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1.
Epidemiology ; 32(1): 27-35, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259462

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Available studies on the prevalence of infertility have proved to have certain limitations, with a scarcity of population-based studies and inconsistent reporting from surveys in countries at all income levels. We wanted to test the applicability of the current duration approach to data from the important Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, funded by USAID since its inception in 1985, https://dhsprogram.com/. METHODS: The current duration approach assumes that there is a well-defined time of initiation of attempts to get pregnant and defines the current duration of a still ongoing pregnancy attempt as the time interval from initiation to interview. The DHS interviews do not have an explicit question about initiation. We focused on nullipari and substituted date of "establishment of relationship with current partner" for initiation. Our study used the current duration approach on 15 datasets from DHS during 2002-2016 in eight different countries from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. RESULTS: Well-established statistical techniques for current duration data yielded results that for some countries postulated surprisingly long median times to pregnancy and surprisingly high estimates of infertility prevalence. Further study of the data structures revealed serious deviations from expected patterns, in contrast to our earlier experience from surveys in France and the United States where participants were asked explicitly about time of initiation of attempts to become pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: Using cohabitation as a proxy for the initiation of attempts to get pregnant is too crude. Using the current duration approach with DHS data will require more explicit questions during the DHS interviews about initiation of pregnancy attempt.

2.
Contracept Reprod Med ; 5(1): 35, 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292708

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Women who use contraceptive methods sometimes stop early, use methods intermittently, or switched contraceptive methods. All these events (discontinuations and switching) contribute to the occurrence of unwanted and close pregnancies. This study aimed to explore contraceptive discontinuation and switching during the Yam-Daabo project to measure the effect of interventions on the continuation of contraceptive methods use. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Yam-Daabo trial data. We choose the discontinuation and switching of a modern contraceptive method as outcome measures. We performed a survival analysis using the Stata software package to estimate the effect of the interventions on contraceptive discontinuation. We also studied the main reasons for discontinuation and switching. RESULTS: In total, 637 out of the 1120 women used at least one contraceptive method (of any type), with 267 women in the control and 370 in the intervention group. One hundred seventy-nine women of the control group used modern methods compared to 279 women of the intervention group with 24 and 32 who discontinued, respectively. We observed no statistically significant association between interventions and modern methods discontinuation and switching. However, modern methods' discontinuation was higher in pills and injectables users than implants and IUDs users. The pooled data comparison showed that, in reference to the women who had not switched while using a modern method, the likelihood of switching to a less or equal effectiveness method among the women of the control group was 3.8(95% CI: 1.8-8.0) times the likelihood of switching to a less or equal effectiveness method among the women of the intervention group. And this excess was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The main reason for discontinuation and switching was method-related (141 over 199), followed by partner opposition with 20 women. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show no statistically significant association between interventions and modern methods discontinuation. Discontinuation is more related to the methods themselves than to any other factor. It is also essential to set up specific actions targeting women's partners and influential people in the community to counter inhibiting beliefs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR201609001784334, https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=1784 ).

3.
Elife ; 92020 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382036

RESUMEN

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the commonest cause of congenital infection and particularly so among infants born to HIV-infected women. Studies of congenital CMV infection (cCMVi) pathogenesis are complicated by the presence of multiple infecting maternal CMV strains, especially in HIV-positive women, and the large, recombinant CMV genome. Using newly developed tools to reconstruct CMV haplotypes, we demonstrate anatomic CMV compartmentalization in five HIV-infected mothers and identify the possibility of congenitally transmitted genotypes in three of their infants. A single CMV strain was transmitted in each congenitally infected case, and all were closely related to those that predominate in the cognate maternal cervix. Compared to non-transmitted strains, these congenitally transmitted CMV strains showed statistically significant similarities in 19 genes associated with tissue tropism and immunomodulation. In all infants, incident superinfections with distinct strains from breast milk were captured during follow-up. The results represent potentially important new insights into the virologic determinants of early CMV infection.

