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3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990915

RESUMEN

The research explores the nexus between technological innovation and green growth in nine newly industrialized (NI) countries for the period from 2000 to 2016. Cross-sectional dependence and unit root tests are preliminary conducted. Pedroni's panel cointegration and fully modified OLS (FMOLS) confirm the existence of long-run variables association. The outcome from IPAT, STIRPAT, and MLR reveals that production and processing-related technologies are harmful to green growth. Climate change mitigation technologies linked to transportation, water treatment, and processing have a positive impact on green growth. However, energy consumption, generation, and transmission technologies hurt the environment. Similarly, energy consumption in the agriculture sector adds in greenhouse gas emission, whereas, renewable energy is contributing positively to green production and growth. Environmental taxes and research and development budgets are playing a decisive role in the pursuit of green growth. The results have significant policy implications for policymakers, which can lead to green growth.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897471

RESUMEN

The pandemic shock puts the world on quarantine and paused economic operations that affected energy consumption and economic output. This study analyzed the impact of the COVID-19 shock on GDP, energy consumption, and climate change then forecasted the situation until 2032 using the system dynamic modeling approach. The outcomes reveal that the pandemic shock will decrease the growth by 1.3% in 2020 and 1.32% in 2021. The current shortfall, low energy consumption, and delay in completion of energy-related projects can reduce the GDP by 5.2% in 2020. The effect will penetrate the system and will cause further losses in the upcoming years. The energy consumption and quarantine situation will improve the climate situation and drop the average temperature by 0.049 and 0.021 oC in 2020 and 2021. The aggregate demand and supply side measures such as national spending, lowering the lending rate, and cuts in income taxes can help in diffusing the situation. The government should start operations on ongoing energy projects, give relaxation to SME's with tight SOPs to secure jobs, and prevent possible GDP losses. The decline in oil prices provides an opportunity to cut fossil fuel subsidies and implement a carbon pricing mechanism.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611795

RESUMEN

Global poliovirus surveillance involves virus isolation from stool and environmental samples, intratypic differential (ITD) by PCR, and sequencing of the VP1 region to distinguish vaccine (Sabin), vaccine-derived, and wild-type polioviruses and to ensure an appropriate response. This cell culture algorithm takes 2 to 3 weeks on average between sample receipt and sequencing. Direct detection of viral RNA using PCR allows faster detection but has traditionally faced challenges related to poor sensitivity and difficulties in sequencing common samples containing poliovirus and enterovirus mixtures. We present a nested PCR and nanopore sequencing protocol that allows rapid (<3 days) and sensitive direct detection and sequencing of polioviruses in stool and environmental samples. We developed barcoded primers and a real-time analysis platform that generate accurate VP1 consensus sequences from multiplexed samples. The sensitivity and specificity of our protocol compared with those of cell culture were 90.9% (95% confidence interval, 75.7% to 98.1%) and 99.2% (95.5% to 100.0%) for wild-type 1 poliovirus, 92.5% (79.6% to 98.4%) and 98.7% (95.4% to 99.8%) for vaccine and vaccine-derived serotype 2 poliovirus, and 88.3% (81.2% to 93.5%) and 93.2% (88.6% to 96.3%) for Sabin 1 and 3 poliovirus alone or in mixtures when tested on 155 stool samples in Pakistan. Variant analysis of sequencing reads also allowed the identification of polioviruses and enteroviruses in artificial mixtures and was able to distinguish complex mixtures of polioviruses in environmental samples. The median identity of consensus nanopore sequences with Sanger or Illumina sequences from the same samples was >99.9%. This novel method shows promise as a faster and safer alternative to cell culture for the detection and real-time sequencing of polioviruses in stool and environmental samples.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008238, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598383

