoptotic events associated with prominent histopathological alterations. However, FA coadministration mitigated the impaired hormonal level, apoptotic and inflammatory injuries elicited by CdCl2, and maintained the oxidant/antioxidant balance in testicular tissue via Nrf2 activation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Cadmium is an environmental toxicant and known to cause adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. However, antioxidant application has been found to protect against heavy metals-mediated toxic effects. Here, we examined the potential protective efficacy of ferulic acid against cadmium-mediated testicular impairments through estimating the amount of cadmium in the testis, hormonal profile, oxidative status, inflammatory response, apoptotic and proliferating markers in addition to the histopathological alterations. The obtained findings revealed that ferulic acid supplementation was able to abolish the testicular damages coupled with cadmium exposure. The protective efficiency of ferulic acid may correlated with its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities; suggesting that ferulic acid may be used to ameliorate cadmium-induced testicular deficits.

6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6339-6353, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922005

RESUMEN

Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical alterations. Current antiepileptic drugs are associated with various adverse impacts. The main goal of the current study is to investigate the possible anticonvulsant effect of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-mediated epileptic seizures in mice hippocampus. Sodium valproate (VPA) was used as a standard anti-epileptic drug. Methods: Mice were assigned into five groups (n=15): control, SeNPs (5 mg/kg, orally), PTZ (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), SeNPs+PTZ and VPA (200 mg/kg)+PTZ. All groups were treated for 10 days. Results: PTZ injection triggered a state of oxidative stress in the hippocampal tissue as represented by the elevated lipoperoxidation, heat shock protein 70 level, and nitric oxide formation while decreased glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes activity. Additionally, the blotting analysis showed downregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the epileptic mice. A state of neuroinflammation was recorded following the developed seizures represented by the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was recorded following the development of epileptic convulsions. At the neurochemical level, acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamines content were decreased in the epileptic mice, accompanied by high glutamate and low GABA levels in the hippocampal tissue. However, SeNP supplementation was found to delay the onset and decreased the duration of tonic, myoclonic, and generalized seizures following PTZ injection. Moreover, SeNPs were found to provide neuroprotection through preventing the development of oxidative challenge via the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptotic cascade. Additionally, SeNPs reversed the changes in the activity and levels of neuromodulators following the development of epileptic seizures. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that SeNPs could be used as a promising anticonvulsant drug due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuromodulatory activities.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas/química , Neuronas/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico , Selenio/uso terapéutico , Aminoácidos , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efectos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacología , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Pentilenotetrazol , Convulsiones/inducido químicamente , Convulsiones/prevención & control , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacología
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989703

RESUMEN

Arsenic (As) exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes to the living organisms. In the present study, the hepato-protective ability of thymoquinone (TQ), the active principle of Nigella sativa seed, or ebselen (Eb), an organoselenium compound, against As intoxication in female rats was investigated. For this purpose, animals were allocated randomly into control, As (20 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), Eb (5 mg/kg), As+TQ, and As+Eb groups that were orally administered for 28 consecutive days. Arsenic exposure resulted in hepatic oxidative damage which was evidenced by marked decreases in antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH)) concomitant with high malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Furthermore, As toxicity induced significant elevations in liver accumulation of As, serum hepatic indices (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB)), and apoptotic marker (B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and caspase 3) levels. Additionally, notable increments in hepatic fibrotic markers (epidermal growth factor (EFG) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1)) associated with high nitric oxide, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were noticed following As intoxication. Biochemical findings were well-supported by hepatic histopathological screening. The co-treatment of As-exposed rats with TQ or Eb considerably improved liver function and antioxidant status together with lessened hepatic As content, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. The overall outcomes demonstrated that TQ or Eb ameliorates As-induced liver injury through their favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and fibrolytic properties.

