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1.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 15(1): 18-32, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481047

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Republic of Korea. This study aimed to develop a national surveillance system to monitor the incidence of stroke and AMI using national claims data. METHODS: We developed and validated identification algorithms for stroke and AMI using claims data. This validation involved a 2-stage stratified sampling method with a review of medical records for sampled cases. The weighted positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated based on the sampling structure and the corresponding sampling rates. Incident cases and the incidence rates of stroke and AMI in the Republic of Korea were estimated by applying the algorithms and weighted PPV and NPV to the 2018 National Health Insurance Service claims data. RESULTS: In total, 2,200 cases (1,086 stroke cases and 1,114 AMI cases) were sampled from the 2018 claims database. The sensitivity and specificity of the algorithms were 94.3% and 88.6% for stroke and 97.9% and 90.1% for AMI, respectively. The estimated number of cases, including recurrent events, was 150,837 for stroke and 40,529 for AMI in 2018. The age- and sex-standardized incidence rate for stroke and AMI was 180.2 and 46.1 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively, in 2018. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing a national surveillance system based on claims data and identification algorithms for stroke and AMI to monitor their incidence rates.

2.
Clin Hypertens ; 30(1): 7, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Korea Hypertension Fact Sheet 2023, presented by the Korean Society of Hypertension, offers an overview of the prevalence and management of hypertension, along with recent trends. METHODS: Data for the Fact Sheet were derived from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey spanning 1998 to 2021, and the National Health Insurance Big Data from 2002 to 2021. RESULTS: As of 2021, hypertension affected 28.0% of Korean adults aged 20 and older, totaling approximately 12.3 million individuals, with 5.3 million (43.5%) aged 65 or older. Among those with hypertension, awareness stood at 74.1%, treatment rates at 70.3%, and control rates at 56.0%. Over the years, the number of hypertension diagnoses increased from 3.0 million in 2002 to 11.1 million in 2021. During the same period, the utilization of antihypertensive medications rose from 2.5 million to 10.5 million, with treatment adherence also improving from 0.6 million to 7.8 million individuals. In 2021, the predominant antihypertensive drug class was angiotensin receptor blockers (75.1%), followed by calcium channel blockers (61.7%), diuretics (23.4%), and beta blockers (15.3%). Notably, 60.2% of all antihypertensive prescriptions involved combination therapy with at least two classes of antihypertensive medication. There was a positive trend towards stricter blood pressure control targets (systolic/diastolic blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg) among elderly hypertensive patients, as well as those with diabetes, obesity, and high-risk hypertension. However, this trend declined in individuals aged 80 years or older and those with chronic kidney disease in recent years. CONCLUSION: In Korea, hypertension management is making strides, yet the total number of hypertensive individuals is rising. Effectively addressing the growing population of elderly hypertensive patients and the persistently low treatment rates among younger individuals with hypertension is a critical challenge. Additionally, developing more efficient and customized policies for blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease prevention is imperative.

3.
Eur J Nutr ; 2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418540

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data from mechanistic studies suggest flavonoids may benefit glucose metabolism, but their associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain unclear. This study examined the prospective associations of dietary intake of total, classes, and individual flavonoids, as well as their source foods, with T2D in the CArdioVascular disease Association Study (CAVAS). METHODS: A total of 16,666 Korean men and women were enrolled at baseline, and 953 were newly diagnosed with T2D over a median follow-up of 5.96 years. Intake of flavonoids was cumulatively averaged using all food frequency questionnaires before the censoring events. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Women with higher total flavonoid, flavonol, isoflavone, and proanthocyanidin intake had a lower risk of T2D (fourth vs. first quartile, IRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.44-0.89; P for linearity and non-linearity < 0.05 for total flavonoids), while in men, flavanones, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, but not total flavonoids, were inversely associated with T2D risk (all P interaction for sex > 0.05). The key source foods contributing to flavonoid intake were also different between men and women, except for apples: tangerines and strawberries in men and green leafy vegetables and soy products in women. CONCLUSIONS: A higher intake of total flavonoids, particularly from vegetables, soybeans, and apples, may be associated with lower risk of T2D in women. However, flavonoids from fruits, rather than total flavonoids, may be inversely associated in men. The association between flavonoid intake and the risk of T2D may be contingent upon the dietary sources of flavonoids consumed.

