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J Surg Res ; 266: 336-344, 2021 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062291


BACKGROUND: The gut-brain axis has been discussed, directly or indirectly, for centuries, with the ideas of the gut affecting anything from moods to overall physiology being discussed across the centuries. With a recent explosion in research that looks to the microbiota as a mechanistic link between the gut and the brain, one sees that the gut-brain axis has various means of communication, such as through the vagus nerve and the enteric nervous system and can use the metabolites in the gut to communicate to the brain. METHODS: The purpose of this review is to view the gut-brain axis through the lens of stress and how stress, from the prenatal period all the way through adulthood can impact the physiology of a human being. Studies have shown multiple mechanisms of measurable change with disruption in the microbiota that lead to behavioral changes. There are also effects of gut inflammation on the brain and the corresponding systemic response observed. CONCLUSION: The overall literature is encouraging that the more understanding of the gut-brain axis, the greater ability to wield that understanding for therapeutic benefits.

Encéfalo/fisiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamación/metabolismo , Neoplasias/microbiología , Estrés Psicológico/microbiología , Sistema Nervioso Entérico/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Sepsis/microbiología , Estrés Psicológico/inmunología , Nervio Vago/fisiología
Brain Behav Immun ; 89: 291-299, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688025


Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an intestinal inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality that affects almost exclusively premature infants. Breast milk feeding is known to substantially lower NEC incidence, and specific components of breast milk, such as immunoglobulin (Ig) A, have been identified as mediating this protective effect. On the other hand, accumulating evidence suggests dysbiosis of the neonatal intestinal microbiome contributes to NEC pathogenesis. In mice, neonates can inherit a dysbiotic microbiome from dams that experience stress during pregnancy. Here we show that while prenatal stress lowers fecal IgA levels in pregnant mice, it does not result in lower levels of IgA in the breast milk. Nevertheless, coating of female, but not male, offspring microbiota by IgA is increased by prenatal stress. Accordingly, prenatal stress was found to alter the bacterial community composition in female neonates but not male neonates. Furthermore, female, but not male, offspring of prenatally stressed mothers exhibited more severe colonic tissue damage in a NEC-like injury model compared to offspring with non-stressed mothers. Our results point to prenatal stress as a possible novel risk factor for NEC and potentially reveal new avenues in NEC prevention and therapy.

Enterocolitis Necrotizante , Animales , Disbiosis , Femenino , Inmunoglobulina A , Ratones , Microbiota