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3.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 13: 31, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080500

RESUMEN

Worldwide, people with mental disorders are detained within the justice system at higher rates than the general population and often suffer human rights abuses. This review sought to understand the state of knowledge on the mental health of people detained in the justice system in Africa, including epidemiology, conditions of detention, and interventions. We included all primary research studies examining mental disorders or mental health policy related to detention within the justice system in Africa. 80 met inclusion criteria. 67% were prevalence studies and meta-analysis of these studies revealed pooled prevalence as follows: substance use 38% (95% CI 26-50%), mood disorders 22% (95% CI 16-28%), and psychotic disorders 33% (95% CI 28-37%). There were only three studies of interventions. Studies examined prisons (46%), forensic hospital settings (37%), youth institutions (13%), or the health system (4%). In 36% of studies, the majority of participants had not been convicted of a crime. Given the high heterogeneity in subpopulations identified in this review, future research should examine context and population-specific interventions for people with mental disorders.

5.
Glob Health Action ; 11(1): 1496888, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058477

RESUMEN

In November 2017, following a military intervention, Robert Mugabe was forced to resign as president of Zimbabwe - where he had ruthlessly ruled since 1980. Mugabe's regime was responsible for destroying the country's excellent health system. I argue that this is a unique moment for health reform in Zimbabwe. This reform should focus on three areas: (1) repairing relationships with the international community by focusing on human rights and eliminating corruption, (2) strengthening the health workforce through retention strategies, training, and non-specialist providers, and (3) community engagement. The future of Zimbabwe's health system is in limbo, and now is a unique opportunity to make positive change.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Programas de Gobierno/tendencias , Reforma de la Atención de Salud/tendencias , Predicción , Humanos , Zimbabwe
7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 4(11): 876-886, 2017 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28625876

RESUMEN

There has been little external analysis of Zimbabwe's mental health system. We did a systems analysis to identify bottlenecks and opportunities for mental health service improvement in Zimbabwe and to generate cost-effective, policy-relevant solutions. We combined in-depth interviews with a range of key stakeholders in health and mental health, analysis of mental health laws and policies, and publicly available data about mental health. Five themes are key to mental health service delivery in Zimbabwe: policy and law; financing and resources; criminal justice; workforce, training, and research; and beliefs about mental illness. We identified human resources, rehabilitation facilities, psychotropic medication, and community mental health as funding priorities. Moreover, we found that researchers should prioritise measuring the economic impact of mental health and exploring substance use, forensic care, and mental health integration. Our study highlights forensic services as a central component of the mental health system, which has been a neglected concept. We also describe a tailored process for mental health systems that is transferable to other low-income settings and that garners political will, builds capacity, and raises the profile of mental health.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Legislación Médica , Servicios de Salud Mental , Salud Mental , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica , Servicios Comunitarios de Salud Mental/economía , Psiquiatría Forense/economía , Psiquiatría Forense/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Política de Salud/economía , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fuerza Laboral en Salud/economía , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Salud Mental/economía , Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Servicios de Salud Mental/economía , Servicios de Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Rehabilitación Psiquiátrica/economía , Participación de los Interesados , Análisis de Sistemas , Zimbabwe
9.
J Health Psychol ; 22(10): 1265-1276, 2017 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26893295

RESUMEN

Few evidence-based interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy have been adapted for use in Africa. We selected, culturally adapted and tested the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adherence and for delivery in a clinic setting in Harare, Zimbabwe. The feasibility of the intervention was evaluated using a mixed-methods assessment, including ratings of provider fidelity of intervention delivery, and qualitative assessments of feasibility using individual semi-structured interviews with counsellors (n=4) and patients (n=15). The intervention was feasible and acceptable when administered to 42 patients and resulted in improved self-reported adherence in a subset of 15 patients who were followed up after 6months.


Asunto(s)
Antirreumáticos/uso terapéutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/etnología , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe/etnología
10.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0161860, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27607240

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Few people with mental disorders in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive treatment, in part because mental disorders are highly stigmatized and do not enjoy priority and resources commensurate with their burden on society. Advocacy has been proposed as a means of building political will and community support for mental health and reducing stigma, but few studies have explored the practice and promise of advocacy in LMICs. METHODS: We conducted 30 semi-structured interviews with leaders in health and mental health in Zimbabwe to explore key stakeholder perceptions on the challenges and opportunities of the country's mental health system. We coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method, informed by principles of grounded theory. Few interview questions directly concerned advocacy, yet in our analysis, advocacy emerged as a prominent, cross-cutting theme across participants and interview questions. RESULTS: Two thirds of the respondents discussed advocacy, often in depth, returning to the concept throughout the interview and emphasizing their belief in advocacy's importance. Participants described six distinct components of advocacy: the advocates, to whom they advocate ("targets"), what they advocate for ("asks"), how advocates reach their targets ("access"), how they make their asks ("arguments"), and the results of their advocacy ("outcomes"). DISCUSSION: Despite their perception that mental health is widely misunderstood and under-appreciated in Zimbabwe, respondents expressed optimism that strategically speaking out can reduce stigma and increase access to care. Key issues included navigating hierarchies, empowering service users to advocate, and integrating mental health with other health initiatives. Understanding stakeholder perceptions sets the stage for targeted development of mental health advocacy in Zimbabwe and other LMICs.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Consumidor , Mercadotecnía , Salud Mental , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Servicios de Salud Mental , Zimbabwe
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 71(1): e24-9, 2016 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26473799

