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1.
Biomater Adv ; : 212726, 2022 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475005

RESUMEN

The development of nanoparticles (NPs) with potential therapeutic uses represents an area of vast interest in the scientific community during the last years. Recently, the pandemic caused by COVID-19 motivated a race for vaccines creation to overcome the crisis generated. This is a good demonstration that nanotechnology will most likely be the basis of future immunotherapy. Moreover, the number of publications based on nanosystems has significantly increased in recent years and it is expected that most of these developments can go on to experimentation in clinical stages soon. The therapeutic use of NPs to combat different diseases such as cancer, allergies or autoimmune diseases will depend on their characteristics, their targets, and the transported molecules. This review presents an in-depth analysis of recent advances that have been developed in order to obtain novel nanoparticulate based tools for the treatment of allergies, autoimmune diseases and for their use in vaccines. Moreover, it is highlighted that by providing targeted delivery an increase in the potential of vaccines to induce an immune response is expected in the future. Definitively, the here gathered analysis is a good demonstration that nanotechnology will be the basis of future immunotherapy.

2.
Biomaterials ; 285: 121479, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487064

RESUMEN

Electrical stimulation can facilitate wound healing with high efficiency and limited side effects. However, current electrical stimulation devices have poor conformability with wounds due to their bulky nature and the rigidity of electrodes utilized. Here, a flexible electrical patch (ePatch) made with conductive hydrogel as electrodes to improve wound management was reported. The conductive hydrogel was synthesized using silver nanowire (AgNW) and methacrylated alginate (MAA), with the former chosen as the electrode material considering its antibacterial properties, and the latter used due to its clinical suitability in wound healing. The composition of the hydrogel was optimized to enable printing on medical-grade patches for personalized wound treatment. The ePatch was shown to promote re-epithelization, enhance angiogenesis, mediate immune response, and prevent infection development in the wound microenvironment. In vitro studies indicated an elevated secretion of growth factors with enhanced cell proliferation and migration ability in response to electrical stimulation. An in vivo study in the Sprague-Dawley rat model revealed a rapid wound closure within 7 days compared to 20 days of usual healing process in rodents.


Asunto(s)
Hidrogeles , Cicatrización de Heridas , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Electrodos , Hidrogeles/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
3.
Bioact Mater ; 15: 214-249, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386359

RESUMEN

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) has led to an evolution in the design and fabrication of hard tissue substitutes, enabling personalized implants to address each patient's specific needs. In addition, internal pore architectures integrated within additively manufactured scaffolds, have provided an opportunity to further develop and engineer functional implants for better tissue integration, and long-term durability. In this review, the latest advances in different aspects of the design and manufacturing of additively manufactured metallic biomaterials are highlighted. After introducing metal AM processes, biocompatible metals adapted for integration with AM machines are presented. Then, we elaborate on the tools and approaches undertaken for the design of porous scaffold with engineered internal architecture including, topology optimization techniques, as well as unit cell patterns based on lattice networks, and triply periodic minimal surface. Here, the new possibilities brought by the functionally gradient porous structures to meet the conflicting scaffold design requirements are thoroughly discussed. Subsequently, the design constraints and physical characteristics of the additively manufactured constructs are reviewed in terms of input parameters such as design features and AM processing parameters. We assess the proposed applications of additively manufactured implants for regeneration of different tissue types and the efforts made towards their clinical translation. Finally, we conclude the review with the emerging directions and perspectives for further development of AM in the medical industry.

4.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 130: 105156, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397405

RESUMEN

Metallic coil embolization is a common method for the endovascular treatment of visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) and visceral artery pseudoaneurysms (VAPA); however, this treatment is suboptimal due to the high cost of coils, incomplete volume occlusion, poor reendothelialization, aneurysm puncture, and coil migration. Several alternative treatment strategies are available, including stent flow diverters, glue embolics, gelfoam slurries, and vascular mesh plugs-each of which have their own disadvantages. Here, we investigated the in vitro capability of a shear-thinning biomaterial (STB), a nanocomposite hydrogel composed of gelatin and silicate nanoplatelets, for the minimally-invasive occlusion of simple necked aneurysm models. We demonstrated the injectability of STB through various clinical catheters, engineered an in vitro testing apparatus to independently manipulate aneurysm neck diameter, fluid flow rate, and flow waveform, and tested the stability of STB within the models under various conditions. Our experiments show that STB is able to withstand at least 1.89 Pa of wall shear stress, as estimated by computational fluid dynamics. STB is also able to withstand up to 10 mL s-1 pulsatile flow with a waveform mimicking blood flow in the human femoral artery and tolerate greater pressure changes than those in the human aorta. We ultimately found that our in vitro system was limited by supraphysiologic pressure changes caused by aneurysm models with low compliance.