8.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2121-2132, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710811

RESUMEN

Sepsis results from a major systemic inflammatory response and can induce disorders in multiple organs. The present study evaluated the potential protective effects of oleuropein (OLE) against hyperinflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis in mice. Sixty male Balb/c mice were randomly categorized into five groups of 12 animals each: control, intraperitoneally injected with OLE (50 mg/kg), injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and two groups administered OLE (25 and 50 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to LPS injection. Twenty-four hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, the animals were sacrificed. Serum, liver, and kidney tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses, histopathological examinations, and investigation of inflammation-related gene expression. OLE pretreatment significantly reduced liver damage parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase) and kidney damage parameters (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and kidney injury molecule-1) in the septic mice. OLE pretreatment ameliorated LPS-induced liver and kidney histological changes. OLE significantly mitigated the increased levels of malondialdehyde in the liver and kidneys and reduced levels of reduced glutathione induced by LPS. LPS injection also resulted in increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and inflammation-related genes (Nos2, Hmgb1, Mpo, Cd46, Map2k4, and Map2k7) in the hepatic and renal tissues. OLE reduced these expressions to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Moreover, OLE pretreatment enhanced the survival rate of septic mice. In conclusion, OLE alleviated the inflammatory response to protect against LPS-induced sepsis in mice.

9.
Metab Brain Dis ; 35(7): 1175-1187, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548708

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is an increasing metabolic disease worldwide associated with central nervous system disorders. Coffee is a widely consumed beverage that enriched with antioxidants with numerous medicinal applications. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of orally administered green coffee bean water extract (GCBWE) against cortical damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) followed by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Metformin (Met) was used as standard antidiabetic drug. Animals were allocated into six groups: control, GCBWE (100 mg/kg), HFD/STZ (40 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (50 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (100 mg/kg) and HFD/STZ + Met (200 mg/kg) which were treated daily for 28 days. Compared to control rats, HFD/STZ-treated rats showed decreased levels of cortical dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin with marked increases in their metabolites. Further, HFD/STZ treatment resulted in notable elevations in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and total nitrite levels paralleled with declines in antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GSH) and down-regulations of Sod2, Cat, GPx1 and Gsr gene expression. Neuroinflammation was evident in diabetic animals by marked elevations in TNF-α, IL-1ß and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Significant rises incaspase-3 and Bax with decline in Bcl-2 level were noticed in diabetic rats together with similar results in their gene expressions. Cortical histopathological examination supported the biochemical and molecular findings. GCBWE administration achieved noteworthy neuroprotection in diabetic animals in most assessed parameters. The overall results suggested that antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; anti-apoptotic activities of GCBWE restored the cortical neurochemistry in diabetic rats.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4981386, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566085

RESUMEN

Exposure to lead (Pb) causes multiorgan dysfunction including reproductive impairments. Here, we examined the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on testicular injury induced by lead acetate (PbAc) exposure in rats. This study employed four experimental groups (n = 7) that underwent seven days of treatment as follows: control group intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated with 0.1 ml of 0.9% NaCl containing 1% Tween 80 (v : v), CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg CoQ10, PbAc group that was i.p. treated with PbAc (20 mg/kg), and PbAc+CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with CoQ10 2 h after PbAc. PbAc injection resulted in increasing residual Pb levels in the testis and reducing testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Additionally, PbAc exposure resulted in significant oxidative damage to the tissues on the testes. PbAc raised the levels of prooxidants (malondialdehyde and nitric oxide) and reduced the amount of endogenous antioxidative proteins (glutathione and its derivative enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) available in the cell. Moreover, PbAc induced the inflammatory response as evidenced by the upregulation of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta). Further, PbAc treatment induced apoptosis in the testicular cells, as indicated by an increase in Bax and caspase 3 expression, and reduced Bcl2 expression. CoQ10 supplementation improved testicular function by inhibiting Pb accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and histopathological changes following PbAc exposure. Our findings suggest that CoQ10 can act as a natural therapeutic agent to protect against the reproductive impairments associated with PbAc exposure.