4.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e042951, 2020 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172951

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Infertility, a condition of the reproductive system, affects millions of individuals and couples worldwide. Despite infertility treatment's existence, it is largely unavailable and inaccessible in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) due to the prohibitive costs compounded by an absence of financing. Previous systematic reviews have shown that there is scanty information in LMICs on out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for infertility treatment. This protocol outlines the methodological approach and analytical process to appraise the extent of economic burden due to payments for infertility care services in LMICs. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses approach, we will primarily search for articles indexed in PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EconLit and PsycINFO databases. Grey literature from relevant organisations' virtual libraries shall also be searched. Backward and forward searches on the articles selected will also be done. Quantitative studies on infertility treatment costs from LMICs across the world regions within the last 20 years will be considered. The primary outcome of interest shall include OOP payments, catastrophic health expenditure and direct costs for infertility services. Conversely, informal payments and indirect costs related to infertility treatments shall be considered as secondary outcomes. Integrated quality Criteria for Review Of Multiple Study designs will be used to assess the quality of the studies included in the review. Meta-analysis shall be considered if sufficient studies identified are homogenous in characteristics. Also, the review shall analyse the average cost of infertility treatment against the respective countries' economic indicators like gross domestic product per capita if data permit. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research and ethics approval will not be required given this will be a review of published articles on the subject. The findings shall be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presentation to the WHO and its partners. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020199312.

5.
Gates Open Res ; 4: 26, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134856

RESUMEN

Background: There are numerous barriers leading to a high unmet need for family planning and contraceptives (FP/C).  These include limited knowledge and information, poor access to quality services, structural inefficiencies in service provision and inadequately trained and supervised health professionals. Recently, social accountability programs have shown promising results in addressing barriers to accessing sexual and reproductive health services. As a highly complex participatory process with multiple and interrelated components, steps and actors, studying social accountability poses methodological challenges. The Community and Provider driven Social Accountability Intervention (CaPSAI) Project study protocol was developed to measure the impact of a social accountability process on contraceptive uptake and use and to understand the mechanisms and contextual factors that influence and generate these effects (with emphasis on health services actors and community members). Methods: CaPSAI Project is implementing a social accountability intervention where service users and providers assess the quality of local FP/C services and jointly identify ways to improve the delivery and quality of such services. In the project, a quasi-experimental study utilizing an interrupted time series design with a control group is conducted in eight intervention and eight control facilities in each study country, which are Ghana and Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey of service users and health care providers is used to measure social accountability outcomes, and a cohort of women who are new users of FP/C is followed up after the completion of the intervention to measure contraceptive use and continuation. The process evaluation utilizes a range of methods and data sources to enable a fuller description of how the findings were produced. Conclusion: This complex study design could provide researchers and implementers with the means to better measure and understand the mechanisms and contextual factors that influence social accountability processes in reproductive health, adding important findings to the evidence base.

6.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infertility affects 48.5 million couples worldwide with a prevalence estimated at 3.5-16.7% in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and as high as 30-40% in Sub-Saharan Africa. ART services are not accessible to the majority of these infertile couples due to the high cost of treatments in addition to cultural, religious and legal barriers. Infertility and childlessness, particularly in LMIC, have devastating consequences, which has resulted in considerable interest in developing affordable IVF procedures. However, there is a paucity of evidence on the safety, efficiency and ability to replicate techniques under different field conditions, and how to integrate more affordable ART options into existing infrastructures. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review was performed to investigate the current availability of IVF in LMIC and which other ART options are under development. This work will unfold the landscape of available and potential ART services in LMIC and is a key element in positioning infertility more broadly in the Global Public Health Agenda. SEARCH METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed of articles and gray literature on IVF and other ART options in LMIC published between January 2010 and January 2020. We selected studies on IVF and other ART treatments for infertile couples of reproductive age (18-44 years) from LMIC. The review was limited to articles published after 2010, based on the recent evolution in the field of ART practices in LMIC over the last decade. Citations from high-income countries, including data prior to 2010 and focusing on specialized ART procedures, were excluded. The literature search included PubMed, Popline, CINHAL, EMBASE and Global Index Medicus. No restrictions were applied with regard to study design or language. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, and extracted data. A search for gray literature was performed using the 'Google' search engine and specific databases (worldcat.org, greylit.org). In addition, the reference lists of included studies were assessed. OUTCOMES: The search of the electronic databases yielded 3769 citations. After review of the titles and abstracts, 283 studies were included. The full texts were reviewed and a further 199 articles were excluded. The gray literature search yielded 586 citations, most of which were excluded after screening the title, and the remaining documents were excluded after full-text assessment due to duplicate entries, not from LMIC, not relevant or no access to the full document. Eighty-four citations were included as part of the review and separated into regions. The majority of the studies were observational and qualitative studies. In general, ART services are available and described in several LMIC, ranging from advanced techniques in China to basic introduction of IVF in some African countries. Efforts to provide affordable ART treatments are described in feasibility studies and efficacy studies; however, most citations were of low to very low quality. We found no studies from LMIC reporting the implementation of low-cost ART that is effective, accessible and affordable to most of those in need of the services. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The World Health Organization is in a unique position to provide much needed guidance for infertility management in LMIC. This review provides insight into the landscape of ART in LMIC in various regions worldwide, which will guide efforts to improve the availability, quality, accessibility and acceptability of biomedical infertility care, including ART in these countries.