RESUMEN

Being an endemic country for Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), this study aimed to explore the genetic diversity of CCHF virus (CCHFV) detected in Pakistan during 2019. Serum samples from patients with clinical signs of hemorrhagic fever attending tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan were tested for CCHFV RNA using real-time PCR at Department of Virology, National Institute of Health. The partial S-gene fragments were directly sequenced to determine the prevailing CCHFV genotypes and their molecular epidemiology in Pakistan. During January-December 2019, 280 samples from suspected CCHF patients were tested and 28 (10%) were found positive on real-time PCR. Positive cases were detected from 14 districts and across all four provinces of Pakistan with majority reported during August-September. The mean age of CCHFV positive patients was 37.25 years (range 5-65 years) with a high frequency in males (92.8%; n = 26) and a case fatality rate of 40.7% was observed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S- segment of 2019 PAK CCHFV strains (n = 13) belonged to Asia-1 genotype and clustered with regional strains from Iran, Oman, and Afghanistan. We conclude that Asia-1 genotype of CCHF virus remains endemic in Pakistan. Our findings emphasize to establish a laboratory based surveillance program to monitor the disease burden and identify outbreak hotspots for effective control.


Asunto(s)
Variación Genética , Genotipo , Virus de la Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo/clasificación , Virus de la Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo/aislamiento & purificación , Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Virus de la Fiebre Hemorrágica de Crimea-Congo/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , ARN Viral/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Suero/virología , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(7): e58-e67, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665247

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is among 3 countries endemic for wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) circulation that are still struggling for eradication of poliomyelitis. Active clinical and environmental surveillance with meticulous laboratory investigations provide insights into poliovirus transmission patterns and genomic diversity to inform decisions for strategic operations required to achieve eradication. METHODS: We analyzed epidemiological and virological data to comprehend the current epidemiological status of WPV1 in Pakistan during 2015-2017. Stool specimens of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and sewage samples collected from 60 environmental sites were tested. Viral culturing, intratypic differentiation by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and nucleic acid sequencing of the VP1 region of the poliovirus genome to determine genetic relatedness among WPV1 strains were applied. RESULTS: Poliovirus isolates were grouped into 11 distinct clusters, which had ≥95% nucleotide homology in the VP1 coding region. Most of the poliovirus burden was shared by 3 major reservoirs: Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta block (64.2% in 2015, 75.4% in 2016, and 76.7% in 2017). CONCLUSIONS: Environmental surveillance reveals importations and pockets of unimmunized children that dictate intensive target mop-up campaigns to contain poliovirus transmission. A decrease in the number of orphan isolates reflects effective combination of AFP and environmental surveillance in Pakistan. The genetic data reflect sustained transmission within reservoir areas, further expanded by periodic importations to areas of high immunity reflected by immediate termination of imported viruses. Improved immunization coverage with high-quality surveillance is vital for global certification of polio eradication.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(24)2019 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835385

RESUMEN

Ultrawideband (UWB) antennas are widely used as core devices in high-speed wireless communication. A novel compact UWB monopole antenna with an additional narrow band for Wi-Fi applications comprising a metamaterial (MTM) is proposed in this paper. The antenna has a compact size of 27 × 33 mm2 and consists of a V-shaped slot with two rectangular slots in the radiation patch. The inductance and capacitance develop due to the V-shaped slot in the radiation patch. The proposed antenna has -10 dB bandwidths of 3.2 GHz to 14 GHz for UWB and 2.38 GHz to 2.57 GHz for narrowband, corresponding to 144% and 7.66% fractional bandwidths, respectively. The measured gain and efficiency meet the desired values for UWB and Wi-Fi applications. To verify the performance of the antenna, the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The simulated and measured results agree well at UWB frequencies and Wi-Fi frequencies, and the antenna can be used as a smart device for portable IoT applications.

11.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200551, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011304

RESUMEN

Poliovirus (PV) environmental surveillance (ES) plays an important role in the global eradication program and is crucial for monitoring silent PV circulation especially as clinical cases decrease. This study compared ES results using the novel bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) with the current two-phase separation method. From February to November 2016, BMFS and two-phase samples were collected concurrently from twelve sites in Pakistan (n = 117). Detection was higher in BMFS than two-phase samples for each Sabin-like (SL) PV serotype (p<0.001) and wild PV type 1 (WPV1) (p = 0.065). Seventeen sampling events were positive for WPV1, with eight discordant in favor of BMFS and two in favor of two-phase. A vaccine-derived PV type 2 was detected in one BMFS sample but not the matched two-phase. After the removal of SL PV type 2 (SL2) from the oral polio vaccine in April 2016, BMFS samples detected SL2 more frequently than two-phase (p = 0.016), with the last detection by either method occurring June 12, 2016. More frequent PV detection in BMFS compared to two-phase samples is likely due to the greater effective volume assayed (1620 mL vs. 150 mL). This study demonstrated that the BMFS achieves enhanced ES for all PV serotypes in an endemic country.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Filtración , Poliovirus , Serogrupo , Monitoreo del Ambiente/instrumentación , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Filtración/instrumentación , Filtración/métodos , Humanos , Pakistán/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Poliovirus/genética , Poliovirus/aislamiento & purificación
12.
J Med Virol ; 90(8): 1297-1303, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704426

