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1.
Am J Nephrol ; 41(1): 57-65, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25662778

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Renal function decreases over time as a result of reduction in the number of functioning nephrons with age. In recipients and donors of kidney grafts, renal function decline may be linked differently to various parameters, namely arterial stiffness. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study including 101 recipients of kidney grafts and their donors aiming at determining the factors correlated to the renal function decline over time. Aortic stiffness was evaluated by the non-invasive measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and the annualized change was determined. RESULTS: Decline in renal function was estimated at 1-year post-transplantation and annually thereafter (median follow-up 8 years, range 3.6-18.3), as the mean of the annualized decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. In recipients, filtration rate decreased by 4.8 ± 19.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2) the first post-transplant year and at a yearly rate of 2.2 ± 3.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2) thereafter. The first-year decline was related to smoking and acute rejection. Later decline was significantly associated with donor age and aortic stiffness. In living donors, renal function decline after the first year corresponded to 0.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2), was significantly lower than that of recipients (p < 0.001), and was determined by donor age at nephrectomy. CONCLUSION: Recipients of kidney grafts show a glomerular filtration rate decline over time that is significantly associated with donor age and aortic stiffness after the first post-transplant year, while donors demonstrate a lower decline that is mostly determined by age at nephrectomy.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Riñón , Riñón/fisiopatología , Donantes de Tejidos , Trasplantes/fisiopatología , Rigidez Vascular/fisiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Rechazo de Injerto/fisiopatología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Análisis de la Onda del Pulso , Fumar/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
2.
Med Teach ; 36(3): 240-4, 2014 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24289251

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that the standardized patient's (SP) gender may affect student performance in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the SPs' body habitus on students' performance in an OSCE counseling station. METHODS: Four equally trained female SPs, with either a normal or an obese BMI participated in an OSCE counseling station for cardiovascular risk factors. Ninety-two, second year medical students were randomly assigned to one of the SPs. Station scores were compared and student behavior and opinion regarding the influence of their SP's body habitus on their performance was assessed. RESULTS: There was no difference in mean exam scores for students interacting with SPs with a normal BMI versus increased BMI (14.9 ± 2.2 versus 14.01 ± 2.2/20 respectively, p = 0.06). Additionally, almost all students gave advice about healthy diets (93.5% versus 95.7%) with no specificity regarding the BMI of the SP. CONCLUSIONS: The body habitus of the SP did not significantly affect students' performance in an undergraduate OSCE about cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting that students at that level may primarily focus on gaining points the diagnostic checklist without considering SPs as real patients.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/terapia , Examen Físico/psicología , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Comunicación , Dieta , Evaluación Educacional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Simulación de Paciente , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Pérdida de Peso
3.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 371(1-2): 31-42, 2012 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22878564

RESUMEN

Chronic hemodynamic overload results in left ventricular hypertrophy, fibroblast proliferation, and interstitial fibrosis. The small heat shock protein hsp27 has been shown to be cardioprotective and this requires a phosphorylatable form of this protein. To further understand the regulation of hsp27 in heart in response to stress, we investigated the ability of elevated aortic pressure to activate hsp27-kinase activities. Isolated hearts were subjected to retrograde perfusion and then snap frozen. Hsp27-kinase activity was measured in vitro as hsp27 phosphorylation. Immune complex assays revealed that MK2 activity was low in non-perfused hearts and increased following crystalline perfusion at 60 or 120 mmHg. Hsp27-kinase activities were further studied following ion-exchange chromatography. Anion exchange chromatography on Mono Q revealed 2 peaks (b and c) of hsp27-kinase activity. A third peak a was detected upon chromatography of the Mono Q flow-through fractions on the cation exchange resin, Mono S. The hsp27-kinase activity underlying peaks a and c increased as perfusion pressure was increased from 40 to 120 mmHg. In contrast, peak b increased over pressures 60-100 mmHg but was decreased at 120 mmHg. Peaks a, b, and c contained MK2 immunoreactivity, whereas MK3 and MK5 immunoreactivity was detected in peak a. p38 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK were also detected in peaks b and c but absent from peak a. Hsp27-kinase activity in peaks b and c (120 mmHg) eluted from a Superose 12 gel filtration column with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa. Hence, peaks b and c were not a result of MK2 forming complexes. In-gel hsp27-kinase assays revealed a single 49-kDa renaturable hsp27-kinase activity in peaks b and c at 60 mmHg, whereas several hsp27-kinases (p43, p49, p54, p66) were detected in peaks b and c from hearts perfused at 120 mmHg. Thus, multiple hsp27-kinases were activated in response to elevated aortic pressure in isolated, perfused rat hearts and hence may be implicated in regulating the cardioprotective effects of hsp27 and thus may represent targets for cardioprotective therapy.


