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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 833: 155207, 2022 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421472

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to the adverse health effects of air pollution, researchers have advocated for personal exposure measurements whereby individuals carry portable monitors in order to better characterise and understand the sources of people's pollution exposure. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to assess the differences in the magnitude and sources of personal PM2.5 exposures experienced between countries at contrasting levels of income. METHODS: This review summarised studies that measured participants personal exposure by carrying a PM2.5 monitor throughout their typical day. Personal PM2.5 exposures were summarised to indicate the distribution of exposures measured within each country income category (based on low (LIC), lower-middle (LMIC), upper-middle (UMIC), and high (HIC) income countries) and between different groups (i.e. gender, age, urban or rural residents). RESULTS: From the 2259 search results, there were 140 studies that met our criteria. Overall, personal PM2.5 exposures in HICs were lower compared to other countries, with UMICs exposures being slightly lower than exposures measured in LMICs or LICs. 34% of measured groups in HICs reported below the ambient World Health Organisation 24-h PM2.5 guideline of 15 µg/m3, compared to only 1% of UMICs and 0% of LMICs and LICs. There was no difference between rural and urban participant exposures in HICs, but there were noticeably higher exposures recorded in rural areas compared to urban areas in non-HICs, due to significant household sources of PM2.5 in rural locations. In HICs, studies reported that secondhand smoke, ambient pollution infiltrating indoors, and traffic emissions were the dominant contributors to personal exposures. While, in non-HICs, household cooking and heating with biomass and coal were reported as the most important sources. CONCLUSION: This review revealed a growing literature of personal PM2.5 exposure studies, which highlighted a large variability in exposures recorded and severe inequalities in geographical and social population subgroups.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264803, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259180

RESUMEN

Traffic is one of the major contributors to PM2.5 in cities worldwide. Quantifying the role of traffic is an important step towards understanding the impact of transport policies on the possibilities to achieve cleaner air and accompanying health benefits. With the aim of estimating potential health benefits of eliminating traffic emissions, we carried out a meta-analysis using the World Health Organisation (WHO) database of source apportionment studies of PM2.5 concentrations. Specifically, we used a Bayesian meta-regression approach, modelling both overall and traffic-related (tailpipe and non-tailpipe) concentrations simultaneously. We obtained the distributions of expected PM2.5 concentrations (posterior densities) of different types for 117 cities worldwide. Using the non-linear Integrated Exposure Response (IER) function of PM2.5, we estimated percent reduction in different disease endpoints for a scenario with complete removal of traffic emissions. We found that eliminating traffic emissions results in achieving the WHO-recommended concentration of PM2.5 only for a handful of cities that already have low concentrations of pollution. The percentage reduction in premature mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases increases up to a point (30-40 ug/m3), and above this concentration, it flattens off. For diabetes-related mortality, the percentage reduction in mortality decreases with increasing concentrations-a trend that is opposite to other outcomes. For cities with high concentrations of pollution, the results highlight the need for multi-sectoral strategies to reduce pollution. The IER functions of PM2.5 result in diminishing returns of health benefits at high concentrations, and in case of diabetes, there are even negative returns. The results show the significant effect of the shape of IER functions on health benefits. Overall, despite the diminishing results, a significant burden of deaths can be prevented by policies that aim to reduce traffic emissions even at high concentrations of pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Teorema de Bayes , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/prevención & control
3.
Environ Int ; 162: 107152, 2022 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231840