9.
Obstet Gynecol Int ; 2020: 1675987, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565820

RESUMEN

Introduction: A large proportion of new HIV infections occur within discordant partnerships making discordance a significant contributor to new HIV infections in Africa. Despite the role of preconception care for HIV discordant couples, there is little data on fertility desire and preconception care uptake. This study aimed at documenting fertility desire (desire to conceive), determining the uptake of preconception care, identifying HIV prevention strategies used during preconception care, and determining immediate conception outcomes among HIV discordant couples in Kenya. Methods: We retrospectively extracted electronic medical record data on discordant couples at an HIV care discordant couples' clinic. We included data on couples who expressed a desire to conceive and were offered preconception care and followed up for 29 months. We collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, preconception prevention methods, and associated outcomes. Results: Among couples, with male HIV-positive partners, there was a twofold likelihood of accepting preconception services (OR = 2.3, CI 95% (1, 1, 5.0)). A shorter discordant union was independently associated with the uptake of preconception services (OR = 0.92, CI 95% (0.86, 0.98)). The most used prevention intervention (38.5%) among discordant couples was a combination of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) by the uninfected partner, alongside HAART by the partner living with HIV. Pregnancy rates did not significantly (p = 0.06) differ among those who took up preconception care versus those who did not. HIV-negative partners of couples who declined preconception care had a significantly (p = 0.04) higher attrition from clinic follow-up. One confirmed seroconversion occurred; an HIV incidence rate of 0.19 per 100 person-years. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing safe and effective preconception servicesas part of routine HIV care for discordant couples living in low resource settings. The provision and the utilisation of safer conception services may be hindered by the poor retention to follow-up and care of HIV-negative partners. This challenge may impede the expected benefits of preconception care as an HIV prevention intervention.

10.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 May 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423944

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To provide an in-depth systematic assessment of the global epidemiology of gonorrhoea infection in infertile populations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted up to 29 April 2019 on international databases and WHO regional databases, and reported following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. All prevalence measures of gonorrhoea infection among infertile populations, based on primary data, qualified for inclusion. Infertile populations were broadly defined to encompass women/men undergoing infertility evaluation or treatment (infertility clinic attendees and partners). Pooled mean prevalence by relevant strata was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. Associations with prevalence and sources of heterogeneity were explored using metaregression. Risk of bias was assessed using four quality domains. FINDINGS: A total of 147 gonorrhoea prevalence studies were identified from 56 countries. The pooled mean prevalence of current gonorrhoea infection was estimated globally at 2.2% (95% CI 1.3% to 3.2%), with the highest prevalence in Africa at 5.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 9.3%). The mean prevalence was higher for populations with tubal factor infertility (3.6%, 95% CI 0.9%-7.7%) and mixed cause and unexplained infertility (3.6%, 95% CI 0.0% to 11.6%) compared with other diagnoses, such as ovarian and non-tubal infertility (0.1%, 95% CI 0.0% to 0.8%), and for secondary (2.5%, 95% CI 0.2% to 6.5%) compared with primary (0.5%, 95% CI 0.0% to 1.7%) infertility. Metaregression identified evidence of variations in prevalence by region and by infertility diagnosis, higher prevalence in women than men and a small-study effect. There was a trend of declining prevalence by about 3% per year over the last four decades (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea prevalence in infertile populations is several folds higher than that in the general population, with even higher prevalence in women with tubal factor infertility and in individuals with secondary infertility. These findings support the potential role of gonorrhoea in infertility and suggest that some infertility is possibly preventable by controlling gonorrhoea transmission. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018102934.