Asunto(s)
Presión Arterial/fisiología , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/metabolismo , Miocardio/metabolismo , Animales , Cromatografía por Intercambio Iónico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/genética , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Transducción de Señal , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo
4.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 300(1): H144-53, 2011 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20971771

RESUMEN

Susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to stress-induced damage has been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a disease caused by the lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin in which heart failure is frequent. However, the factors underlying the disease progression are unclear and treatments are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a greater susceptibility to the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) in hearts from young dystrophic (mdx) mice (before the development of overt cardiomyopathy) when subjected to a stress protocol and determined whether the prevention of a PTP opening is involved in the cardioprotective effect of sildenafil, which we have previously reported in mdx mice. Using the 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose method to quantify the PTP opening in ex vivo perfused hearts, we demonstrate that when compared with those of controls, the hearts from young mdx mice subjected to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) display an excessive PTP opening as well as enhanced activation of cell death signaling, mitochondrial oxidative stress, cardiomyocyte damage, and poorer recovery of contractile function. Functional analyses in permeabilized cardiac fibers from nonischemic hearts revealed that in vitro mitochondria from mdx hearts display normal respiratory function and reactive oxygen species handling, but enhanced Ca(2+) uptake velocity and premature opening of the PTP, which may predispose to I/R-induced injury. The administration of a single dose of sildenafil to mdx mice before I/R prevented excessive PTP opening and its downstream consequences and reduced tissue Ca(2+) levels. Furthermore, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake velocity was reduced following sildenafil treatment. In conclusion, beyond our documentation that an increased susceptibility to the opening of the mitochondrial PTP in the mdx heart occurs well before clinical signs of overt cardiomyopathy, our results demonstrate that sildenafil, which is already administered in other pediatric populations and is reported safe and well tolerated, provides efficient protection against this deleterious event, likely by reducing cellular Ca(2+) loading and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake.


Asunto(s)
Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte de Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Miocardio/metabolismo , Piperazinas/farmacología , Estrés Fisiológico/fisiología , Sulfonas/farmacología , Análisis de Varianza , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Calcio/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos mdx , Mitocondrias Cardíacas/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Fosfodiesterasa 5/farmacología , Purinas/farmacología , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Citrato de Sildenafil
5.
Cell Signal ; 22(10): 1502-12, 2010 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20570725