RESUMEN

We report on the concentration ranges and combustion source-related emission profiles of organic and inorganic species released during 34 major industrial fires in the UK. These episodic events tend to be acute in nature and demand a rapid public health risk assessment to indicate the likely impact on exposed populations. The objective of this paper is to improve our understanding of the nature, composition and potential health impacts of emissions from major incident fires and so support the risk assessment process. Real world monitoring data was obtained from portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) monitoring (Gasmet DX-4030/40) carried out as part of the UK's Air Quality in Major Incidents service. The measured substances include carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzene, acrolein, phosgene, arsine, phosphine and methyl isocyanate. We evaluate the reported concentrations against Acute Exposure Guideline Values (AEGLs) and Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs), as well as against UK, EU and WHO short-term ambient guideline values. Most exceedances of AEGL or ERPG guideline values were at levels likely only to cause discomfort to exposed populations (hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride and formaldehyde), though for several substances the exceedances could have potentially given rise to more serious health effects (acrolein, phosphine, phosgene and methyl isocyanate). In the latter cases, the observed high concentrations are likely to be due to cross-interference from other substances that absorb in the mid-range of the infrared spectrum, particularly when the ground level plume is very concentrated.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Incendios , Fosgeno , Acroleína , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Benceno/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Formaldehído , Humanos , Ácido Clorhídrico , Hidrógeno
4.
J Card Fail ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence suggests a strong link between exposure to air pollution and heart failure incidence, hospitalizations, and mortality, but the biological basis of this remains unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between differential air pollution levels and changes in cardiac structure and function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study of patients in England with dilated cardiomyopathy (enrollment 2009-2015, n = 716, 66% male, 85% Caucasian) and conducted cross sectional analysis at the time of study enrollment. Annual average air pollution exposure estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) at enrolment were assigned to each residential postcode (on average 12 households). The relationship between air pollution and cardiac morphology was assessed using linear regression modelling. Greater ambient exposure to NO2 was associated with higher indexed left ventricular (LV) mass (4.3 g/m2 increase per interquartile range increase in NO2, 95% confidence interval 1.9-7.0 g/m2) and lower LV ejection fraction (-1.5% decrease per interquartile range increase in NO2, 95% confidence interval -2.7% to -0.2%), independent of age, sex, socioeconomic status, and clinical covariates. The associations were robust to adjustment for smoking status and geographical clustering by postcode area. The effect of air pollution on LV mass was greatest in women. These effects were specific to NO2 exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to air pollution is associated with raised LV mass and lower LV ejection fraction, with the strongest effect in women. Although epidemiological associations between air pollution and heart failure have been established and supported by preclinical studies, our findings provide novel empirical evidence of cardiac remodeling and exposure to air pollution with important clinical and public health implications.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 293: 118432, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742819

RESUMEN

Pontardawe in South Wales, United Kingdom (UK), consistently has the highest concentrations of nickel (Ni) in PM10 in the UK and repeatedly breaches the 20 ng m-3 annual mean EU target value. Several local industries use Ni in their processes. To assist policy makers and regulators in quantifying the relative Ni contributions of these industries and developing appropriate emission reduction approaches, the hourly concentrations of 23 elements were measured using X-ray fluorescence alongside meteorological variables and black carbon during a four-week campaign in November-December 2015. Concentrations of Ni ranged between 0 and 2480 ng m-3 as hourly means. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to identify sources contributing to measured elements. Cluster analysis of bivariate polar plots of those factors containing Ni in their profile was further used to quantify the industrial processes contributing to ambient PM10 concentrations. Two sources were identified to contribute to Ni concentrations, stainless-steel (which contributed to 10% of the Ni burden) and the Ni refinery (contributing 90%). From the stainless-steel process, melting activities were responsible for 66% of the stainless-steel factor contribution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Industrias , Níquel , Material Particulado/análisis
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 3): 150984, 2022 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656573

RESUMEN

This study examines for the first time the characteristics and human exposure of microplastics (MPs) in settled indoor dust in schools. An average of 195 MPs·g-1 of dust were detected in settled indoor composite dust samples from 28 schools in Shiraz. White-transparent microfibres with lengths 500-1000 µm were the most abundant type of MP found among the samples examined. Polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene MPs were dominant across all types of MP found including microfibres. MPs had generally smooth morphology with sharp or regular edges which could have been released to the environment as primary MPs. Among all sampling sites, higher concentrations of MPs were found in the south and centre of the city. These were areas affected by high population density, high traffic load and high presence of industrial units and workshops. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed a positive strong correlation between sampling sites and MP physical characteristics. The PCA plots revealed that MP sheets and fragments were prevalent in sites in the North of Shiraz, whereas microfibres were mainly associated with sites in the South. The levels of MPs in the South of Shiraz were greater than in the rest of the country and the wind direction and topography were found to be important factors affecting the MP distribution observed. Compared to other population groups, elementary school students had relatively high exposure risk to MPs. This study reveals that microfibres are widespread in Shiraz' schools and pose a high exposure risk to MPs for young students.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polvo , Humanos , Tereftalatos Polietilenos , Instituciones Académicas
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 4): 150745, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656602