Asunto(s)
Aneurisma , Materiales Biocompatibles , Aneurisma/terapia , Arterias , Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacología , Humanos , Impresión Tridimensional , Stents , Resultado del Tratamiento
5.
Small ; : e2107714, 2022 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487761

RESUMEN

Silk fibroin (SF) is a promising biomaterial for tendon repair, but its relatively rigid mechanical properties and low cell affinity have limited its application in regenerative medicine. Meanwhile, gelatin-based polymers have advantages in cell attachment and tissue remodeling but have insufficient mechanical strength to regenerate tough tissue such as tendons. Taking these aspects into account, in this study, gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is combined with SF to create a mechanically strong and bioactive nanofibrous scaffold (SG). The mechanical properties of SG nanofibers can be flexibly modulated by varying the ratio of SF and GelMA. Compared to SF nanofibers, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on SG fibers with optimal composition (SG7) exhibit enhanced growth, proliferation, vascular endothelial growth factor production, and tenogenic gene expression behavior. Conditioned media from MSCs cultured on SG7 scaffolds can greatly promote the migration and proliferation of tenocytes. Histological analysis and tenogenesis-related immunofluorescence staining indicate SG7 scaffolds demonstrate enhanced in vivo tendon tissue regeneration compared to other groups. Therefore, rational combinations of SF and GelMA hybrid nanofibers may help to improve therapeutic outcomes and address the challenges of tissue-engineered scaffolds for tendon regeneration.

6.
Adv Mater ; : e2200254, 2022 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315553

RESUMEN

Unlike growth on tissue, microbes can grow freely on implantable devices with minimal immune system intervention and often form resilient biofilms that continuously pump out pathogenic cells. The efficacy of antibiotics used to treat infection is declining due to increased rates of pathogenic resistance. A simple, one-step zwitterionic surface modification is developed to significantly reduce protein and microbial adhesion to synthetic materials and demonstrate the successful modification of several clinically relevant materials, including recalcitrant materials such as elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane. The treated surfaces exhibit robust adhesion resistance against proteins and microorganisms in both static and flow conditions. Furthermore, the surface treatment prevents the adhesion of mammalian fibroblast cells while displaying no cytotoxicity. To demonstrate the clinical efficacy of the novel technology in the real-world, a surface-treated, commercial silicone foley catheter is developed that is cleared for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (K192034). 16 long-term catheterized patients received surface-treated catheters and completed a Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) questionnaire. 10 out of 16 patients described their urinary tract condition post implantation as "much better" or "very much better" and 72% (n = 13) of patients desire to continue using the surface-treated catheter over conventional latex or silicone catheters.

7.
Matter ; 5(2): 666-682, 2022 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340559

RESUMEN

Periodontal diseases are caused by microbial infection and the recruitment of destructive immune cells. Current therapies mainly deal with bacteria elimination, but the regeneration of periodontal tissues remains a challenge. Here we developed a modular microneedle (MN) patch that delivered both antibiotic and cytokines into the local gingival tissue to achieve immunomodulation and tissue regeneration. This MN patch included a quickly dissolvable gelatin membrane for an immediate release of tetracycline and biodegradable GelMA MNs that contained tetracycline-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles and cytokine-loaded silica microparticles for a sustained release. Antibiotic release completely inhibited bacteria growth, and the release of IL-4 and TGF-ß induced the repolarization of anti-inflammatory macrophages and the formation of regulatory T cells in vitro. In vivo delivery of MN patch into periodontal tissues suppressed proinflammatory factors and promoted pro-regenerative signals and tissue healing, which demonstrated the therapeutic potential of local immunomodulation for tissue regeneration.

8.
Mater Today Chem ; 232022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224320

RESUMEN

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, affecting millions of people every year. While chemotherapy remains one of the most common cancer treatments in the world, the severe side effects of chemotherapy drugs impose serious concerns to cancer patients. In many cases, the chemotherapy can be localized to maximize the drug effects; however, the drug systemic circulation induces undesirable side effects. Here, we have developed a highly efficient cellulose-based nanoadsorbent that can capture more than 6000 mg of doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most widely used chemotherapy drugs, per gram of the adsorbent at physiological conditions. Such drug capture capacity is more than 3200% higher than other nanoadsorbents, such as DNA-based platforms. We show how anionic hairy cellulose nanocrystals, also known as electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC), bind to positively charged drugs in human serum and capture DOX immediately without imposing any cytotoxicity and hemolytic effects. We elucidate how ENCC provides a remarkable platform for biodetoxification at varying pH, ionic strength, ion type, and protein concentration. The outcome of this research may pave the way for developing the next generation in vitro and in vivo drug capture additives and devices.