RESUMEN

p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) isoforms alpha, beta, and gamma, are expressed in the heart. p38alpha appears pro-apoptotic whereas p38beta is pro-hypertrophic. The mechanisms mediating these divergent effects are unknown; hence elucidating the downstream signaling of p38 should further our understanding. Downstream effectors include MAPK-activated protein kinase (MK)-3, which is expressed in many tissues including skeletal muscles and heart. We cloned full-length MK3 (MK3.1, 384 aa) and a novel splice variant (MK3.2, 266 aa) from murine heart. For MK3.2, skipping of exons 8 and 9 resulted in a frame-shift in translation of the first 85 base pairs of exon 10 followed by an in-frame stop codon. Of 3 putative phosphorylation sites for p38 MAPK, only Thr-203 remained functional in MK3.2. In addition, MK3.2 lacked nuclear localization and export signals. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the presence of these mRNA species in heart and skeletal muscle; however, the relative abundance of MK3.2 differed. Furthermore, whereas total MK3 mRNA was increased, the relative abundance of MK3.2 mRNA decreased in MK2(-/-) mice. Immunoblotting revealed 2 bands of MK3 immunoreactivity in ventricular lysates. Ectopically expressed MK3.1 localized to the nucleus whereas MK3.2 was distributed throughout the cell; however, whereas MK3.1 translocated to the cytoplasm in response to osmotic stress, MK3.2 was degraded. The p38alpha/beta inhibitor SB203580 prevented the degradation of MK3.2. Furthermore, replacing Thr-203 with alanine prevented the loss of MK3.2 following osmotic stress, as did pretreatment with the proteosome inhibitor MG132. In vitro, GST-MK3.1 was strongly phosphorylated by p38alpha and p38beta, but a poor substrate for p38delta and p38gamma. GST-MK3.2 was poorly phosphorylated by p38alpha and p38beta and not phosphorylated by p38delta and p38gamma. Hence, differential regulation of MKs may, in part, explain diverse downstream effects mediated by p38 signaling.


Asunto(s)
Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intracelular/metabolismo , Miocardio/enzimología , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/metabolismo , Empalme Alternativo , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Clonación Molecular , Quinasas MAP Reguladas por Señal Extracelular/metabolismo , Ventrículos Cardíacos/citología , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intracelular/análisis , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intracelular/genética , Ratones , Datos de Secuencia Molecular , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/análisis , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinasas p38 Activadas por Mitógenos/metabolismo
6.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 48(2): 310-21, 2010 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19769982

RESUMEN

While compelling evidence supports the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of heart failure, there is comparatively less information available on mitochondrial alterations that occur prior to failure. Building on our recent work with the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse heart, this review focuses on how early changes in mitochondrial functional phenotype occur prior to overt cardiomyopathy and may be a determinant for the development of adverse cardiac remodelling leading to failure. These include alterations in energy substrate utilization and signalling of cell death through increased permeability of mitochondrial membranes, which may result from abnormal calcium handling, and production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we will discuss evidence supporting the notion that these alterations in the dystrophin-deficient heart may represent an early "subclinical" signature of a defective nitric oxide/cGMP signalling pathway, as well as the potential benefit of mitochondria-targeted therapies. While the mdx mouse is an animal model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), changes in the structural integrity of dystrophin, the mutated cytoskeletal protein responsible for DMD, have also recently been implicated as a common mechanism for contractile dysfunction in heart failure. In fact, altogether our findings support a critical role for dystrophin in maintaining optimal coupling between metabolism and contraction in the heart.


Asunto(s)
Cardiomiopatías/complicaciones , Cardiomiopatías/fisiopatología , Corazón/fisiopatología , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/patología , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/complicaciones , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatología , Animales , Cardiomiopatías/patología , Muerte Celular , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares
7.
Mol Genet Metab ; 98(4): 349-55, 2009 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19640754