11.
IUBMB Life ; 72(8): 1787-1798, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478470

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is harmful to humans, especially male reproductive organs. Luteolin (LUT) is a naturally occurring flavonoid with numerous biological activities. Our aim was to investigate the possible reproprotective effect of LUT against testicular deficits induced by Pb intoxication. In the present study, 28 rats were distributed into 4 groups: control, LUT (50 mg/kg), lead acetate (PbAc, 20 mg/kg), and LUT + PbAc groups, in which rats were pre-treated with LUT 3 hr before PbAc injection. All animals were treated for 7 days. Oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers along with histopathological changes have been examined using spectrophotometric, ELISA, real-time PCR, and histopathological methods. PbAc injection elevated Pb concentration in testicular tissue and decreased levels of sex hormones. PbAc intoxication exacerbated lipoperoxidation and nitric oxide formation, depleted superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities along with glutathione and its originated enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase). At the molecular level, PbAc deactivated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the testicular tissue. In addition, PbAc toxicity induced inflammatory and apoptotic cascades in testicular tissue as evidenced by the increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Bax, and caspase 3, while Bcl-2 was declined. Histopathological examination of testicular tissue also revealed that PbAc caused degeneration alterations in spermatogenic cells, the spermatogenic epithelial cells were disconnected from the basement membrane, and the seminiferous tubules were vacuolated. Remarkably, pre-treatment with LUT minimized significantly the testicular damage induced by PbAc. Therefore, we conclude that LUT may have a beneficial effect against PbAc-induced testicular injury through preventing oxidative challenge, inflammation, and finally apoptosis.

12.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 8508906, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377166

RESUMEN

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the major organosulfur constituent in garlic, with a variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Here, we examined the potential antiedematous impact of DADS- versus carrageenan-mediated paw edema in mice. Carrageenan injection potentiated an inflammatory reaction as presented by the elevated serological C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Tnfα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß, Il1b), interleukin-2 (IL-2, Il2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, Ptgs2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, Ccl1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) was declined in the injured paw tissue. Additionally, carrageenan elevated lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased glutathione content (GSH). Remarkably, DADS was found to inhibit the inflammatory signaling, suppressed the developed oxidative damage, and protected the histopathological alterations in the inflamed paw tissue in response to carrageenan injection. Our findings suggest that DADS could be used as an alternative therapy used to alleviate the pathophysiological changes associated with the genesis of paw edema through its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant impacts.

13.
Front Physiol ; 11: 64, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116774

RESUMEN

The kidney is among the metabolic organs most susceptible to injury, particularly following exposure to xenobiotics and heavy metals. We aimed to explore the potential protective impacts of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Four experimental groups (n = 7) were applied as follows: control group, CoQ10 alone (10 mg/kg), PbAc alone (20 mg/kg), and PbAc with CoQ10. Exposure to PbAc led to the accumulation of Pb in the kidney and increased urea and creatinine serum levels. The deposition of Pb coupled with the elevation of malondialdehyde and nitrate/nitrite levels along with the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, upon PbAc poisoning, glutathione content and the antioxidant enzymes were depleted along with the downregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1 expression. Moreover, PbAc injection increased the protein and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines namely, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta, while decreased the levels of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in the kidney. Furthermore, exposure to PbAc correlated with increased levels of pro-apoptotic markers, Bax and caspase-3, and reduced levels of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2. The administration of CoQ10 alleviated the molecular, biochemical and histological changes following PbAc intoxication. Thus, CoQ10 reduces the deleterious cellular side effects of PbAc exposure due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

14.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(4): 2591-2603, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144527

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants affecting living organisms. It induces nephrotoxicity with significant alterations in renal structure and function. Luteolin (LUT) a flavonoid present in various plant products is well known for exhibiting numerous pharmacological properties. We evaluated the protective efficacy of LUT against Pb-induced renal injury in male Wistar rats. Four experimental groups: control, LUT (50 mg/kg, orally), PbAc (20 mg/kg, i.p.), LUT + PbAc (at the aforementioned doses) were maintained for 7 days. PbAc administration significantly increased renal Pb accumulation, urea, and creatinine levels in serum, and induced renal histological alterations. Additionally, compared to the control rats, PbAc-treated rats exhibited significantly low levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and expression (SOD, CAT, GPx and GR), as well as high MDA levels. Moreover, PbAc exposure downregulated Nfe212 and Homx1 mRNA expression and significantly increased inflammatory marker (TNF-α, IL-1ß and NO) levels in renal tissue. PbAc significantly upregulated the synthesis of apoptotic related proteins and downregulated antiapoptotic protein expression. Notably, LUT pretreatment of PbAc-treated rats provided significant nephroprotection and reversed the alterations in the abovementioned parameters. In conclusion, LUT provided significant protection against PbAc intoxication via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 3401-3412, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840221