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: HIV testing is the entry point to access HIV care. For HIV-infected children who survive infancy undiagnosed, diagnosis usually occurs on presentation to health care services. We investigated the effectiveness of routine opt-out HIV testing (ROOT) compared with conventional opt-in provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) for children attending primary care clinics. METHODS: After an evaluation of PITC services for children aged 6-15 years in 6 primary health care facilities in Harare, Zimbabwe, ROOT was introduced through a combination of interventions. The change in the proportion of eligible children offered and receiving HIV tests, reasons for not testing, and yield of HIV-positive diagnoses were compared between the 2 HIV testing strategies. Adjusted risk ratios for having an HIV test in the ROOT compared with the PITC period were calculated. RESULTS: There were 2831 and 7842 children eligible for HIV testing before and after the introduction of ROOT. The proportion of eligible children offered testing increased from 76% to 93% and test uptake improved from 71% to 95% in the ROOT compared with the PITC period. The yield of HIV diagnoses increased from 2.9% to 4.5%, and a child attending the clinics post intervention had a 1.99 increased adjusted risk (95% CI: 1.85 to 2.14) of receiving an HIV test in the ROOT period compared with the preintervention period. CONCLUSION: ROOT increased the proportion of children undergoing HIV testing, resulting in an overall increased yield of positive diagnoses, compared with PITC. ROOT provides an effective approach to reduce missed HIV diagnosis in this age group.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Operativa , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Pruebas Serológicas , Zimbabwe
13.
AIDS Care ; 27 Suppl 1: 47-58, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26616125

RESUMEN

HIV-positive adolescents who engage in unsafe sex are at heightened risk for transmitting or re-acquiring HIV. Disclosure of HIV-status to sexual partners may impact on condom use, but no study has explored the effects of (i) adolescent knowledge of one's HIV-status, (ii) knowledge of partner status and (iii) disclosure to partners, on safer sex behaviour. This study aimed to identify whether knowledge of HIV-status by HIV-positive adolescents and partners was associated with safer sex. Eight fifty eight HIV-positive adolescents (10-19 years old, 52% female, 68.1% vertically infected) who had ever initiated antiretroviral treatment in 41 health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, were interviewed using standardised questionnaires. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for confounders. Qualitative research included interviews, focus group discussions and observations with 43 HIV-positive teenagers and their healthcare workers. N = 128 (14.9%) of the total sample had ever had sex, while N = 109 (85.1%) of sexually active adolescents had boy/girlfriend. In total, 68.1% of the sample knew their status, 41.5% of those who were sexually active and in relationships knew their partner's status, and 35.5% had disclosed to their partners. For adolescents, knowing one's status was associated with safer sex (OR = 4.355, CI 1.085-17.474, p = .038). Neither knowing their partner's status, nor disclosing one's HIV-status to a partner, were associated with safer sex. HIV-positive adolescents feared rejection, stigma and public exposure if disclosing to sexual and romantic partners. Counselling by healthcare workers for HIV-positive adolescents focused on benefits of disclosure, but did not address the fears and risks associated with disclosure. These findings challenge assumptions that disclosure is automatically protective in sexual and romantic relationships for HIV-positive adolescents, who may be ill-equipped to negotiate safer sex. There is a pressing need for effective interventions that mitigate the risks of disclosure and provide HIV-positive adolescents with skills to engage in safe sex.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Sexo Seguro , Revelación de la Verdad , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Conducta Sexual , Sudáfrica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
AIDS ; 29 Suppl 1: S57-65, 2015 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26049539

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: WHO guidelines recommend disclosure to HIV-positive children by school age in order to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. However, quantitative evidence remains limited for adolescents. This study examines associations between adolescent knowledge of HIV-positive status and ART-adherence in South Africa. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of the largest known community-traced sample of HIV-positive adolescents. Six hundred and eighty-four ART-initiated adolescents aged 10-19 years (52% female, 79% perinatally infected) were interviewed. METHODS: In a low-resource health district, all adolescents who had ever initiated ART in a stratified sample of 39 health facilities were identified and traced to 150 communities [n = 1102, 351 excluded, 27 deceased, 40 (5.5%) refusals]. Quantitative interviews used standardized questionnaires and clinic records. Quantitative analyses used multivariate logistic regressions, and qualitative analyses used grounded theory for 18 months of interviews, focus groups and participant observations with 64 adolescents, caregivers and healthcare workers. RESULTS: About 36% of adolescents reported past-week ART nonadherence, and 70% of adolescents knew their status. Adherence was associated with fewer opportunistic infection symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 0.55; 95% CI 0.40-0.76]. Adolescent knowledge of HIV-positive status was associated with higher adherence, independently of all cofactors (OR 2.18; 95% CI 1.47-3.24). Among perinatally infected adolescents who knew their status (n = 362/540), disclosure prior to age 12 was associated with higher adherence (OR 2.65; 95% CI 1.34-5.22). Qualitative findings suggested that disclosure was undertaken sensitively in clinical and family settings, but that adults lacked awareness about adolescent understandings of HIV status. CONCLUSION: Early and full disclosure is strongly associated with improved adherence amongst ART-initiated adolescents. Disclosure may be an essential tool in improving adolescent adherence and reducing mortality and onwards transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Revelación de la Verdad , Adulto Joven
16.
Trop Med Int Health ; 20(7): 903-13, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25754063