RESUMEN

Fibroblast cell lines are frequently used to diagnose genetic mitochondrial defects in children. The effect of enzyme deficiency on overall flux rate through metabolic pathways is, however, not generally considered. We have transposed an experimental paradigm that was developed for isolated perfused organs using (13)C-labeled substrates and (13)C-isotopomer analysis to probe pyruvate mitochondrial metabolism in cultured human fibroblast cell lines with normal or genetically mutant pyruvate decarboxylation (PDC) or carboxylation (PC) activity. Cells were incubated with 1mM [U-(13)C]pyruvate, and the (13)C-molar percent enrichment (MPE) of intracellular pyruvate, citrate, malate (as a surrogate of oxaloacetate) and aspartate was assessed by mass spectrometry. We estimated various flux ratios relevant to metabolic pathways involved in energy production, namely pyruvate formation, PDC, PC, and citrate recycling in the citric acid cycle (CAC). In all cell lines, exogenous pyruvate was predominately decarboxylated (PC/PDC ratios 0.01-0.3). PC-deficient cell lines displayed an expected negligible contribution of PC flux to oxaloacetate formation for citrate synthesis (PC/CS), which was associated with a greater contribution of PDC to acetyl-CoA formation (PDC/CS), and greater recycling of (13)C-labeled citrate into the CAC. In PDH-deficient cell lines, metabolic flux alterations were most apparent in cells with more than 50% reduction in enzyme activity. This led to an unexpected lower PC/CS flux ratio, while the PDC/CS flux ratio was unchanged. These data illustrate the usefulness of this approach in identifying unexpected metabolic consequences of genetic defects related to pyruvate metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Mutación/genética , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Línea Celular , Cromatografía Liquida , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Ciclo del Ácido Cítrico/efectos de los fármacos , Fibroblastos/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Marcaje Isotópico , Malatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Ácido Pirúvico/farmacología
8.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 45(2): 230-9, 2008 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18590915

RESUMEN

While the balance between carbohydrates and fatty acids for energy production appears to be crucial for cardiac homeostasis, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship. Given the reported benefits of cGMP signaling on the myocardium, we investigated the impact of its chronic activation on cardiac energy metabolism using mice overexpressing a constitutively active cytoplasmic guanylate cyclase (GC(+/0)) in cardiomyocytes. Ex vivo working GC(+/0) heart perfusions with (13)C-labeled substrates revealed an altered pattern of exogenous substrate fuel selection compared to controls, namely a 38+/-9% lower contribution of exogenous fatty acids to acetyl-CoA formation, while that of carbohydrates remains unchanged despite a two-fold increase in glycolysis. The lower contribution of exogenous fatty acids to energy production is not associated with changes in energy demand or supply (contractile function, oxygen consumption, tissue acetyl-CoA or CoA levels, citric acid cycle flux rate) or in the regulation of beta-oxidation (acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, tissue malonyl-CoA levels). However, GC(+/0) hearts show a two-fold increase in the incorporation of exogenous oleate into triglycerides. Furthermore, the following molecular data are consistent with a concomitant increase in triglyceride hydrolysis: (i) increased abundance of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) protein (24+/-11%) and mRNA (22+/-4%) as well as (ii) several phosphorylation events related to HSL inhibitory (AMPK) and activation (ERK 1/2) sites, which should contribute to enhance its activity. These changes in exogenous fatty acid trafficking in GC(+/0) hearts appear to be functionally relevant, as demonstrated by their resistance to fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation. While the documented metabolic profile of GC(+/0) mouse hearts is partly reminiscent of hypertrophied hearts, the observed changes in lipid trafficking have not been previously documented, and may be part of the molecular mechanism underlying the benefits of cGMP signaling on the myocardium.


Asunto(s)
GMP Cíclico/fisiología , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Miocitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Triglicéridos/antagonistas & inhibidores , Triglicéridos/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Animales , Transporte Biológico Activo/fisiología , Glucólisis/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , Miocitos Cardíacos/fisiología , Ácido Oléico/metabolismo
9.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 43(2): 119-29, 2007 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17583724

RESUMEN

The cytoskeletal protein dystrophin has been implicated in hereditary and acquired forms of cardiomyopathy. However, much remains to be learned about the role of dystrophin in the heart. We hypothesized that the dystrophin-deficient heart displays early alterations in energy metabolism that precede overt cardiomyopathy. We evaluated the metabolic and functional phenotype of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse hearts at 10-12 weeks, when no major histological or echocardiographic abnormalities are reported. Ex vivo working mdx heart perfusions with stable isotopes revealed a marked shift in substrate fuel selection from fatty acids to carbohydrates associated with enhanced oxygen consumption. They also unmasked in the mdx heart: (i) compromised cardiac contractile function and efficiency, (ii) reduced cellular integrity, and (iii) exacerbated alterations in mitochondrial citric acid cycle-related parameters and in nutrient signaling pathways related to Akt. The observed shift in substrate selection cannot be explained by metabolic gene remodeling. However, mdx mice hearts showed an increased expression of the atrial natriuretic factor (anf) gene, an activator of the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway and marker of cardiac remodeling, and, only as the cardiomyopathy progresses (at 25 weeks of age), an increased expression of the alpha1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase, which is known to negatively correlate with the activity NO/cGMP pathway. Collectively, our results highlight early metabolic and signaling alterations in the dystrophin-deficient heart, which may predispose these hearts to contractile dysfunction and sarcolemmal fragility. They also suggest the presence of a "sub-clinical" defect in the NO/cGMP pathway, which in vivo, at an early age, may be compensated by enhanced anf gene expression.