9.
Adv Mater ; : e2108389, 2022 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130584

RESUMEN

The eye is one of the most complex organs in the human body, containing rich and critical physiological information (e.g., intraocular pressure, corneal temperature, and pH) as well as a library of metabolite biomarkers (e.g., glucose, proteins, and specific ions). Smart contact lenses (SCLs) can serve as a wearable intelligent ocular prosthetic device capable of noninvasive and continuous monitoring of various essential physical/biochemical parameters and drug loading/delivery for the treatment of ocular diseases. Advances in SCL technologies and the growing public interest in personalized health are accelerating SCL research more than ever before. Here, the current status and potential of SCL development through a comprehensive review from fabrication to applications to commercialization are discussed. First, the material, fabrication, and platform designs of the SCLs for the diagnostic and therapeutic applications are discussed. Then, the latest advances in diagnostic and therapeutic SCLs for clinical translation are reviewed. Later, the established techniques for wearable power transfer and wireless data transmission applied to current SCL devices are summarized. An outlook, future opportunities, and challenges for developing next-generation SCL devices are also provided. With the rise in interest of SCL development, this comprehensive and essential review can serve as a new paradigm for the SCL devices.

10.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2102599, 2022 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192734

RESUMEN

Intravitreal injection (IVI) is a common technology which is used to treat ophthalmic diseases inside eyeballs by delivering various drugs into the vitreous cavity using hypodermic needles. However, in some cases, there are possible side effects such as ocular tissue damage due to repeated injection or eyeball infection through the hole created during the needle retraction process. The best scenario of IVI is a one-time injection of drugs without needle retraction, keeping the system of the eyeball closed. Microneedles (MNs) have been applied to ocular tissues over 10 years, and no serious side effects on ocular tissue due to MN injection have been reported. Therefore, a self-plugging MN (SPM) is developed to perform intraocular drug delivery and to seal the scleral puncture simultaneously. The SPMs are fabricated by a thermal drawing process and then coated with a polymeric carrier of drugs and a hydrogel-based scleral plugging component. Each coated functional layer is characterized and demonstrated by in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Finally, in vivo tests using a porcine model confirms prompt sealing of SPM and sustained intraocular drug delivery.

11.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(7): e2102054, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990081

RESUMEN

Laponite is a clay-based material composed of synthetic disk-shaped crystalline nanoparticles with highly ionic, large surface area. These characteristics enable the intercalation and dissolution of biomolecules in Laponite-based drug delivery systems. Furthermore, Laponite's innate physicochemical properties and architecture enable the development of tunable pH-responsive drug delivery systems. Laponite's coagulation capacity and cation exchangeability determine its exchange capabilities, drug encapsulation efficiency, and release profile. These parameters are exploited to design highly controlled and efficacious drug delivery platforms for sustained drug release. In this review, they provide an overview of how to design efficient delivery of therapeutics by leveraging the properties and specific interactions of various Laponite-polymer composites and drug moieties.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Nanoestructuras , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Silicatos/química
12.
Biofabrication ; 14(2)2022 01 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781274

RESUMEN

Droplet-based microfluidic systems have been employed to manipulate discrete fluid volumes with immiscible phases. Creating the fluid droplets at microscale has led to a paradigm shift in mixing, sorting, encapsulation, sensing, and designing high throughput devices for biomedical applications. Droplet microfluidics has opened many opportunities in microparticle synthesis, molecular detection, diagnostics, drug delivery, and cell biology. In the present review, we first introduce standard methods for droplet generation (i.e. passive and active methods) and discuss the latest examples of emulsification and particle synthesis approaches enabled by microfluidic platforms. Then, the applications of droplet-based microfluidics in different biomedical applications are detailed. Finally, a general overview of the latest trends along with the perspectives and future potentials in the field are provided.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica
13.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(7): e2102123, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967148