RESUMEN

Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the measles virus continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles strains is an invaluable component of epidemiological studies or surveillance systems that provides important information pertinent to outbreak linkages and transmission pathways. Serum samples and throat swabs were collected from suspected measles cases from the Punjab province of Pakistan (2013-2015) and further tested for measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for molecular characterization. Among the total of 5415 blood samples, 59% tested positive for measles IgM. Males had a higher infection rate (55%) than females (45%), and the highest frequency of positive cases (63%) was found in the age group of 0 to 5 years. Partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that 27 strains belonged to the B3 genotype, whereas 2 viruses were identified as D4. On phylogenetic analysis, Pakistani B3 strains were found to be closely related to previously reported indigenous strains and those from neighboring countries of Iran and Qatar. This is the first report on the detection of the measles B3 genotype from Punjab, Pakistan. The current study shows a high burden of measles infections in Punjab province owing to poor routine immunization coverage in major cities. It is imperative that national health authorities adopt strategic steps on an urgent basis for improvement of routine immunization coverage. Molecular epidemiology of the measles viruses circulating in different parts of the country can provide useful data to manage future outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Genotipo , Virus del Sarampión/clasificación , Virus del Sarampión/genética , Sarampión/epidemiología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Niño , Preescolar , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Virus del Sarampión/aislamiento & purificación , Epidemiología Molecular , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Pakistán/epidemiología , Faringe/virología , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Suero/virología , Factores Sexuales , Proteínas Virales/genética , Adulto Joven
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 11(4): 540-545, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Measles virus infection remains a significant cause of childhood mortality and morbidity despite continued global efforts and the availability of a safe and effective vaccine. Molecular analysis of indigenous measles viruses could provide critical information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can aid the implementation of appropriate control programs in Pakistan. METHODS: Blood samples and throat swabs were collected from subjects suspected with measles in Islamabad, Pakistan from 2013 to 2015. Serum samples were tested for the presence of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while throat swabs were used for the isolation (Vero/SLAM cell line) and subsequent characterization and phylogenetic analysis of measles strains. RESULTS: Of 373 blood samples, 66% tested positive for measles IgM. Male subjects were more often infected (58%) than female (42%) with the highest frequency of positive cases (63%) in the 0-5-years age group. Among the positive cases, only 13% had received one or two doses of the measles vaccine, while 87% were unvaccinated. Of 80 throat swabs, 29 (36%) showed a measles virus-specific cytopathic effect (CPE) and were characterized as genotype B3 through partial sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the Pakistani B3 strains to be closely related to strains from neighboring countries (Iran and Afghanistan) as well as with B3 viruses from the USA, Germany, and the UK. CONCLUSIONS: The study results showed that despite the availability of an effective vaccine, the burden of measles infections is very high in Pakistan due to poor routine immunization coverage even in major cities, including the capital city of Islamabad. It is imperative that national health authorities take urgent strategic steps to improve routine immunization and implement adequate molecular identification methods to tackle future measles outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Genotipo , Virus del Sarampión/genética , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/virología , Afganistán/epidemiología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Sarampión/sangre , Sarampión/prevención & control , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Virus del Sarampión/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Pakistán/epidemiología , Faringe/virología , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Proteínas Virales/genética
14.
Arch Virol ; 162(12): 3603-3610, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803415

