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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624935

RESUMEN

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors, originating before the age of 18 years. However, the genetic etiologies of ID are still incompletely elucidated due to the wide range of clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been applied as a single-step clinical diagnostic tool for ID because it detects genetic variations with a wide range of resolution from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to structural variants (SVs). To explore the causative genes for ID, we employed WGS in 45 patients from 44 unrelated Japanese families and performed a stepwise screening approach focusing on the coding variants in the genes. Here, we report 12 pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants: seven heterozygous variants of ADNP, SATB2, ANKRD11, PTEN, TCF4, SPAST, and KCNA2, three hemizygous variants of SMS, SLC6A8, and IQSEC2, and one homozygous variant in AGTPBP1. Of these, four were considered novel. Furthermore, a novel 76 kb deletion containing exons 1 and 2 in DYRK1A was identified. We confirmed the clinical and genetic heterogeneity and high frequency of de novo causative variants (8/12, 66.7%). This is the first report of WGS analysis in Japanese patients with ID. Our results would provide insight into the correlation between novel variants and expanded phenotypes of the disease.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607654

RESUMEN

Post-translational modification of a protein with glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a conserved mechanism exists in all eukaryotes. Thus far, more than 150 human GPI anchored proteins have been discovered and about 30 enzymes have been reported to be involved in the biosynthesis and maturation of mammalian GPI. Phosphatidylinositol glycan biosynthesis class A protein (PIGA) catalyzes the very first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis. Patients carrying a mutation of the PIGA gene usually suffer from inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency (IGD) with intractable epilepsy and intellectual developmental disorder. We generated three mouse models with PIGA deficits specifically in telencephalon excitatory neurons (Ex-M-cko), inhibitory neurons (In-M-cko), or thalamic neurons (Th-H-cko), respectively. Both Ex-M-cko and In-M-cko mice showed impaired long-term fear memory and were more susceptible to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. In addition, In-M-cko demonstrated a severe limb-clasping phenotype. Hippocampal synapse changes were observed in Ex-M-cko mice. Our Piga conditional knockout mouse models provide powerful tools to understand the cell-type specific mechanisms underlying inherited GPI deficiency and to test different therapeutic modalities.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506645

RESUMEN

Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 3 (CDCBM3) is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by Kinesin family Member 2A (KIF2A) gene mutation. Patients with CDCBM3 exhibit posterior dominant agyria/pachygyria with severe motor dysfunction. Here, we report an 8-year-old boy with CDCBM3 showing a typical, but relatively mild, clinical presentation of CDCBM3 features. Whole-exome sequencing identified a heterozygous mutation of NM_001098511.2:c.1298C>A [p.(Ser433Tyr)]. To our knowledge, the mutation has never been reported previously. The variant was located distal to the nucleotide binding domain (NBD), in which previously-reported variants in CDCBM3 patients have been located. The computational structural analysis showed the p.433 forms the pocket with NBD. Variants in KIF2A have been reported in the NBD for CDCBM3, in the kinesin motor 3 domain, but not in the NBD in epilepsy, and outside of the kinesin motor domain in autism spectrum syndrome, respectively. Our patient has a variant, that is not in the NBD but at the pocket with the NBD, resulting in a clinical features of CDCBM3 with mild symptoms. The clinical findings of patients with KIF2A variants appear restricted to the central nervous system and facial anomalies. We can call this spectrum "KIF2A syndrome" with variable severity.

4.
J Neuroimmunol ; 352: 577475, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454554

RESUMEN

In this study, we assessed circulating immune cells and plasma cytokine levels in 15 pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). DRE patients had a significantly higher percentage of CD14+ monocytes positive for IL-1ß, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, and TNF-α than controls. Significantly higher intracellular levels of IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells and NK cells were also found in DRE patients. The level of IL-1ß+ CD14+ monocytes correlated with seizure frequency, and intracellular levels of IFN-γ in NKT-like cells were negatively correlated with the duration of epilepsy. Peripheral immune cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of DRE.