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To document the lived experiences of people with both poor mental health and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in high HIV prevalence settings. METHODS: In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 (female = 31) HIV-positive adults who scored above the cut-point on a locally validated scale for common mental disorders (CMDs). Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants with evidence of poor adherence. Six additional key informant interviews (female = 6) were conducted with healthcare workers. Data were collected and analysed inductively by an interdisciplinary coding team. RESULTS: The major challenges faced by participants were stressors (poverty, stigma, marital problems) and symptoms of CMDs ('thinking too much', changes to appetite and sleep, 'burdened heart' and low energy levels). Thinking too much, which appears closely related to rumination, was the symptom with the greatest negative impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults with CMDs. In turn, thinking too much was commonly triggered by the stressors faced by people living with HIV/AIDS, especially poverty. Finally, participants desired private counselling, access to income-generating activities and family engagement in mental health care. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce CMDs and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Estrés Psicológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Adulto , Cultura , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pobreza , Prevalencia , Estigma Social , Apoyo Social , Esposos , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Pensamiento , Zimbabwe
17.
PLoS Med ; 11(5): e1001649, 2014 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24866209

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a substantial burden of HIV infection among older children in sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of whom are diagnosed after presentation with advanced disease. We investigated the provision and uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) among children in primary health care facilities, and explored health care worker (HCW) perspectives on providing HIV testing to children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children aged 6 to 15 y attending six primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe, were offered PITC, with guardian consent and child assent. The reasons why testing did not occur in eligible children were recorded, and factors associated with HCWs offering and children/guardians refusing HIV testing were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinic nurses and counsellors to explore these factors. Among 2,831 eligible children, 2,151 (76%) were offered PITC, of whom 1,534 (54.2%) consented to HIV testing. The main reasons HCWs gave for not offering PITC were the perceived unsuitability of the accompanying guardian to provide consent for HIV testing on behalf of the child and lack of availability of staff or HIV testing kits. Children who were asymptomatic, older, or attending with a male or a younger guardian had significantly lower odds of being offered HIV testing. Male guardians were less likely to consent to their child being tested. 82 (5.3%) children tested HIV-positive, with 95% linking to care. Of the 940 guardians who tested with the child, 186 (19.8%) were HIV-positive. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV prevalence among children tested was high, highlighting the need for PITC. For PITC to be successfully implemented, clear legislation about consent and guardianship needs to be developed, and structural issues addressed. HCWs require training on counselling children and guardians, particularly male guardians, who are less likely to engage with health care services. Increased awareness of the risk of HIV infection in asymptomatic older children is needed.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Epidemiológicos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Negativa a Participar , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
18.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e87322, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24475271

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Due to the scale up of antiretroviral therapy, increasing numbers of HIV-infected children are living into adolescence. As these children grow and surpass the immediate threat of death, the issue of informing them of their HIV status arises. This study aimed to understand how perinatally-infected adolescents learn about their HIV-status as well as to examine their preferences for the disclosure process. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 (14 male, 17 female) perinatally-infected adolescents aged 16-20 at an HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, and focused on adolescents' experiences of disclosure. In addition, 15 (1 male, 14 female) healthcare workers participated in two focus groups that were centred on healthcare workers' practices surrounding disclosure in the clinic. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. A coding frame was developed and major themes were extracted using grounded theory methods. RESULTS: Healthcare workers encouraged caregivers to initiate disclosure in the home environment. However, many adolescents preferred disclosure to take place in the presence of healthcare workers at the clinic because it gave them access to accurate information as well as an environment that made test results seem more credible. Adolescents learned more specific information about living with an HIV-positive status and the meaning of that status from shared experiences among peers at the clinic. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-status disclosure to adolescents is distinct from disclosure to younger children and requires tailored, age-appropriate guidelines. Disclosure to this age group in a healthcare setting may help overcome some of the barriers associated with caregivers disclosing in the home environment and make the HIV status seem more credible to an adolescent. The study also highlights the value of peer support among adolescents, which could help reduce the burden of psychosocial care on caregivers and healthcare workers.


Asunto(s)
Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Pacientes/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe
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