RESUMEN

Measles continues to be a major public health issue causing substantial outbreaks worldwide, mostly affecting young children. Molecular analysis of measles viruses provides important information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can be helpful towards implementation of appropriate control programs. In Pakistan, the control of measles is still tenuous, and progress towards elimination has been irregular and challenging. In the 2013 measles outbreak we received 4,682 sera collected from suspected patients in 23 districts across Sindh. A total of 3,283 samples were confirmed measles positive using IgM ELISA with the highest infection rate in children aged 1-12 months. Males were more affected than females and a visible peak was observed from January to April. Among the 3,283 cases, 59.1% were unvaccinated, 29.6% had received 1 dose and 10.3% had received 2 doses of measles vaccine while 0.85% had an unknown vaccination status. For genotype detection and phylogenetic analysis, 60 throat swab samples were collected from suspected patients below 15 years of age in eight districts of Sindh province. Forty four (73%; 44/60) throat swab samples were successfully genotyped using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of the nucleocapsid protein gene revealed that all Pakistani measles virus strains belonged to genotype B3 and were closely related to those isolated from neighboring countries such as Iran, Afghanistan (99.1-100%) and India with 98.6 - 99.6% nucleotide homology. This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of measles B3 genotype strains from Pakistan and highlights the need for strengthening the surveillance systems and improving immunization coverage across the country.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Genotipo , Virus del Sarampión/clasificación , Virus del Sarampión/aislamiento & purificación , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/virología , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Niño , Preescolar , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Técnicas de Genotipaje , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Lactante , Masculino , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Virus del Sarampión/genética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Factores Sexuales , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 53: 160-166, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527973

RESUMEN

As a part of strategy to control diarrheal diseases, World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to include rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs. Sentinel surveillance networks have been established to monitor rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution in both pre and post vaccine era in many countries. Unfortunately, due to lack of proper surveillance programs, data on rotavirus disease burden and genotype distribution from Pakistan is scarce. We investigated 502 stool samples from children (<5years) hospitalized due to gastroenteritis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan during 2014 for the presence of group A rotavirus (RVA) and its genotypic diversity. Among 147 ELISA positive samples, 131 were successfully genotyped for RVA. Common G types detected were G1 (23.6%), followed by G3 (22.9%), G12 (19.8%), G2 (19.08%) and G9 (9.9%). The most common P-type was P[8] (41.2%), followed by P[6] (29%) and P[4] (28.24%). G3P[8] (17.55%) was the most prevalent genotype combination followed by G12P[6] (16.7%), G2P[4] (15.2%) and G1P[8] (14.5%). Mixed infection of rotavirus G-P types was also observed in 6% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of Pakistani strains showed that G1, G2, G9 and P[4], P[6], P[8] were closely related to strains circulating worldwide as well as previously reported strains from Pakistan. Pakistani G12P[8] strains NIH-BBH-3981 and NIH-BBH-4003 belonged to lineage 3 cluster 3a along with strains from USA and Italy whereas G12P[6] strains NIH-BBH-3978, NIH-BBH-4052 and NIH-BBH-4444 were closely related to strains from Italy, Thailand, United Kingdom and with previously reported G12 strains from Pakistan within lineage 3 cluster 3b. This pre-vaccination data supports the need for RVA vaccine inclusion at our national level and will be helpful in assessing the effect of vaccination on RVA genotype diversity due to vaccine selection pressure once post-vaccination data becomes available.


Asunto(s)
Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/genética , Proteínas Virales/genética , Niño Hospitalizado , Preescolar , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Heces/virología , Femenino , Gastroenteritis/virología , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Epidemiología Molecular , Tipificación Molecular , Pakistán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Rotavirus/clasificación , Rotavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Rotavirus/virología , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
17.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 6(1): 48, 2017 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28274279