11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 342-347, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241905

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: In 2016, WHO estimated 376 million new cases of the four main curable STIs: gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis and syphilis. Further, an estimated 290 million women are infected with human papillomavirus. STIs may lead to severe reproductive health sequelae. Low-income and middle-income countries carry the highest global burden of STIs. A large proportion of urogenital and the vast majority of extragenital non-viral STI cases are asymptomatic. Screening key populations and early and accurate diagnosis are important to provide correct treatment and to control the spread of STIs. This article paints a picture of the state of technology of STI point-of-care testing (POCT) and its implications for health system integration. METHODS: The material for the STI POCT landscape was gathered from publicly available information, published and unpublished reports and prospectuses, and interviews with developers and manufacturers. RESULTS: The development of STI POCT is moving rapidly, and there are much more tests in the pipeline than in 2014, when the first STI POCT landscape analysis was published on the website of WHO. Several of the available tests need to be evaluated independently both in the laboratory and, of particular importance, in different points of care. CONCLUSION: This article reiterates the importance of accurate, rapid and affordable POCT to reach universal health coverage. While highlighting the rapid technical advances in this area, we argue that insufficient attention is being paid to health systems capacity and conditions to ensure the swift and rapid integration of current and future STI POCT. Unless the complexity of health systems, including context, institutions, adoption systems and problem perception, are recognised and mapped, simplistic approaches to policy design and programme implementation will result in poor realisation of intended outcomes and impact.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Pruebas en el Punto de Atención/organización & administración , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Chlamydia/prevención & control , Infecciones por Chlamydia/transmisión , Femenino , Gonorrea/diagnóstico , Gonorrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Gonorrea/prevención & control , Gonorrea/transmisión , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Ciencia de la Implementación , Masculino , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/prevención & control , Infecciones por Mycoplasma/transmisión , Mycoplasma genitalium , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/transmisión , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamiento farmacológico , Sífilis/prevención & control , Sífilis/transmisión , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/prevención & control , Vaginitis por Trichomonas/transmisión
12.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(3): e15569, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual well-being is fundamental to physical and emotional health, and the ability to achieve it depends on access to comprehensive sexuality information and high-quality sexual health care from evidence-informed, nonjudgmental providers. Adequate and timely delivery of these components to individuals who are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and unintended pregnancies promotes sexual health and mitigates consequences arising from risky sexual behavior. Brief interventions that allow health care providers to improve the information available to clients and motivate and help them to develop risk-reduction skills are seen as efficient ways to improve knowledge, change client behavior, and reduce provider stigma regarding sexual health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate five aspects of feasibility (acceptability, willingness, safety, satisfaction, and process) of a brief sexuality-related communication (BSC) intervention based on motivational interviewing and behavior change techniques in primary health care settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: This protocol outlines a multisite, multiphase study of feasibility of a BSC intervention in primary health care settings in LMICs that will be examined across four phases of the study. Phases I through III involve the collection of formative, qualitative data to examine provider and client perceptions of the feasibility of the intervention, adaptation of the intervention guide, and training providers on how to implement the final version of the BSC intervention. During phase IV, the feasibility of the intervention will be tested in a nonrandomized pre-post test trial where providers and clients will be followed for 6 months and participate in multiphase data collection. RESULTS: Phase I is currently underway in Moldova, and phases I and II were completed in Peru in late 2019. Results are expected for the feasibility study in 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This feasibility study will determine whether the implementation of brief intervention programs aimed at improving sexual health outcomes is possible in the constraints of LMIC health systems and will add to our understanding of factors shaping clinical practice among primary care providers. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/15569.

13.
Lancet ; 395(10222): e27, 2020 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035562
14.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 46(1): 8-16, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919239

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To update a 2016 systematic review on hormonal contraception use and HIV acquisition. METHODS: We searched Pubmed and Embase between 15 January 2016 and 26 June 2019 for longitudinal studies comparing incident HIV infection among women using a hormonal contraceptive method and either non-users or users of another specific hormonal contraceptive method. We extracted information from newly identified studies, assessed study quality, and updated forest plots and meta-analyses. RESULTS: In addition to 31 previously included studies, five more were identified; three provided higher quality evidence. A randomised clinical trial (RCT) found no statistically significant differences in HIV risk among users of intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), levonorgestrel implant (LNG implant) or the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). An observational study found no statistically significant differences in HIV risk among women using DMPA, norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN), implants (type not specified) or Cu-IUD. Updated results from a previously included observational study continued to find a statistically significant increased HIV risk with oral contraceptives and DMPA compared with no contraceptive use, and found no association between LNG implant and HIV risk. CONCLUSIONS: High-quality RCT data comparing use of DMPA, LNG implant and Cu-IUD does not support previous concerns from observational studies that DMPA-IM use increases the risk of HIV acquisition. Use of other hormonal contraceptive methods (oral contraceptives, NET-EN and implants) is not associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Anticoncepción Hormonal/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Anticoncepción Hormonal/métodos , Humanos
15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(6): 457-463, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919275