4.
Epidemiol Health ; 46: e2024001, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186245

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The escalating burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical public health issue worldwide. CVD, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, is the leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in Korea. We aimed to develop algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database and validate these algorithms through medical record review. METHODS: We first established a concept and definition of "hospitalization episode," taking into account the unique features of health claims-based NHIS database. We then developed first and recurrent event identification algorithms, separately for AMI and stroke, to determine whether each hospitalization episode represents a true incident case of AMI or stroke. Finally, we assessed our algorithms' accuracy by calculating their positive predictive values (PPVs) based on medical records of algorithm- identified events. RESULTS: We developed identification algorithms for both AMI and stroke. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records for 3,140 algorithm-identified events (1,399 AMI and 1,741 stroke events) across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall PPVs for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events. The algorithms demonstrated high accuracy, with PPVs of approximately 90% for first events and 80% for recurrent events. These findings indicate that our algorithms hold promise as an instrumental tool for the consistent and reliable production of national CVD statistics in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Programas Nacionales de Salud , República de Corea/epidemiología
5.
Epidemiol Health ; 46: e2024002, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186244

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality worldwide, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is particularly fatal condition. We evaluated the incidence and case fatality rates of AMI in Korea from 2011 to 2020. METHODS: We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services to calculate crude, age-standardized, and age-specific incidence rates, along with 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates, of AMI from 2011 to 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates were determined using direct standardization to the 2005 population. RESULTS: The crude incidence rate of AMI per 100,000 person-years consistently increased from 44.7 in 2011 to 68.3 in 2019, before decreasing slightly to 66.2 in 2020. The age-standardized incidence rate of AMI displayed a 19% rise from 2011 to 2019, followed by a slight decline in 2020. The increasing trend for AMI incidence was more pronounced in males than in females. Both 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates remained stable among younger individuals but showed a decrease among older individuals. There was a minor surge in case fatality in 2020, particularly among recurrent AMI cases. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past decade, the AMI incidence rate in Korea has consistently increased, with a slight downturn in 2020. The case fatality rate has remained relatively stable except for a minor increase in 2020. This study provides data for continuous surveillance, the implementation of targeted interventions, and the advancement of research aimed at AMI in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Incidencia , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales
6.
Epidemiol Health ; 46: e2024003, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186243

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Stroke remains the second leading cause of death in Korea. This study was designed to estimate the crude, age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates, as well as the case fatality rate of stroke, in Korea from 2011 to 2020. METHODS: We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2020, to calculate incidence rates and 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke. Additionally, we determined sex and age-specific incidence rates and computed age-standardized incidence rates by direct standardization to the 2005 population. RESULTS: The crude incidence rate of stroke hovered around 200 (per 100,000 person-years) from 2011 to 2015, then surged to 218.4 in 2019, before marginally declining to 208.0 in 2020. Conversely, the age-standardized incidence rate consistently decreased by 25% between 2011 and 2020. When stratified by sex, the crude incidence rate increased between 2011 and 2019 for both sexes, followed by a decrease in 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates displayed a downward trend throughout the study period for both sexes. Across all age groups, the 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke consistently decreased from 2011 to 2019, only to increase in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate, the total number of stroke events in Korea continues to rise due to the rapidly aging population. Moreover, 2020 witnessed a decrease in incidence but an increase in case fatality rates.