Asunto(s)
Cardiomiopatías/metabolismo , Distrofina/deficiencia , Miocardio/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Cardiomiopatías/fisiopatología , Citratos/biosíntesis , Ciclo del Ácido Cítrico , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Técnicas In Vitro , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Endogámicos mdx , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Piruvatos/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Especificidad por Sustrato , Función Ventricular Izquierda
10.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 291(3): R704-10, 2006 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16614063

RESUMEN

The precise mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle damage in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) remain ill-defined. Functional ischemia during muscle activation, with subsequent reperfusion during rest, has been documented. Therefore, one possibility is the presence of increased oxidative stress. We applied a model of acute hindlimb ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mdx mice (genetic homolog of DMD) to evaluate dynamic in vivo responses of dystrophic muscles to this form of oxidative stress. Before the application of I/R, mdx muscles showed: 1) decreased levels of total glutathione (GSH) with an increased oxidized (GSSG)-to-reduced (GSH) glutathione ratio; 2) greater activity of the GSH-metabolizing enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase; and 3) lower activity levels of NADP-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and aconitase, two metabolic enzymes that are sensitive to inactivation by oxidative stress and also implicated in GSH regeneration. Interestingly, nondystrophic muscles subjected to I/R exhibited similar changes in total glutathione, GSSG/GSH, GPx, ICDH, and aconitase. In contrast, all of the above remained stable in mdx muscles subjected to I/R. Taken together, these results suggest that mdx muscles are chronically subjected to increased oxidative stress, leading to adaptive changes that attempt to protect (although only in part) the dystrophic muscles from acute I/R-induced oxidative stress. In addition, mdx muscles show significant impairment of the redox-sensitive metabolic enzymes ICDH and aconitase, which may further contribute to contractile dysfunction in dystrophic muscles.


Asunto(s)
Glutatión/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Aconitato Hidratasa/metabolismo , Animales , Distrofina/genética , Distrofina/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Glutatión Reductasa/metabolismo , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos mdx , Músculo Esquelético/citología , Necrosis , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/metabolismo
11.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 288(3): H1425-36, 2005 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15550523