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: HIV infection increases the risk of high-grade cervical neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma. The study addresses the limited data describing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical neoplasia among HIV-infected women in HIV-discordant relationships in sub-Saharan Africa, which is needed to inform screening strategies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of HIV-infected women with HIV-uninfected partners was conducted to determine the distribution of type-specific HPV infection and cervical cytology. This study was nested in a prospective cohort recruited between September 2007 and December 2009 in Nairobi, Kenya. Cervical cells for HPV DNA testing and conventional cervical cytology were collected. HPV types were detected and genotyped by Roche Linear Array PCR assay. RESULTS: Among 283 women, the overall HPV prevalence was 62%, and 132 (47%) had ≥1 high-risk (HR)-HPV genotype. Of 268 women with cervical cytology results, 18 (7%) had high-grade cervical lesions or more severe by cytology, of whom 16 (89%) were HR-HPV-positive compared with 82 (41%) of 199 women with normal cytology (p<0.001). The most common HR-HPV types in women with a high-grade lesion or more severe by cytology were HPV-52 (44%), HPV-31 (22%), HPV-35 (22%), HPV-51 (22%) and HPV-58 (22%). HR-HPV genotypes HPV-16 or HPV-18 were found in 17% of women with high-grade lesions or more severe. HR-HPV screening applied in this population would detect 89% of those with a high-grade lesion or more severe, while 44% of women with normal or low-grade cytology would screen positive. CONCLUSION: HR-HPV prevalence was high in this population of HIV-infected women with an uninfected partner. Choice of screening for all HR genotypes versus a subset of HR genotypes in these HIV-infected women will strongly affect the performance of an HPV screening strategy relative to cytological screening. Regional and subpopulation differences in HR-HPV genotype distributions could affect screening test performance.


Asunto(s)
Células Escamosas Atípicas del Cuello del Útero , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Lesiones Intraepiteliales Escamosas de Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Células Escamosas Atípicas del Cuello del Útero/virología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/virología , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Parejas Sexuales , Lesiones Intraepiteliales Escamosas de Cuello Uterino/virología , Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino/virología , Adulto Joven
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(3): e399-e410, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958404

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In rural Burkina Faso, a package of six low-technology, post-partum contraceptive interventions (ie, refresher training for providers, a counselling tool, supportive supervision, daily availability of contraceptive services, client appointment cards, and invitation letters to attend appointments for partners), aimed at strengthening existing primary health-care services and enhancing demand for them, doubled the use of modern contraceptives at 12 months post partum (ie, 55% uptake in intervention recipients vs 29% in routine-care users). This study assessed the effect of a similar package but in urban settings of Kinshasa province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in an effort to reduce the unmet need for post-partum family planning. METHODS: Yam Daabo was a multi-intervention, single-blinded, cluster-randomised controlled trial done in six primary health-care centres (clusters) in Kinshasa. Centres were randomly allocated to receive the six-component intervention or standard antenatal and postnatal care in matched pairs (1:1) on the basis of number of monthly births, the ratio of health workers per population in the health zone, and the urban and suburban settings. Only data analysts could be masked to cluster allocation. Health-care facilities were eligible if they provided a continuum of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care, were well stocked with contraceptives, and were situated close to the main study centre. All pregnant women presenting to the six centres were eligible if they were in their third pregnancy trimester and had no counterindications to deliver in the facility. The main outcome was prevalence of use of modern contraceptives at 12 months after delivery. Analysis was by modified intention-to-treat using generalised linear mixed models or Fisher's exact test for small groups. Prevalence ratios were adjusted for cluster effects and baseline characteristics. This study was registered with the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR201609001784334). FINDINGS: From July 1, 2016, to Feb 2, 2017, eight of 52 clinics assessed for eligibility met the criteria and were randomised. Of 690 women approached, 576 (83%) women were enrolled: 286 in the four intervention clusters and 290 in the four control clusters. Of them, 519 (90%) completed the 12-month study exit interview (252 in the intervention group and 267 in the control group) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 12 months, 115 (46%) of 252 women in the intervention group and 94 (35%) of 267 in the control group were using modern contraceptives (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 1·58, 95% CI 0·74-3·38), with significant differences in the use of contraceptive implants (22% vs 6%; adjusted PR 4·36, 95% CI 1·96-9·70), but without difference in the use of short-acting contraceptives (23% vs 28%; 0·92, 0·29-2·98) and non-modern or inappropriate methods (7% vs 18%; 0·45, 0·13-1·54). There were no serious adverse events or maternal deaths related to the study. INTERPRETATION: The Yam Daabo intervention package did not have a significant effect on the overall use of effective modern contraceptives but significantly increased implant use in women post partum who live in urban settings in Kinshasa up to a year after childbirth. However, interferences from external family planning initiatives in the control group might have diminished differences between the services received. Such an intervention could be potentially relevant in similar contexts in DR Congo and other countries. FUNDING: Government of France; UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Periodo Posparto , Adolescente , Adulto , República Democrática del Congo , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Método Simple Ciego , Adulto Joven
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 18: 100239, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956856