RESUMEN

The use of plastics is common across all aspects of human life owing to its durable and versatile nature. The generation and utilization of plastics are directly related to the anthropogenic activities. The extensive use of plastics and adoption of inappropriate waste-management frameworks has resulted in their release into the environment, where they may persist. Different environmental factors, such as, photochemical, thermo-oxidation, and biological degradation, can lead to the degradation of plastics into micro- (MPs) and nano-plastics (NPs). The behaviour and concentration of MPs in the terrestrial environment can depend on their size, density, and local atmospheric conditions. Microplastics and nanoplastics may enter the food web, carrying various organic pollutants, which bio-accumulate at different trophic levels, prompting organism health concerns. Microplastics being airborne identifies as new exposure route. Dietary and airborne exposure to MPs has led researchers to stress the importance of evaluating their toxicological potential. The primary goal of this paper is to explore the environmental fate of MPs from sources to sink in the terrestrial environment, as well as detail their potential impacts on human health. Additionally, this review article focuses on the presence of airborne microplastics, detailed sample pre-processing methods, and outlines analytical methods for their characterization.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Atmósfera , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
8.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e588-e598, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of landscape fires has increased, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the impact of exposure to landscape fire smoke (LFS) on the health of children. METHODS: We conducted a sibling-matched case-control study and selected 552 155 children (aged <18 years) from Demographic and Health Surveys in 55 LMICs from 2000 to 2014. Each deceased child was matched with their sibling(s). The exposure indicators were fire-sourced PM2·5 and dry-matter emissions. We associated these exposure indicators with child mortality using conditional regressions, and derived an exposure-response function using a non-linear model. Based on the association, we quantified the global burden of fire-attributable child deaths in LMICs from 2000 to 2014. FINDINGS: Each 1 µg/m3 increment of fire-sourced PM2·5 was associated with a 2·31% (95% CI 1·50-3·13) increased risk of child mortality. The association was robust to different models. The exposure-response function was superlinear and suggested per-unit exposure to larger fires was more toxic. Based on our non-linear exposure-response function, we estimated that between 2000 and 2014, the five countries with the largest number of child deaths associated with fire-sourced PM2·5 were Nigeria (164 000 [126 000 to 209 000] annual deaths), Democratic Republic of the Congo (126 000 [95% CI 114 000 to 139 000] annual deaths), India (65 900 [-22 200 to 147 000] annual deaths), Uganda (30 200 [24 500 to 36 300] annual deaths), and Indonesia (28 900 [19 100 to 38 400]). INTERPRETATION: Exposure to landscape fire smoke contributes substantially to the global burden of child mortality. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Ministry of Science and Technology of China, Peking University, UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit, Leverhulme Center for Wildfires, Environment and Society, and National Environment Research Council National Capability funding to National Centre for Earth Observation and Energy Foundation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Países en Desarrollo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Mortalidad del Niño , Humanos , Humo/efectos adversos
9.
Environ Int ; 157: 106790, 2021 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333291