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus is the causative agent of dengue fever, a vector borne infection which causes self-limiting to life threatening disease in humans. A sero-epidemiological study was conducted to understand the current epidemiology of dengue virus in Pakistan which is now known as a dengue endemic country after its first reported outbreak in 1994. METHODS: To investigate the prevalence of dengue virus in Pakistan during 2009-2014, a total of 9,493 blood samples were screened for the detection of anti-dengue IgM antibodies using ELISA. Clinical and demographic features available with hospital records were reviewed to ascertain mortalities related to dengue hemorrhagic shock syndrome. RESULTS: Out of 9,493 samples tested, 37% (3,504) were found positive for anti-dengue IgM antibodies. Of the seropositive cases, 73.6% (2,578/3,504) were male and 26.4% (926/3,504) were female. The highest number (382/929; 41.1%) of sero-positive cases was observed among the individuals of age group 31-40 years. The highest number of symptomatic cases was reported in October (46%; 4,400/9,493), and the highest number of sero-positive cases among symptomatic cases was observed in November (45.7%; 806/1,764). Mean annual patient incidence (MAPI) during 2009-2014 in Pakistan remained 0.30 with the highest annual patient incidence (11.03) found in Islamabad. According to the available medical case record, 472 dengue related deaths were reported during 2009-2014. CONCLUSION: The data from earlier reports in Pakistan described the dengue virus incidence from limited areas of the country. Our findings are important considering the testing of clinical samples at a larger scale covering patients of vast geographical regions and warrants timely implementation of dengue vector surveillance and control programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: It is an epidemiological research study, so trial registration is not required.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Brotes de Enfermedades , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Dengue Grave/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Virus del Dengue/crecimiento & desarrollo , Virus del Dengue/patogenicidad , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , Estaciones del Año , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Dengue Grave/inmunología , Dengue Grave/mortalidad , Análisis de Supervivencia
18.
Acta Trop ; 169: 202-206, 2017 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28219668

RESUMEN

An outbreak of dengue fever was reported in Malakand district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan during 2015. Detection of viral RNA by real-time PCR confirmed dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3) to be the causative agent causing the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial E-NS1 gene sequences showed that the DENV-3 viruses belonged to genotype III with maximum homology with the dengue-3 strains previously reported from Pakistan and India. Our current report provides updated information on molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus serotypes responsible for 2015 outbreak in KP.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue/clasificación , Dengue/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Genotipo , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Laboratorios , Epidemiología Molecular , Pakistán/epidemiología , Filogenia , ARN Viral/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Serogrupo
19.
Ann Lab Med ; 37(2): 151-154, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28029002

RESUMEN

From 2013 to 2015, the National Institute of Health, Pakistan, received 1,270 blood samples of suspected dengue cases reported from inpatient and outpatient departments of various hospitals in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province. In this study, we determined the circulating dengue virus (DENV) serotypes using real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR to understand the serotype-based epidemiology of DENV. All four serotypes (DENV-1 [6%], DENV-2 [33%], DENV-3 [47%], and DENV-4 [0.1%]) were found circulating during the study period. Our findings suggest the need for an active surveillance system coupled with the laboratory diagnosis, especially in the chronic endemic areas of the country. Public awareness programs are needed for effective control and prevention of outbreaks in the future.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Dengue/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/virología , Virus del Dengue/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán/epidemiología , ARN Viral/genética , ARN Viral/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Serogrupo , Adulto Joven
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 48: 102-108, 2017 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011278

RESUMEN

Echovirus 13 (E-13) is reported worldwide and is mostly related to aseptic meningitis but it is also isolated from cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Unfortunately, all studies conducted on non polio enterovirus in Pakistan only confirm E-13 isolation based on microneutralization assay but there is lack of molecular epidemiological data on this serotype. In this study, 113 stool samples were collected from AFP patients during 2008-2010. An enterovirus primer mediated real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, a standard microneutralization assay and sequencing of viral protein 1 gene (VP1) identified the predominant serotype E-13. For molecular characterization, genetic relationship between 12 clinical isolates of echovirus 13 was investigated by partial sequencing of viral protein 1 gene. These strains, combined with related sequences from GenBank were divided phylogenetically into two different genogroups A and B (>30% divergence) and were found genetically distinct from the circulating strains in the world. Additionally, phylogenic grouping pattern revealed that the study strains clustered into three distinct subgroups (A3, A7 and B3) having >23% nucleotide divergence representing three new genotypes. The genotype A7 seems to be restricted geographically. In conclusion, the current study provides an overview of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of E-13 in the country. This study strongly suggests that enterovirus surveillance system should be established in the country to determine the temporal and geographical trends and disease pattern of different enterovirus serotypes in the community.


Asunto(s)
Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Infecciones por Enterovirus/virología , Parálisis/virología , Adulto , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Niño , Preescolar , Infecciones por Enterovirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Genes Virales , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Ratones , Pakistán/epidemiología , Parálisis/epidemiología , Filogenia , Proteínas Virales/genética
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