RESUMEN

Interconnected pathways in 3D bioartificial organs are essential to retaining cell activity in thick functional 3D tissues. 3D bioprinting methods have been widely explored in biofabrication of functionally patterned tissues; however, these methods are costly and confined to thin tissue layers due to poor control of low-viscosity bioinks. Here, cell-laden hydrogels that could be precisely patterned via water-soluble gelatin templates are constructed by economical extrusion 3D printed plastic templates. Tortuous co-continuous plastic networks, designed based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS), serve as a sacrificial pattern to shape the secondary sacrificial gelatin templates. These templates are eventually used to form cell-encapsulated gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel scaffolds patterned with the complex interconnected pathways. The proposed fabrication process is compatible with photo-crosslinkable hydrogels wherein prepolymer casting enables incorporation of high cell populations with high viability. The cell-laden hydrogel constructs are characterized by robust mechanical behavior. In vivo studies demonstrate a superior cell ingrowth into the highly permeable constructs compared to the bulk hydrogels. Perfusable complex interconnected networks within cell-encapsulated hydrogels may assist in engineering thick and functional tissue constructs through the permeable internal channels for efficient cellular activities in vivo.


Asunto(s)
Bioimpresión , Gelatina , Bioimpresión/métodos , Hidrogeles , Metacrilatos , Plásticos , Impresión Tridimensional , Ingeniería de Tejidos/métodos , Andamios del Tejido
14.
Nanoscale ; 14(2): 350-360, 2022 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34908077

RESUMEN

Injectable shear-thinning biomaterials (STBs) have attracted significant attention because of their efficient and localized delivery of cells as well as various molecules ranging from growth factors to drugs. Recently, electrostatic interaction-based STBs, including gelatin/LAPONITE® nanocomposites, have been developed through a simple assembly process and show outstanding shear-thinning properties and injectability. However, the ability of different compositions of gelatin and LAPONITE® to modulate doxorubicin (DOX) delivery at different pH values to enhance the effectiveness of topical skin cancer treatment is still unclear. Here, we fabricated injectable STBs using gelatin and LAPONITE® to investigate the influence of LAPONITE®/gelatin ratio on mechanical characteristics, capacity for DOX release in response to different pH values, and cytotoxicity toward malignant melanoma. The release profile analysis of various compositions of DOX-loaded STBs under different pH conditions revealed that lower amounts of LAPONITE® (6NC25) led to higher pH-responsiveness capable of achieving a localized, controlled, and sustained release of DOX in an acidic tumor microenvironment. Moreover, we showed that 6NC25 had a lower storage modulus and required lower injection forces compared to those with higher LAPONITE® ratios. Furthermore, DOX delivery analysis in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that DOX-loaded 6NC25 could efficiently target subcutaneous malignant tumors via DOX-induced cell death and growth restriction.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Nanopartículas , Materiales Biocompatibles , Doxorrubicina/farmacología , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Gelatina , Humanos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Melanoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Small Methods ; 6(1): e2100900, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041280

RESUMEN

Wearable piezoresistive sensors are being developed as electronic skins (E-skin) for broad applications in human physiological monitoring and soft robotics. Tactile sensors with sufficient sensitivities, durability, and large dynamic ranges are required to replicate this critical component of the somatosensory system. Multiple micro/nanostructures, materials, and sensing modalities have been reported to address this need. However, a trade-off arises between device performance and device complexity. Inspired by the microstructure of the spinosum at the dermo epidermal junction in skin, a low-cost, scalable, and high-performance piezoresistive sensor is developed with high sensitivity (0.144 kPa-1 ), extensive sensing range ( 0.1-15 kPa), fast response time (less than 150 ms), and excellent long-term stability (over 1000 cycles). Furthermore, the piezoresistive functionality of the device is realized via a flexible transparent electrode (FTE) using a highly stable reduced graphene oxide self-wrapped copper nanowire network. The developed nanowire-based spinosum microstructured FTEs are amenable to wearable electronics applications.


Asunto(s)
Grafito , Nanocables , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Cobre , Humanos
16.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(3): 292-300, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34949774

RESUMEN

Electrical impulse generation and its conduction within cells or cellular networks are the cornerstone of electrophysiology. However, the advancement of the field is limited by sensing accuracy and the scalability of current recording technologies. Here we describe a scalable platform that enables accurate recording of transmembrane potentials in electrogenic cells. The platform employs a three-dimensional high-performance field-effect transistor array for minimally invasive cellular interfacing that produces faithful recordings, as validated by the gold standard patch clamp. Leveraging the high spatial and temporal resolutions of the field-effect transistors, we measured the intracellular signal conduction velocity of a cardiomyocyte to be 0.182 m s-1, which is about five times the intercellular velocity. We also demonstrate intracellular recordings in cardiac muscle tissue constructs and reveal the signal conduction paths. This platform could provide new capabilities in probing the electrical behaviours of single cells and cellular networks, which carries broad implications for understanding cellular physiology, pathology and cell-cell interactions.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos , Miocitos Cardíacos , Potenciales de Acción , Comunicación Celular
17.
Biofabrication ; 14(1)2021 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740205