RESUMEN

Desertification and climate change indicate a future expansion of the global area of dry land and an increase in the risk of drought. Humans may therefore be at an ever-increasing risk of frequent exposure to, and resultant adverse health effects of desert sand dust. This review appraises a total of 52 experimental studies that have sought to identify mechanisms and intermediate endpoints underlying epidemiological evidence of an impact of desert dust on cardiovascular and respiratory health. Toxicological studies, in main using doses that reflect or at least approach real world exposures during a dust event, have demonstrated that virgin sand dust particles and dust storm particles sampled at remote locations away from the source induce inflammatory lung injury and aggravate allergen-induced nasal and pulmonary eosinophilia. Effects are orchestrated by cytokines, chemokines and antigen-specific immunoglobulin potentially via toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor signaling pathways. Findings suggest that in addition to involvement of adhered chemical and biological pollutants, mineralogical components may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of human respiratory disorders during a dust event. Whilst comparisons with urban particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) suggest that allergic inflammatory responses are greater for microbial element-rich dust- PM2.5, aerosols generated during dust events appear to have a lower oxidative potential compared to combustion-generated PM2.5 sampled during non-dust periods. In vitro findings suggest that the significant amounts of suspended desert dust during storm periods may provide a platform to intermix with chemicals on its surfaces, thereby increasing the bioreactivity of PM2.5 during dust storm episodes, and that mineral dust surface reactions are an unrecognized source of toxic organic chemicals in the atmosphere, enhancing toxicity of aerosols in urban environments. In summary, the experimental research on desert dust on respiratory endpoints go some way in clarifying the mechanistic effects of atmospheric desert dust on the upper and lower human respiratory system. In doing so, they provide support for biological plausibility of epidemiological associations between this particulate air pollutant and events including exacerbation of asthma, hospitalization for respiratory infections and seasonal allergic rhinitis.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Polvo , Aerosoles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Polvo/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Arena
10.
Environ Int ; 155: 106662, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The evidence on the association between ultrafine (UFP) particles and mortality is still inconsistent. Moreover, health effects of specific UFP sources have not been explored. We assessed the impact of UFP sources on daily mortality in Barcelona, Helsinki, London, and Zurich. METHODS: UFP sources were previously identified and quantified for the four cities: daily contributions of photonucleation, two traffic sources (fresh traffic and urban, with size mode around 30 nm and 70 nm, respectively), and secondary aerosols were obtained from data from an urban background station. Different periods were investigated in each city: Barcelona 2013-2016, Helsinki 2009-2016, London 2010-2016, and Zurich 2011-2014. The associations between total particle number concentrations (PNC) and UFP sources and daily (natural, cardiovascular [CVD], and respiratory) mortality were investigated using city-specific generalized linear models (GLM) with quasi-Poisson regression. RESULTS: We found inconsistent results across cities, sources, and lags for associations with natural, CVD, and respiratory mortality. Increased risk was observed for total PNC and natural mortality in Helsinki (lag 2; 1.3% [0.07%, 2.5%]), CVD mortality in Barcelona (lag 1; 3.7% [0.17%, 7.4%]) and Zurich (lag 0; 3.8% [0.31%, 7.4%]), and respiratory mortality in London (lag 3; 2.6% [0.84%, 4.45%]) and Zurich (lag 1; 9.4% [1.0%, 17.9%]). A similar pattern of associations between health outcomes and total PNC was followed by the fresh traffic source, for which we also found the same associations and lags as for total PNC. The urban source (mostly aged traffic) was associated with respiratory mortality in Zurich (lag 1; 12.5% [1.7%, 24.2%]) and London (lag 3; 2.4% [0.90%, 4.0%]) while the secondary source was associated with respiratory mortality in Zurich (lag 1: 12.0% [0.63%, 24.5%]) and Helsinki (4.7% [0.11%, 9.5%]). Reduced risk for the photonucleation source was observed for respiratory mortality in Barcelona (lag 2, -8.6% [-14.5%, -2.4%]) and for CVD mortality in Helsinki, as this source is present only in clean atmospheres (lag 1, -1.48 [-2.75, -0.21]). CONCLUSIONS: We found inconsistent results across cities, sources and lags for associations with natural, CVD, and respiratory mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ciudades , Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
11.
Eur Respir J ; 58(1)2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542053