RESUMEN

Background: Pre-treatment HIV-drug-resistance (PDR) to WHO-recommended 1st-line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) is increasing in low-resource communities. We evaluated the risk of PDR on treatment failure if detected at single or multiple codons, at minority (2-9%) or higher (≥10%) frequencies during efavirenz- vs. nevirapine-ART. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis across three cohorts of Kenyans initiating 1st-line NNRTI-ART between 2006 and 2014. Mutations K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184V and K65R were detected by an oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) and confirmed by Sanger and next-generation sequencing (NGS). PDR was defined as detection of any mutation by OLA when confirmed by NGS. Treatment failure, defined as plasma HIV RNA ≥400 copies/mL at month-12 of ART, was compared by PDR genotypes. Findings: PDR was detected in 59/1231 (4·8%) participants. Compared to wild-type genotypes, PDR in participants prescribed nevirapine-ART was associated with increased treatment failure [PDR 69·2% (27/39) vs. wild-type 10·4% (70/674); p = 0·0001], whether detected as minority [66·7% (4/6)] or higher [69·7% (23/33)] frequencies in an individual's HIV quasispecies (p = 0·002 and p < 0·0001, respectively), or mutations at single [50·0% (12/24)] or multiple [100·0% (15/15)] codons (p < 0·0001). During efavirenz-ART, PDR was also associated with increased virologic failure [PDR 25·0% (5/20) vs. wild-type 5·0% (25/498); p = 0·005], but only if detected at multiple drug-resistant codons [50·0% (3/6); p = 0·003] or high frequencies PDR [33·3% (5/15); p = 0·001]. Interpretation: The risk that PDR confers for treatment failure varies by number of mutant codons and their frequency in the quasispecies, with a lower risk for efavirenz- compared to nevirapine-based regimens. PDR detection and management could extend the effective use of efavirenz-ART in low-resource settings. Funding: NIH, PEPFAR.