RESUMEN

The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a model of cardiomyopathy characterized by a restricted use of exogenous long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) for energy production. The aims of the present study were to document the functional and metabolic response of the SHR heart under conditions of increased energy demand and the effects of a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA; octanoate) supplementation in this situation. Hearts were perfused ex vivo in a working mode with physiological concentrations of substrates and hormones and subjected to an adrenergic stimulation (epinephrine, 10 microM). (13)C-labeled substrates were used to assess substrate selection for energy production. Compared with control Wistar rat hearts, SHR hearts showed an impaired response to the adrenergic stimulation as reflected by 1) a smaller increase in contractility and developed pressure, 2) a faster decline in the aortic flow, and 3) greater cardiac tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase release: 1,577 +/- 118 vs. 825 +/- 44 mU/min, P < 0.01). At the metabolic level, SHR hearts presented 1) a reduced exogenous LCFA contribution to the citric acid cycle flux (16 +/- 1 vs. 44 +/- 4%, P < 0.001) and an enhanced contribution of endogenous substrates (20 +/- 4 vs. 1 +/- 4%, P < 0.01); and 2) an increased lactate production from glycolysis, with a greater lactate-to-pyruvate production ratio. Addition of 0.2 mM octanoate reduced lactate dehydrogenase release (1,145 +/- 155 vs. 1,890 +/- 89 mU/min, P < 0.001) and increased exogenous fatty acid contribution to energy metabolism (23.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 15.8 +/- 0.8%, P < 0.01), which was accompanied by an equivalent decrease in unlabeled endogenous substrate contribution, possibly triglycerides (11.6 +/- 1.5 vs. 19.0 +/- 1.2%, P < 0.01). Taken altogether, these results demonstrate that the SHR heart shows an impaired capacity to withstand an acute adrenergic stress, which can be improved by increasing the contribution of exogenous fatty acid oxidation to energy production by MCFA supplementation.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Corazón/fisiología , Hipertensión/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico/metabolismo , Enfermedad Aguda , Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/farmacología , Animales , Peso Corporal , Isótopos de Carbono , Epinefrina/farmacología , Hipertensión/patología , Masculino , Miocardio/metabolismo , Miocardio/patología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Oxidación-Reducción , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas SHR , Ratas Endogámicas WKY , Ratas Wistar , Estrés Fisiológico/inducido químicamente , Estrés Fisiológico/patología
12.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 286(1): H257-66, 2004 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12933348

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to test the effect of increasing fatty acid concentrations on substrate fluxes through pathways leading to citrate synthesis and release in the heart. This was accomplished using semirecirculating work-performing rat hearts perfused with substrate mixtures mimicking the in situ milieu (5.5 mM glucose, 8 nM insulin, 1 mM lactate, 0.2 mM pyruvate, and 0.4 mM oleate-albumin) and 13C methods. Raising the fatty acid concentration from 0.4 to 1 mM with long-chain oleate or medium-chain octanoate resulted in a lowering ( approximately 20%) of cardiac output and efficiency with unaltered O2 consumption. At the metabolic level, beyond the expected effects of high fatty acid levels on the contribution of pyruvate decarboxylation (reduced >3-fold) and beta-oxidation (enhanced approximately 3-fold) to citrate synthesis, there was also a 2.4-fold lowering of anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation. Despite the dual inhibitory effect of high fatty acids on pyruvate decarboxylation and carboxylation, tissue citrate levels were twofold higher, but citrate release rates remained unchanged at 11-14 nmol/min, representing <0.5% of citric acid cycle flux. A similar trend was observed for most metabolic parameters after oleate or octanoate addition. Together, these results emphasize a differential modulation of anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and citrate release in the heart by fatty acids. We interpret the lack of effects of high fatty acid concentrations on citrate release rates as suggesting that, under physiological conditions, this process is maximal, probably limited by the activity of its mitochondrial or plasma membrane transporter. Limited citrate release at high fatty acid concentrations may have important consequences for the heart's fuel metabolism and function.


Asunto(s)
Citratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/fisiología , Contracción Miocárdica/fisiología , Miocardio/metabolismo , Aconitato Hidratasa/metabolismo , Animales , Citrato (si)-Sintasa/metabolismo , Ciclo del Ácido Cítrico , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Concentración Osmolar , Perfusión , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 286(4): H1461-70, 2004 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14670819