RESUMEN

Previous studies have investigated the effects of air pollution on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients using either fixed-site measurements or a limited number of personal measurements, usually for one pollutant and a short time period. These limitations may introduce bias and distort the epidemiological associations as they do not account for all the potential sources or the temporal variability of pollution.We used detailed information on individuals' exposure to various pollutants measured at fine spatiotemporal scale to obtain more reliable effect estimates. A panel of 115 patients was followed up for an average continuous period of 128 days carrying a personal monitor specifically designed for this project that measured temperature, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 and <10 µm at 1-min time resolution. Each patient recorded daily information on respiratory symptoms and measured peak expiratory flow (PEF). A pulmonologist combined related data to define a binary variable denoting an "exacerbation". The exposure-response associations were assessed with mixed effects models.We found that gaseous pollutants were associated with a deterioration in patients' health. We observed an increase of 16.4% (95% CI 8.6-24.6%), 9.4% (95% CI 5.4-13.6%) and 7.6% (95% CI 3.0-12.4%) in the odds of exacerbation for an interquartile range increase in NO2, NO and CO, respectively. Similar results were obtained for cough and sputum. O3 was found to have adverse associations with PEF and breathlessness. No association was observed between particulate matter and any outcome.Our findings suggest that, when considering total personal exposure to air pollutants, mainly the gaseous pollutants affect COPD patients' health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Londres/epidemiología , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/efectos adversos , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología
12.
Chemosphere ; 268: 128825, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160655

RESUMEN

The current study is the intented to investigate the intensity of pollution, source characterization, oxidative potential, and human health risks of fourteen potentially toxic elements in the street dust of the Middle East oldest oil refinery zone. Thirty five street dust samples were collected from various regions in Abadan and Khorramshahr cities. The mean concentration of As, Mo, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cd, and Sb in Abadan street dust were 5.55, 3.39, 83.68, 49.82, 4493.54, 281.24, 1.15,and 1.17, while in Khorramshahr As, Mo, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn, Cd, and Sb were.14, 2.58, 74.35, 56.50, 0.74, 214.26, 0.62, and 1.18, respectively. The concentration of these elements in both cities is higher than the local background values. Potential ecological risk index and pollution load index at all stations of both cities are greater than 1, indicating a high pollution load in the study area. Calculated enrichment factor showed high enrichment of Hg, Sb, Cd, Mo, Cu, Pb, and Zn in both areas. Of particular concern is the enrichment factor for mercury which proved to be 3370.54 ppb in the vicinity of the petrochemical unit in Abadan city (EF > 40). The results of positive matrix factorization receptor model together with geochemical maps and multivariate statistics indicated that industrial activities (especially petrochemical industries) are responsible for Hg, Cu, and Zn pollution, while exhaust emissions are responsible for Mo, Pb, Cd, and Sb, and natural sources for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. The percentage of OPAA in the region ranged from 15.1 to 26.4 and OPGSH ranged from 9.5 to 24.4. The percentage of OPTOTAL/µg (OPAA/µg + OPGSH/µg) values varied between 0.6 and 1. The health risk evaluation models indicated that specific attention should be paid to Hg, Cd, Pb, and Zn and that the higher oxidative potential of street dust recovered from polluted locations is also a matter of concern in Abadan and Khorramshahr Cities.


Asunto(s)
Polvo , Metales Pesados , China , Ciudades , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medio Oriente , Industria del Petróleo y Gas , Estrés Oxidativo , Medición de Riesgo
13.
Pulm Ther ; 7(1): 9-24, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161530

RESUMEN

Evidence to advocate for cleaner air for people with asthma is not in short supply. We know that air pollution is associated with the development and worsening of the condition and that mitigating interventions can improve respiratory outcomes. We have clear targets, particularly traffic emissions, especially in urban areas, and plenty of potentially effective actions. Road traffic must be reduced, and what remains should be cleaner and greener. Urban green spaces, safe cycle networks and wider pavements will promote active travel and leisure time exercise. Healthcare professionals must ensure people are aware of their air quality, its impact on asthma and the appropriate behaviour to safeguard health. What remains are realistic policies and effective measures, based on the correct scientific evidence, to be taken forth with political courage and investment so that air pollution no longer contributes to the development or worsening of respiratory ill health.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124185, 2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189473

RESUMEN

This study investigates the mineralogy, micro-morphology, chemical characteristics and oxidation toxicity of respirable dusts generated in underground coal mines. The active sampling was applied to collect airborne particulates with aerodynamic diameter <4 µm (PM4) at depth greater than 500 m from earth surface. The average mass concentration of PM4 was extremely higher than recommended values. QXRD and FESEM-EDS analyses were applied to study the micro-mineralogy and micro-morphology of respirable dusts. The chemical analysis by ICP-MS revealed an enrichment of V, Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd and Sb in respirable dust compared with the background environment and world coals. The EPA's health risk model showed that the health risk posed by Cr and Co in all workplaces exceeded the acceptable risk value for human health. The synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF) model was utilized to achieve a novel insight into the toxicity of respirable coal dust. The result showed an overall depletion of lung surface antioxidants with the decreasing trend of ascorbic acid > reduced glutathione >> urate, implying low- to medium level of oxidative stress. The result of this study can be applied globally by decision-makers to decrease hazardous exposure of mine workers to respirable dust.