18.
Lancet HIV ; 7(2): e104-e112, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although experts have recommended testing for pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, there is little evidence to support its implementation. We aimed to establish whether an inexpensive point mutation assay can improve virological suppression by identifying PDR to guide drug selection for ART in a lower-middle income country. METHODS: Investigators did an open-label, randomised controlled trial at three HIV treatment sites in Kenya: two in Nairobi and one in rural Maseno. Individuals (aged ≥2 years) were eligible to participate if they were confirmed HIV-seropositive, qualified for first-line ART, planned to reside in the area for more than 1 year, and provided informed consent. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either PDR testing by oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) to guide selection of ART or to standard of care, which did not include OLA testing. The OLA-guided therapy group had pre-ART peripheral blood mononuclear cells evaluated for drug resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) at codons Lys103Asn, Tyr181Cys, Gly190Ala, and to lamivudine at Met184Val, and when at least one drug-resistant codon was detected in a participant's pre-ART specimen, clinicians were directed to prescribe protease inhibitor-based second-line ART. Those without detected resistance and those who were randomised to standard of care received NNRTI-based first-line ART. The primary outcome was plasma HIV-1 RNA of at least 400 copies per mL at 4, 8, or 12 months after ART initiation, which defined virological failure, assessed in all participants who received treatment (data were censored for those lost-to-follow-up or who died). The study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01898754. FINDINGS: We screened 1198 participants between May 28, 2013, and Nov 4, 2014, of whom 991 (83%) were enrolled (492 received OLA and 495 received standard of care; four did not begin treatment). 93 participants (prevalence 9·4%) had PDR (95% CI 7·7-11·4). 34 (8·5%) of 400 participants in the OLA group had virological failure at month 12 of ART (95% CI 6·0-11·7) compared with 39 (9·7%) of 402 (7·0-13·0) in the standard-of-care group (log-rank p=0·26). Among participants with PDR, virological failure was lower in the OLA-guided therapy group than in the standard-of-care group: five (14%) of 35 compared with 13 (50%) of 26; p=0·0020). Among those prescribed NNRTI-based ART, participants given efavirenz were less likely to have virological failure than were those receiving nevirapine (odds ratio 0·37, 95% CI 0·22-0·62; p<0·0001). The OLA-guided therapy group had 39 serious non-lethal adverse events and 34 deaths. The standard-of-care group had 34 severe adverse events and 43 deaths, differences that were not significant. Adverse events judged to potentially be due to ART were few and similar between groups, with 17 (16%) in the OLA-guided therapy group and 16 (16%) in the standard-of-care group (p=0·90). INTERPRETATION: Our finding that OLA testing for PDR reduced virological failure in only those with specific PDR mutations suggests that PDR poses less of a risk for virological failure than that predicted by past prevalence estimates, and that the value of PDR testing to reduce virological failure should be assessed for antiretroviral treatment regimens. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH-1/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/virología , VIH-1/genética , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mutación , Inhibidores de Proteasas/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento , Carga Viral/efectos de los fármacos
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 995, 2019 Dec 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878946

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of Chinese migrants in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is increasing, which is part of the south-south migration. The healthcare seeking challenges for Chinese migrants in Africa are different from local people and other global migrants. The aim of this study is to explore utilization of local health services and barriers to health services access among Chinese migrants in Kenya. METHODS: Thirteen in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among Chinese migrants (n = 32) and healthcare-related stakeholders (n = 3) in Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya. Data was collected, transcribed, translated, and analyzed for themes. RESULTS: Chinese migrants in Kenya preferred self-treatment by taking medicines from China. When ailments did not improve, they then sought care at clinics providing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) or received treatment at Kenyan private healthcare facilities. Returning to China for care was also an option depending on the perceived severity of disease. The main supply-side barriers to local healthcare utilization by Chinese migrants were language and lack of health insurance. The main demand-side barriers included ignorance of available healthcare services and distrust of local medical care. CONCLUSIONS: Providing information on quality healthcare services in Kenya, which includes Chinese language translation assistance, may improve utilization of local healthcare facilities by Chinese migrants in the country.


Asunto(s)
Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Adulto , China/etnología , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Kenia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos
20.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(11): 783-788, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673194

RESUMEN

Problem: In Burkina Faso, the coverage of services for family planning is low due to shortage of qualified health staff and limited access to services. Approach: Following the launch of the Ouagadougou Partnership, an alliance to catalyse the expansion of family planning services, the health ministry created a consortium of family planning stakeholders in 2011. The consortium adopted a collaborative framework to implement a pilot project for task sharing in family planning at community and primary health-care centre levels in two rural districts. Stakeholders were responsible for their areas of expertise. These areas included advocacy; monitoring and evaluation; and capacity development of community health workers (CHWs) to offer oral and injectable contraceptives to new users and of auxiliary nurses and auxiliary midwives to provide implants and intrauterine devices. The health ministry implemented supportive supervision cascades involving relevant planning and service levels. Local setting: In Burkina Faso, only 15% (2563/17 087) of married women used modern contraceptives in 2010. Relevant changes: Adoption of new policies and clinical care standards expanded task sharing roles in family planning. The consortium trained a total of 79 CHWs and 124 auxiliary nurses and midwives. Between January 2017 and December 2018, CHWs provided injectables to 3698 new users, and auxiliary nurses or midwives provided 726 intrauterine devices and 2574 implants to new users. No safety issues were reported. Lessons learnt: The pilot project was feasible and safe, however, financial constraints are hindering scale-up efforts. Supportive supervision cascades were critical in ensuring success.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Relaciones Interinstitucionales , Burkina Faso , Conducta Anticonceptiva , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/métodos , Servicios de Planificación Familiar/organización & administración , Femenino , Política de Salud , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Embarazo
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