5.
Brain Dev ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436160

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Patients with pathogenic cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5 gene (CDKL5) variants are designated CDKL5 deficiency disorder (CDD). This study aimed to delineate the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with CDD and elucidate possible appropriate treatments. METHODS: We recruited patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic CDKL5 variants from a cohort of approximately 1,100 Japanese patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies, who underwent genetic analysis. We retrospectively reviewed clinical, electroencephalogram, neuroimaging, and genetic information. RESULTS: We identified 29 patients (21 females, eight males). All patients showed severe developmental delay, especially in males. Involuntary movements were observed in 15 patients. No antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) achieved seizure freedom by monotherapy. AEDs achieving ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency were sodium valproate in two patients, vigabatrin in one, and lamotrigine in one. Seizure aggravation was observed during the use of lamotrigine, potassium bromide, and levetiracetam. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) was the most effective treatment. The ketogenic diet (KD), corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation did not improve seizure frequency in most patients, but KD was remarkably effective in one. The degree of brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reflected disease severity. Compared with females, males had lower levels of attained motor development and more severe cerebral atrophy on MRI. CONCLUSION: Our patients showed more severe global developmental delay than those in previous studies and had intractable epilepsy, likely because previous studies had lower numbers of males. Further studies are needed to investigate appropriate therapy for CDD, such as AED polytherapy or combination treatment involving ACTH, KD, and AEDs.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 346-356, 2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513338

RESUMEN

Whereas large-scale statistical analyses can robustly identify disease-gene relationships, they do not accurately capture genotype-phenotype correlations or disease mechanisms. We use multiple lines of independent evidence to show that different variant types in a single gene, SATB1, cause clinically overlapping but distinct neurodevelopmental disorders. Clinical evaluation of 42 individuals carrying SATB1 variants identified overt genotype-phenotype relationships, associated with different pathophysiological mechanisms, established by functional assays. Missense variants in the CUT1 and CUT2 DNA-binding domains result in stronger chromatin binding, increased transcriptional repression, and a severe phenotype. In contrast, variants predicted to result in haploinsufficiency are associated with a milder clinical presentation. A similarly mild phenotype is observed for individuals with premature protein truncating variants that escape nonsense-mediated decay, which are transcriptionally active but mislocalized in the cell. Our results suggest that in-depth mutation-specific genotype-phenotype studies are essential to capture full disease complexity and to explain phenotypic variability.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Unión a la Región de Fijación a la Matriz/genética , Mutación , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Haploinsuficiencia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Unión a la Región de Fijación a la Matriz/química , Proteínas de Unión a la Región de Fijación a la Matriz/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutación Missense , Unión Proteica , Dominios Proteicos , Transcripción Genética
7.
Hum Genome Var ; 7(1): 43, 2020 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298907

RESUMEN

Pathogenic FLNA variants can be identified in patients with seizures accompanied by periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). It is unusual to find FLNA aberrations in epileptic patients without PVNH on brain imaging. We report a boy with cryptogenic West syndrome followed by refractory seizures and psychomotor delay. We performed whole-exome sequencing and identified a de novo missense variant in FLNA. It is noteworthy that this patient showed no PVNH. As no other pathogenic variants were found in epilepsy-related genes, this FLNA variant likely caused West syndrome but with no PVNH.

8.
Brain Dev ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229101

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare disorder caused by the mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p, and is characterized by facial dysmorphism, developmental delay, hypotonia and seizures. RESULTS: We report a patient with PKS showing unique polymicrogyria with calcification. He had delayed development and dysmorphic facial features including frontal bossing, hypertelorism, and high arched palate at 6 months of age. Neuroimaging revealed unilateral polymicrogyria with spot calcifications, which predominantly affected the right perisylvian region. Chromosome G-banding showed the karyotype 46,XY, however, array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed mosaic duplication of chromosome 12p, in which CCND2, which encodes cyclin D2 and is a downstream mediator of PI3K-AKT pathway, is located. Supernumerary chromosome of 12p was detected in 58% of buccal mucosa cells by the interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using chromosome 12 centromere-specific D12Z3 probe. The diagnosis of PKS was made based on distinctive clinical features of our patient and the results of cytogenetic analyses. CONCLUSION: This report is, to our knowledge, the first case of a patient with PKS who clearly demonstrates polymicrogyria colocalized with calcifications, as shown by CT scans and MRI, and suggests that a patient with PKS could show structural brain anomalies with calcification. We assume that somatic mosaicism of tetrasomy could cause asymmetrical polymicrogyria in our patient, and speculate that increased dosages of CCND2 at chromosome 12p might be involved in the abnormal neuronal migration in PKS.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131106