Asunto(s)
Minas de Carbón , Exposición Profesional , Carbón Mineral , Polvo/análisis , Humanos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Medición de Riesgo
15.
Faraday Discuss ; 226: 569-583, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295898

RESUMEN

Measurement of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is often used as a proxy of personal exposure in epidemiological studies. However, the difference between personal and ambient exposure, and whether it biases the estimates of health effects remain unknown. Based on an epidemiological study (AIRLESS) and simultaneously launched intensive monitoring campaigns (APHH), we quantified and compared the personal and ambient exposure to PM2.5 and the related health impact among residents in Beijing, China. In total, 123 urban and 128 peri-urban non-smoking participants were recruited from two well-established cohorts in Beijing. During winter 2016 and summer 2017, each participant was instructed to carry a validated personal air monitor (PAM) to measure PM2.5 concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution for seven consecutive days in each season. Multiple inflammatory biomarkers were measured, including exhaled NO, blood monocytes counts and C-reactive protein. Linear mixed-effect models were used for the associations between exposure and health outcomes with adjustment for confounders. The average level of daily personal exposure to PM2.5 was consistently lower than using corresponding ambient concentration, and the difference is greater during the winter. The personal to ambient (P/A) ratio of exposure to PM2.5 exhibited an exponentially declining trend, and showed larger variations when ambient PM2.5 levels < 25 µg m-3. Personal exposure to PM2.5 was significantly associated with the increase in respiratory and systemic inflammatory biomarkers; however, the associations were weaker or became insignificant when ambient concentrations were used. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 might not be a good proxy to estimate the health effect of exposure to personal PM2.5.

17.
Int J Public Health ; 65(8): 1455-1465, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057794

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: More than 90% of the global population live in areas exceeding the PM2.5 air quality guidelines (AQGs). We provide an overview of the ambient PM2.5-related burden of disease (BoD) studies along with scenario analysis in the framework of the WHO AQG update on the estimated reduction in the BoD if AQGs were achieved globally. METHODS: We reviewed the literature for large-scale studies for the BoD attributed to ambient PM2.5. Moreover, we used the latest WHO statistics to calculate the BoD at current levels and the scenarios of aligning with interim targets and AQG levels. RESULTS: The most recent BoD studies (2010 onwards) share a similar methodology, but there are differences in the input data which affect the estimates for attributable deaths (2.9-8.9 million deaths annually). Moreover, we found that if AQGs were achieved, the estimated BoD would be reduced by up to 50% in total deaths worldwide. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the BoD across countries, especially in those that do not align with the AQGs, is essential in order to inform actions to reduce air pollution globally.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/economía , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/normas , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/normas , Guías como Asunto , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/economía , Costo de Enfermedad , Humanos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
18.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 161: 283-289, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of antioxidant status on microvascular blood flow and glomerular filtration (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension whose risk of progressive renal disease varies by ethnicity is unknown. METHODS: Adult, non-Caucasian (n = 101) and Caucasian (n = 69) patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension and/or microalbuminuria and an eGFR > 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 were randomised to receive 400 IU vitamin E and/or 20 µg selenium daily or matching placebo. eGFR (CKD-EPI) was measured at baseline, 3,6 and 12 months and renal blood flow by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in a sub-group (n = 9) at baseline and 3 months by assessing the area under the time intensity curve (TIC). Circulating glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx-3) activity was measured as a biomarker of oxidative defence status. RESULTS: The time to change in eGFR was shortest with combined vitamin E and selenium than usual care (5.6 [4.0-7.0] vs 8.9 [6.8-10.9 months]; p = 0.006). Area under the TIC was reduced compared to baseline (38.52 [22.41-90.49] vs 123 [86.98-367.03]dB.s; P ≤ 0.05 and 347 [175.88-654.92] vs 928.03 [448.45-1683]dB.s; P ≤ 0.05, respectively] at 3 months suggesting an increase in rate of perfusion. The proportional change in eGFR at 12 months was greater in the group whose GPx-3 activity was above, compared with those below the cohort median (360 U/L) in the non-Caucasian and the Caucasian groups (19.1(12.5-25.7] % vs 6.5[-3.5 to 16.5] % and 12.8 [0.7 to 24] % vs 0.2 [-6.1 to 6.5] %). CONCLUSION: In these patients with type 2 diabetes and early CKD, antioxidant treatment derepresses renal blood flow and a rise in eGFR correlated directly with GPx-3 activity. SIGNIFICANCE: Diabetes mellitus is the world's leading cause of end-stage renal disease which has a predilection for black and minor ethnic groups compared with Caucasians. The differences in risk despite the benefits of conventional care may be related to oxidative stress. We found that glomerular filtration and renal blood flow is suppressed when renal function is preserved in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. Conventional care supplemented with selenium - the co-factor for glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPx-3) - improves renal perfusion and increase glomerular filtration according to host antioxidant defence determined by GPx-3 activity. Circulating GPx-3 activity warrants further investigation as a novel biomarker of reversible haemodynamic changes in early diabetic kidney disease to better enable targeting of renoprotective strategies.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatías Diabéticas , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Adulto , Antioxidantes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Circulación Renal
19.
Toxicol Res (Camb) ; 9(4): 331-345, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905302