RESUMEN

The availability of genetically modified mice requires the development of methods to assess heart function and metabolism in the intact beating organ. With the use of radioactive substrates and ex vivo perfusion of the mouse heart in the working mode, previous studies have documented glucose and fatty acid oxidation pathways. This study was aimed at characterizing the metabolism of other potentially important exogenous carbohydrate sources, namely, lactate and pyruvate. This was achieved by using (13)C-labeling methods. The mouse heart perfusion setup and buffer composition were optimized to reproduce conditions close to the in vivo milieu in terms of workload, cardiac functions, and substrate-hormone supply to the heart (11 mM glucose, 0.8 nM insulin, 50 microM carnitine, 1.5 mM lactate, 0.2 mM pyruvate, 5 nM epinephrine, 0.7 mM oleate, and 3% albumin). The use of three differentially (13)C-labeled carbohydrates and a (13)C-labeled long-chain fatty acid allowed the quantitative assessment of the metabolic origin and fate of tissue pyruvate as well as the relative contribution of substrates feeding acetyl-CoA (pyruvate and fatty acids) and oxaloacetate (pyruvate) for mitochondrial citrate synthesis. Beyond concurring with the notion that the mouse heart preferentially uses fatty acids for energy production (63.5 +/- 3.9%) and regulates its fuel selection according to the Randle cycle, our study reports for the first time in the mouse heart the following findings. First, exogenous lactate is the major carbohydrate contributing to pyruvate formation (42.0 +/- 2.3%). Second, lactate and pyruvate are constantly being taken up and released by the heart, supporting the concept of compartmentation of lactate and glucose metabolism. Finally, mitochondrial anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and citrate efflux represent 4.9 +/- 1.8 and 0.8 +/- 0.1%, respectively, of the citric acid cycle flux and are modulated by substrate supply. The described (13)C-labeling strategy combined with an experimental setup that enables continuous monitoring of physiological parameters offers a unique model to clarify the link between metabolic alterations, cardiac dysfunction, and disease development.


Asunto(s)
Citratos/metabolismo , Miocardio/metabolismo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfato/biosíntesis , Animales , Isótopos de Carbono , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Glucosa/metabolismo , Hemodinámica/fisiología , Técnicas In Vitro , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Mitocondrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Miocardio/química , Ácido Oléico/metabolismo , Ácido Oxaloacético/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Perfusión
14.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 242(1-2): 89-99, 2003 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12619870

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study was to compare energy substrate fluxes through metabolic pathways leading to mitochondrial citrate synthesis and release in normal and diseased rat hearts using 13C-substrates and mass isotopomer analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). This study was prompted by our previous finding of a modulated citrate release by perfused rat hearts and by the possibility that a dysregulated myocardial citrate release represents a specific chronic alteration of energy metabolism in cardiac patients. The 15-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) was chosen as our animal model of disease and the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat as its matched control. Ex vivo work-performing hearts were perfused with a semi-recirculating buffer containing physiological concentrations of unlabeled (glucose) and 13C-labeled ([U-13C3](lactate + pyruvate) and/or [1-(13)C]oleate) substrates. In parallel to the continuous monitoring of indices of the heart's functional and physiological status, the following metabolic parameters were documented: (i) citrate release rates and citric acid cycle intermediate tissue levels, (ii) the contribution of fatty acids as well as pyruvate decarboxylation and carboxylation to citrate synthesis, and (iii) lactate and pyruvate uptake and efflux rates. Working hearts from both rat species showed a similar percent contribution of carbohydrates for citrate synthesis through decarboxylation (70%) and carboxylation (10%). SHR hearts showed the following metabolic alterations: a higher citrate release rate, which was associated with a parallel increase in its tissue level, a lower contribution of oleate beta-oxidation to citrate synthesis, and an accelerated efflux rate of unlabeled lactate from glycolysis. These metabolic changes were not explained by differences in myocardial oxygen consumption, cardiac performance or efficiency, nor correlated with indices of tissue necrosis or ischemia. This study demonstrates how the alliance between ex vivo semi-recirculating working perfused rat hearts with 13C-substrates and mass isotopomer analysis by GCMS, can provide an unprecedented insight into the metabolic phenotype of normal and diseased rat hearts. The clinical relevance of metabolic alterations herein documented in the SHR heart is suggested by its resemblance to those reported in cardiac patients. Taken altogether, our results raise the possibility that the increased citrate release of diseased hearts results from an imbalance between citrate synthesis and utilization rates, which becomes more apparent underconditions of substrate abundance.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético , Miocardio/metabolismo , Miocardio/patología , Perfusión/métodos , Animales , Isótopos de Carbono , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Técnicas In Vitro , Lactosa/metabolismo , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Fenotipo , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ratas
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