RESUMEN

We report heterozygous CELF2 (NM_006561.3) variants in five unrelated individuals: Individuals 1-4 exhibited developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) and Individual 5 had intellectual disability and autistic features. CELF2 encodes a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling RNA-binding protein that has multiple roles in RNA processing and is involved in the embryonic development of the central nervous system and heart. Whole-exome sequencing identified the following CELF2 variants: two missense variants [c.1558C>T:p.(Pro520Ser) in unrelated Individuals 1 and 2, and c.1516C>G:p.(Arg506Gly) in Individual 3], one frameshift variant in Individual 4 that removed the last amino acid of CELF2 c.1562dup:p.(Tyr521Ter), possibly resulting in escape from nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), and one canonical splice site variant, c.272-1G>C in Individual 5, also probably leading to NMD. The identified variants in Individuals 1, 2, 4, and 5 were de novo, while the variant in Individual 3 was inherited from her mosaic mother. Notably, all identified variants, except for c.272-1G>C, were clustered within 20 amino acid residues of the C-terminus, which might be a nuclear localization signal. We demonstrated the extranuclear mislocalization of mutant CELF2 protein in cells transfected with mutant CELF2 complementary DNA plasmids. Our findings indicate that CELF2 variants that disrupt its nuclear localization are associated with DEE.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131168

RESUMEN

Many algorithms to detect copy number variations (CNVs) using exome sequencing (ES) data have been reported and evaluated on their sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, and precision. However, operational optimization of such algorithms for a better performance has not been fully addressed. ES of 1199 samples including 763 patients with different disease profiles was performed. ES data were analyzed to detect CNVs by both the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) and modified Nord's method. To efficiently detect rare CNVs, we aimed to decrease sequencing biases by analyzing, at the same time, the data of all unrelated samples sequenced in the same flow cell as a batch, and to eliminate sex effects of X-linked CNVs by analyzing female and male sequences separately. We also applied several filtering steps for more efficient CNV selection. The average number of CNVs detected in one sample was <5. This optimization together with targeted CNV analysis by Nord's method identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs in 34 patients (4.5%, 34/763). In particular, among 142 patients with epilepsy, the current protocol detected clinically relevant CNVs in 19 (13.4%) patients, whereas the previous protocol identified them in only 14 (9.9%) patients. Thus, this batch-based XHMM analysis efficiently selected rare pathogenic CNVs in genetic diseases.

12.
Brain Dev ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243487

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that two PACS2 pathogenic variants, c.625G > A (p.Glu209Lys) and c.631G > A (p.Glu211Lys), have been causally linked to the characteristic developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, including autistic behaviors, hypotonia, cerebellar dysgenesis and facial dysmorphism. Their seizures appear most difficult to control in neonatal and infant period, but improve after the first year of life. We herein report three patients with the same PACS2 variant, c.625G > A (p.Glu209Lys), showing different characteristics from previous reports. CASE REPORT: Case 1, a 2-year-old girl, developed frequent tonic convulsions 2 weeks after birth. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a decrease in posterior periventricular white matter volume, an enlargement of the inferior horn of lateral ventricles and old subependymal hemorrhage. Epilepsy is now controlled with antiepileptic drugs. Case 2, a 12-year-old girl, developed generalized tonic convulsions 3 days after birth. Although epilepsy had been controlled since the age of 4, she developed Lennox-Gastaut syndrome at 9 years old. Case 3, a 3-year-old girl, developed tonic convulsions 3 days after birth. She now exhibits normal psychomotor development, and epilepsy is controlled without medicine. CONCLUSION: PACS2-related epileptic syndrome presents variable phenotypes than previously reported. We think that our findings expand the clinical spectrum of this disease, and provide important information about the differential diagnosis of neonatal-onset epileptic syndrome.