RESUMEN

Increasing evidence from cancer cell fusion with different cell types in the tumor microenvironment has suggested a probable mechanism for how metastasis-initiating cells could be generated in tumors. Although human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been known as promising candidates to create hybrid cells with cancer cells, the role of hMSCs in fusion with cancer cells is still controversial. Here, we fabricated a liver-on-a-chip platform to monitor the fusion of liver hepatocellular cells (HepG2) with hMSCs and study their invasive potential. We demonstrated that hMSCs might play dual roles in HepG2 spheroids. The analysis of tumor growth with different fractions of hMSCs in HepG2 spheroids revealed hMSCs' role in preventing HepG2 growth and proliferation, while the hMSCs presented in the HepG2 spheroids led to the generation of HepG2-hMSC hybrid cells with much higher invasiveness compared to HepG2. These invasive HepG2-hMSC hybrid cells expressed high levels of markers associated with stemness, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and matrix deposition, which corresponded to the expression of these markers for hMSCs escaping from hMSC spheroids. In addition, these fused cells were responsible for collective invasion following HepG2 by depositing Collagen I and Fibronectin in their surrounding microenvironment. Furthermore, we showed that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) could also be fused with HepG2, and the HepG2-HSC hybrid cells possessed similar features to those from HepG2-hMSC fusion. This fusion of HepG2 with liver-resident HSCs may propose a new potential mechanism of hepatic cancer metastasis.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Hepáticas , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Matter ; 4(9): 2886-2901, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746749

RESUMEN

Mechanical deformation of human skin provides essential information about human motions, muscle stretching, vocal fold vibration, and heart rates. Monitoring these activities requires the measurement of strains at different levels. Herein, we report a wearable wide-range strain sensor based on conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). A bioinspired bilayer structure was constructed to enable a wide-range strain sensing (1%~100%). Besides, hydrogel was chosen as the biological- and mechanical-compatible interface layer with the human skin. Finally, we demonstrated that the strain sensor is capable of monitoring various strain-related activities, including subtle skin deformation (pulse and phonation), mid-level body stretch (swallowing and facial expressions), and substantial joint movement (elbow bending).

19.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784170

RESUMEN

The remarkable ability of biological systems to sense and adapt to complex environmental conditions has inspired new materials and novel designs for next-generation wearable devices. Hydrogels are being intensively investigated for their versatile functions in wearable devices due to their superior softness, biocompatibility, and rapid stimulus response. This review focuses on recent strategies for developing bioinspired hydrogel wearable devices that can accommodate mechanical strain and integrate seamlessly with biological systems. We will provide an overview of different types of bioinspired hydrogels tailored for wearable devices. Next, we will discuss the recent progress of bioinspired hydrogel wearable devices such as electronic skin and smart contact lenses. Also, we will comprehensively summarize biosignal readout methods for hydrogel wearable devices as well as advances in powering and wireless data transmission technologies. Finally, current challenges facing these wearable devices are discussed, and future directions are proposed.

20.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 212, 2021 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664123

RESUMEN

More than 90% of surgical patients develop postoperative adhesions, and the incidence of hospital re-admissions can be as high as 20%. Current adhesion barriers present limited efficacy due to difficulties in application and incompatibility with minimally invasive interventions. To solve this clinical limitation, we developed an injectable and sprayable shear-thinning hydrogel barrier (STHB) composed of silicate nanoplatelets and poly(ethylene oxide). We optimized this technology to recover mechanical integrity after stress, enabling its delivery though injectable and sprayable methods. We also demonstrated limited cell adhesion and cytotoxicity to STHB compositions in vitro. The STHB was then tested in a rodent model of peritoneal injury to determine its efficacy preventing the formation of postoperative adhesions. After two weeks, the peritoneal adhesion index was used as a scoring method to determine the formation of postoperative adhesions, and STHB formulations presented superior efficacy compared to a commercially available adhesion barrier. Histological and immunohistochemical examination showed reduced adhesion formation and minimal immune infiltration in STHB formulations. Our technology demonstrated increased efficacy, ease of use in complex anatomies, and compatibility with different delivery methods, providing a robust universal platform to prevent postoperative adhesions in a wide range of surgical interventions.

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