RESUMEN

Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal toxicant, causing several adverse reactions to animals and humans including reproductive dysfunction. The potential protective role of Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract (ZSCLE) against testicular impairments associated with mercury chloride (HgCl2) exposure in rats was investigated in the current study. Four experimental groups were employed as follows (n = 7): group I served as control, group II was gavaged with ZSCLE (300 mg/kg), group III was administered with HgCl2 (0.4 mg/kg), and group IV was preadministered with ZSCLE 1 h before HgCl2. All groups were treated daily for 28 days. The exposure to HgCl2 caused a marked increase in Hg concentration in the testicular tissue, which was accompanied with a decrease in testis index. A reproductive impairment was recorded following HgCl2 exposure as verified through the decrease in levels of testosterone, luteinizing, and follicle-stimulating hormones. HgCl2 was found to enhance the development of oxidative damage in the testicular tissue as presented by the imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant molecules. In addition, excessive release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß was recorded in response to HgCl2 intoxication. Furthermore, a disturbance in the apoptotic proteins in favor of the pro-apoptotic proteins was also observed following HgCl2 intoxication. However, ZSCLE administration along with HgCl2 abolished significantly the molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations induced by HgCl2 intoxication. Our findings suggest that ZSCLE could be used to mitigate reproductive dysfunction associated with HgCl2 exposure.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Cloruro de Mercurio/toxicidad , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Ziziphus , Animales , Antioxidantes , Masculino , Mercurio , Estrés Oxidativo , Ratas , Testículo/efectos de los fármacos , Testículo/fisiología
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 5981-5992, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863371

RESUMEN

Senna alexandrina is traditionally used for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but little information is available concerning its potential protective effects against cadmium, which is a widespread environmental toxicant that causes hepatotoxicity. Here, we explored the effects of S. alexandrina extract (SAE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced liver toxicity over 4 weeks in rats. Rats were allocated into four groups: control, SAE (100 mg/kg), CdCl2 (0.6 mg/kg), and SAE + CdCl2, respectively. Cadmium level in hepatic tissue, blood transaminases, and total bilirubin as indicators of liver function were assessed. Oxidative stress indices [malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrate/nitrite (NO), and glutathione (GSH)], antioxidant molecules [superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT), glutathione-derived enzymes, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)], pro-inflammatory mediators [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)], apoptosis proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3), and histological alterations to the liver were examined. SAE administration before CdCl2 exposure decreased cadmium deposition in liver tissue and the blood liver function indicators. SAE pre-treatment prevented oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic reactions and decreased histological alterations to the liver caused by CdCl2 exposure. SAE can be used as a promising protective agent against CdCl2-induced hepatotoxicity by increasing Nrf2 expression. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Cloruro de Cadmio/toxicidad , Sustancias Peligrosas/toxicidad , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Extracto de Senna/farmacología , Senna (Planta) , Animales , Antioxidantes , Apoptosis , Cadmio , Suplementos Dietéticos , Hígado , Estrés Oxidativo , Ratas , Senósidos , Superóxido Dismutasa
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(4): 3979-3991, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823260

RESUMEN

The goal of our investigation is to evaluate the potential protective efficacy of red beetroot extract (RBR) against testicular toxicity produced by CPF in rats. CPF exposure decreased the weight of testis and the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone. CPF impaired also the oxidative status in favor of pro-oxidant molecules in the testicular tissue. Additionally, CPF stimulated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their gene expression. Concomitantly, an apoptotic cascade has been observed upon CPF intoxication. However, RBR administration protected the testis tissue through modulating the hormonal level, inhibiting the oxidative damage, inflammation and the apoptotic responses following CPF intoxication. The obtained data recommend the use of RBR to prevent CPF-induced testicular damage via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic pathways.