13.
Plant Pathol J ; 36(5): 509-514, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082736

RESUMEN

Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV) seriously damages citrus production by reducing the quality and yield of fruit. To avoid contamination with SDV, mother trees are checked to be SDV-free in advance of nursery tree distribution. In this study, we compared an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) kit with double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DASELISA) for large-scale diagnosis of SDV in orchardgrown trees in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The two methods gave conflicting results for 11 of 1,705 samples, all of which were negative by DAS-ELISA but positive by ICA. The samples scored as positive by either DASELISA or ICA were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and all were confirmed to be positive. These results validate the use of ICA as a screening method for large-scale diagnosis. Strain discrimination revealed that 16 of 22 isolates belonged to SDV, while citrus mosaic virus (CiMV) infection only and co-infection (SDV and CiMV) were in a minority.

14.
Epilepsia Open ; 5(3): 442-450, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913952

RESUMEN

Objective: To elucidate the genetic background and genotype-phenotype correlations for epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, also known as myoclonic-astatic epilepsy (MAE) or Doose syndrome. Methods: We collected clinical information and blood samples from 29 patients with MAE. We performed whole-exome sequencing for all except one MAE case in whom custom capture sequencing identified a variant. Results: We newly identified four variants: SLC6A1 and HNRNPU missense variants and microdeletions at 2q24.2 involving SCN1A and Xp22.31 involving STS. Febrile seizures preceded epileptic or afebrile seizures in four patients, of which two patients had gene variants. Myoclonic-atonic seizures occurred at onset in four patients, of which two had variants, and during the course of disease in three patients. Variants were more commonly identified in patients with a developmental delay or intellectual disability (DD/ID), but genetic status was not associated with the severity of DD/ID. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder were less frequently observed in patients with variants than in those with unknown etiology. Significance: MAE patients had genetic heterogeneity, and HNRNPU and STS emerged as possible candidate causative genes. Febrile seizures prior to epileptic seizures and myoclonic-atonic seizure at onset indicate a genetic predisposition to MAE. Comorbid conditions were not related to genetic predisposition to MAE.

15.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732225

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Variants in the type IV collagen gene (COL4A1/2) cause early-onset cerebrovascular diseases. Most individuals are diagnosed postnatally, and the prenatal features of individuals with COL4A1/2 variants remain unclear. METHODS: We examined COL4A1/2 in 218 individuals with suspected COL4A1/2-related brain defects. Among those arising from COL4A1/2 variants, we focused on individuals showing prenatal abnormal ultrasound findings and validated their prenatal and postnatal clinical features in detail. RESULTS: Pathogenic COL4A1/2 variants were detected in 56 individuals (n=56/218, 25.7%) showing porencephaly (n=29), schizencephaly (n=12) and others (n=15). Thirty-four variants occurred de novo (n=34/56, 60.7%). Foetal information was available in 47 of 56 individuals, 32 of whom (n=32/47, 68.1%) had one or more foetal abnormalities. The median gestational age at the detection of initial prenatal abnormal features was 31 weeks of gestation. Only 14 individuals had specific prenatal findings that were strongly suggestive of features associated with COL4A1/2 variants. Foetal ventriculomegaly was the most common initial feature (n=20/32, 62.5%). Posterior fossa abnormalities, including Dandy-Walker malformation, were observed prenatally in four individuals. Regarding extrabrain features, foetal growth restriction was present in 16 individuals, including eight individuals with comorbid ventriculomegaly. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal observation of ventriculomegaly with comorbid foetal growth restriction should prompt a thorough ultrasound examination and COL4A1/2 gene testing should be considered when pathogenic variants are strongly suspected.

16.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(5): 1121-1130, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369189

RESUMEN

Aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD) is a rare, autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired synthesis of dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and serotonin, leading to a complex syndrome of motor, behavioral, and autonomic symptoms. This retrospective study assessed the symptoms and developmental outcome of a large international cohort of patients with AADCD via physician and/or caregiver responses to a detailed, standardized questionnaire. Sixty-three patients (60% female; ages 6 months-36 years, median 7 years; 58 living) from 23 individual countries participated. Common symptoms at onset (median age 3 months, range 0-12 months) were hypotonia, developmental delay, and/or oculogyric crises. Oculogyric crises were present in 97% of patients aged 2 to 12 years, occurred in the majority of patients in all age groups, and tended to be most severe during early childhood. Prominent non-motor symptoms were sleep disturbance, irritable mood, and feeding difficulties. The majority of subjects (70%) had profound motor impairment characterized by absent head control and minimal voluntary movement, while 17% had mild motor impairment and were able to walk independently. Dopamine agonists were the medications most likely to produce some symptomatic benefit, but were associated with dose-limiting side effects (dyskinesia, insomnia, irritability, vomiting) that led to discontinuation 25% of the time. The age distribution of our cohort (70% of subjects under age 13 years) and the observation of a greater proportion of patients with a more severe disease phenotype in the younger compared to the older patients, both suggest a significant mortality risk during childhood for patients with severe disease.