RESUMEN

Since air pollutants are difficult and expensive to control, a strong scientific underpinning to policies is needed to guide mitigation aimed at reducing the current burden on public health. Much of the evidence concerning hazard identification and risk quantification related to air pollution comes from epidemiological studies. This must be reinforced with mechanistic confirmation to infer causality. In this review we focus on data generated from four contrasting sources of particulate air pollution that result in high population exposures and thus where there remains an unmet need to protect health: urban air pollution in developing megacities, household biomass combustion, wildfires and desert dust storms. Taking each in turn, appropriate measures to protect populations will involve advocating smart cities and addressing economic and behavioural barriers to sustained adoption of clean stoves and fuels. Like all natural hazards, wildfires and dust storms are a feature of the landscape that cannot be removed. However, many efforts from emission containment (land/fire management practices), exposure avoidance and identifying susceptible populations can be taken to prepare for air pollution episodes and ensure people are out of harm's way when conditions are life-threatening. Communities residing in areas affected by unhealthy concentrations of any airborne particles will benefit from optimum communication via public awareness campaigns, designed to empower people to modify behaviour in a way that improves their health as well as the quality of the air they breathe.

20.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 378(2183): 20190322, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981440

RESUMEN

Epidemiological research has taught us a great deal about the health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), particularly cardiorespiratory effects of combustion-related particles. This has been matched by toxicological research to define underlying mechanistic pathways. To keep abreast of the substantial challenges that air pollution continues to throw at us requires yet more strides to be achieved. For example, being aware of the most toxic components/sources and having a definitive idea of the range of associated disease outcomes. This review discusses approaches designed to close some of these knowledge gaps. These include a focus on particles arising from non-exhaust PM at the roadside and microplastics-both of which are becoming more relevant in the light of a shift in PM composition in response to global pressure to reduce combustion emissions. The application of hypothesis-free approaches in both mechanistic studies and epidemiology in unveiling unexpected relationships and generating novel insights is also discussed. Previous work, strengthening the evidence for both the adverse effects and benefits of intervention tell us that the sooner we act to close knowledge gaps, increase awareness and develop creative solutions, the sooner we can reduce the public health burden attributable to these complex and insidious environmental pollutants. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Air quality, past present and future'.


Asunto(s)
Material Particulado/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Microplásticos/química , Microplásticos/toxicidad , Modelos Biológicos , Vehículos a Motor , Material Particulado/química
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