Asunto(s)
Beta vulgaris/química , Cloropirifos , Insecticidas , Extractos Vegetales/química , Raíces de Plantas/química , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Cloropirifos/toxicidad , Inflamación , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas
18.
Neurotox Res ; 37(1): 77-92, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332714

RESUMEN

Systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is commonly used to induce Huntington's disease (HD)-like symptoms in experimental animals. Here, the potential neuroprotective efficiency of rutin and selenium (RSe) co-administration on 3-NPA-induced HD-like symptoms model in mice was investigated. 3-NPA injection evoked severe alterations in redox status, as indicated via increased striatal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, accompanied by a decrease in levels of antioxidant molecules including glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Moreover, 3-NPA potentiated inflammatory status by enhancing the production of interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase activity. Pro-apoptotic cascade was also recorded in the striatum as evidenced through upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, and downregulation of Bcl-2. 3-NPA activated astrocytes as indicated by the upregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein and inhibited brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Furthermore, perturbations in cholinergic and monoaminergic systems were observed. RSe provided neuroprotective effects by preventing body weight loss, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the apoptotic cascade. RSe inhibited the activation of astrocytes, increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and improved cholinergic and monoaminergic transmission following 3-NPA intoxication. Taken together, RSe co-administration may prevent or delay the progression of HD and its associated impairments through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuromodulatory effects.

19.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(1)2019 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877779

RESUMEN

The abundant use of lead (Pb; toxic heavy metal) worldwide has increased occupational and ecosystem exposure, with subsequent negative health effects. The flavonoid luteolin (LUT) found in many natural foodstuffs possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we hypothesized that LUT could mitigate liver damage induced by exposure to lead acetate (PbAc). Male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups: control group received normal saline, LUT-treated group (50 mg/kg, oral, daily), PbAc-treated group (20 mg/kg, i.p., daily), and LUT+PbAc-treated group (received the aforementioned doses via the respective routes of administration); the rats were treated for 7 days. The results revealed that PbAc exposure significantly increased hepatic Pb residue and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin value. Oxidative reactions were observed in the liver tissue following PbAc intoxication, characterized by the depletion and downregulation of antioxidant proteins (glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, and heme oxygenase-1), and an increase in oxidants (malondialdehyde and nitric oxide). Additionally, PbAc increased the release and expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor kappa B. Moreover, PbAc enhanced hepatocyte loss by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) and downregulating the anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). The changes in the aforementioned parameters were further confirmed by noticeable histopathological lesions. LUT supplementation significantly reversed all of the tested parameters in comparison with the PbAc-exposed group. In conclusion, our findings describe the potential mechanisms involved in the alleviation of PbAc-induced liver injury by luteolin via its potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties.

20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412628

RESUMEN

Heavy metal exposure, in lead (Pb) particularly, is associated with severe neuronal impairment though oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species, and antioxidants may be used to abolish these adverse effects. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against lead acetate (PbAc)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were divided into four equal groups (n = 7) and treated as follows: the control group was injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl); the CoQ10 group was injected with CoQ10 (10 mg/kg); PbAc group was injected with PbAc (20 mg/kg); PbAc + CoQ10 group was injected first with PbAc, and after 1 h with CoQ10. All groups were injected intraperitoneally for seven days. PbAc significantly increased cortical lipid peroxidation, nitrate/nitrite levels, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and decreased glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activity and mRNA expression, as well as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and homoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. PbAc also promoted the secretion of interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α, inhibited interleukin-10 production, triggered the activation of pro-apoptotic proteins, and suppressed anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, PbAc increased the cortical levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glutamate, and decreased the level of ATP. However, treatment with CoQ10 rescued cortical neurons from PbAc-induced neurotoxicity by restoring the balance between oxidants and antioxidants, activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, suppressing inflammation, inhibiting the apoptotic cascade, and modulating cortical neurotransmission and energy metabolism. Altogether, our findings indicate that CoQ10 has beneficial effects against PbAc-induced neuronal damage through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuromodulatory activities.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Intoxicación del Sistema Nervioso por Plomo/tratamiento farmacológico , Compuestos Organometálicos/efectos adversos , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Intoxicación del Sistema Nervioso por Plomo/patología , Masculino , Compuestos Organometálicos/administración & dosificación , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Ubiquinona/farmacología
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