17.
J Hum Genet ; 65(9): 727-734, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341456

RESUMEN

The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the principal system for protein degradation mediated by ubiquitination and is involved in various cellular processes. Cullin-RING ligases (CRL) are one class of E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate polyubiquitination of specific target proteins, leading to decomposition of the substrate. Cullin 3 (CUL3) is a member of the Cullin family proteins, which act as scaffolds of CRL. Here we describe three cases of global developmental delays, with or without epilepsy, who had de novo CUL3 variants. One missense variant c.854T>C, p.(Val285Ala) and two frameshift variants c.137delG, p.(Arg46Leufs*32) and c.1239del, p.(Asp413Glufs*42) were identified by whole-exome sequencing. The Val285 residue located in the Cullin N-terminal domain and p.Val285Ala CUL3 mutant showed significantly weaker interactions to the BTB domain proteins than wild-type CUL3. Our findings suggest that de novo CUL3 variants may cause structural instability of the CRL complex and impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, leading to diverse neuropsychiatric disorders.

19.
Brain Dev ; 42(2): 199-204, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735425

RESUMEN

We report the first three Japanese patients with missense variants in the GNB1 gene. Patients exhibited severe dyskinetic quadriplegia with cortical blindness and epileptic spasms, West syndrome (but with good outcomes), and hypotonic quadriplegia that later developed into spastic diplegia. Whole-exome sequencing revealed two recurrent GNB1 variants (p.Leu95Pro and p.Ile80Thr) and one novel variant (p.Ser74Leu). A recent investigation revealed large numbers of patients with GNB1 variants. Functional studies of such variants and genotype-phenotype correlation are required to enable future precision medicine.


Asunto(s)
Parálisis Cerebral/genética , Subunidades beta de la Proteína de Unión al GTP/genética , Espasmos Infantiles/genética , Niño , Preescolar , Discinesias/genética , Femenino , Subunidades beta de la Proteína de Unión al GTP/metabolismo , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Japón , Masculino , Mutación , Fenotipo , Cuadriplejía/genética , Secuenciación del Exoma Completo
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 13-25, 2020 01 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839203

RESUMEN

MN1 was originally identified as a tumor-suppressor gene. Knockout mouse studies have suggested that Mn1 is associated with craniofacial development. However, no MN1-related phenotypes have been established in humans. Here, we report on three individuals who have de novo MN1 variants that lead to a protein lacking the carboxyl (C) terminus and who presented with severe developmental delay, craniofacial abnormalities with specific facial features, and structural abnormalities in the brain. An in vitro study revealed that the deletion of the C-terminal region led to increased protein stability, an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, and enhanced MN1 aggregation in nuclei compared to what occurred in the wild type, suggesting that a gain-of-function mechanism is involved in this disease. Considering that C-terminal deletion increases the fraction of intrinsically disordered regions of MN1, it is possible that altered phase separation could be involved in the mechanism underlying the disease. Our data indicate that MN1 participates in transcriptional regulation of target genes through interaction with the transcription factors PBX1, PKNOX1, and ZBTB24 and that mutant MN1 impairs the binding with ZBTB24 and RING1, which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. On the basis of our findings, we propose the model that C-terminal deletion interferes with MN1's interaction molecules related to the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway, including RING1, and increases the amount of the mutant protein; this increase leads to the dysregulation of MN1 target genes by inhibiting rapid MN1 protein turnover.


Asunto(s)
Encefalopatías/etiología , Anomalías Craneofaciales/etiología , Mutación con Ganancia de Función , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Eliminación de Secuencia , Transactivadores/genética , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Encefalopatías/patología , Proliferación Celular , Niño , Preescolar , Anomalías Craneofaciales/patología , Femenino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Masculino , Proteolisis , Síndrome , Transactivadores/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Supresoras de Tumor/metabolismo
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