Asunto(s)
Accidente Cerebrovascular , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Incidencia , Sistema de Registros , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , República de Corea/epidemiología
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(2): e030995, 2024 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214252

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported the strength of cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics in parent-offspring relationships. This study aimed to describe the sex-specific associations between CVH in parents and adult offspring. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set, which analyzed trios of mother-father-child, with the child's age from 20 to 39 years. To use the nature of sampling design, survey weighting was applied to all our analyses. Ideal CVH was defined as a cluster of at least 5 ideal individual CVH metrics. We examined the association between parents and their adult offspring regarding clustering CVH and individual CVH metrics through odds ratios and 95% CIs using multiple logistic regression with standard errors adjusted for within-family clustering. The study included 1267 married couples comprising 748 sons and 819 daughters. After adjusting for household income and offspring's sex, age, education, and alcohol consumption, an offspring with either parent attaining a nonideal CVH was 3.52 times more likely to have nonideal CVH. Fathers' nonideal CVH was significantly positively associated with the daughters' nonideal CVH. Maternal nonideal CVH was significantly positively associated with the son's nonideal CVH. When analyzing individual CVH metrics, ideal status in fathers or mothers reduced the likelihood of their offspring having a nonideal status. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study showed positive and differential associations of CVH and its components between parents' and offsprings' nonideal status. Our hypothesis-generating results suggest the relevance of using CVH as a composite indicator in family-centered approaches and heart-health interventions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Adulto , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Encuestas Nutricionales , Estudios Transversales , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Padres , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estado de Salud , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Epidemiol Health ; 46: e2024017, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228086

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Mushrooms, known for their nutritious and functional components, are considered healthy and medicinal. This study investigated the prospective association between dietary mushroom consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥40 years. METHODS: In total, 16,666 participants who were not taking anti-diabetic medication or insulin and had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG; <126 mg/dL) were included. We used the cumulative average dietary consumption of mushrooms as an exposure metric, calculated from food frequency questionnaires at every follow-up, along with covariates collected during a baseline survey. To estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for type 2 diabetes, a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator was applied. RESULTS: In multivariable models, dietary mushroom consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders (men: IRR, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.90; plinearity=0.043 in the highest quartile (Q4) vs. the lowest quartile (Q1); women: IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93; plinearity=0.114 in Q4 vs. Q1). The inverse association remained after adjustment for dietary factors instead of dietary quality index, the baseline FBG, and the exclusion of incidence within the first year. Additionally, no significant interaction was found regarding the risk of type 2 diabetes between dietary mushroom consumption and participants' gender or other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary mushroom consumption was inversely linked with the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders, indicating the beneficial role of mushrooms in preventing the disease.


Asunto(s)
Agaricales , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Prospectivos , Dieta , República de Corea/epidemiología , Incidencia
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 193(2): 241-255, 2024 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37759338

RESUMEN

The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) was a multidisciplinary prospective study conducted in South Korea that measured various health biomarkers from blood, hair, and brain magnetic resonance imaging, and we examined their associations with sociocentric (global) social network data of older adults in 2 entire villages (or cohorts). Cohort K included participants aged 60 years or older, and cohort L included participants aged 65 years or older. We performed a baseline survey involving 814 of the 860 individuals (94.7% response rate) in cohort K in 2012 and 947 of the 1,043 individuals (90.8% response rate) in cohort L in 2017. We gathered longitudinal data for 5 waves in cohort K from 2011 to 2019 and 2 waves in cohort L from 2017 to 2022. Here, we describe for the first time the follow-up design of the KSHAP, the changes in social networks, and various biomarkers over a number of years. The data for cohort K are publicly available via the Korean Social Science Data Archive as well as the project website, and the data for cohort L will be shared soon.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Humanos , Anciano , Estudios Prospectivos , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Biomarcadores , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , República de Corea/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales
11.
Gut ; 73(3): 533-540, 2024 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37907259

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We explored clinical implications of the new definition of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) by assessing its prevalence and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. DESIGN: From nationwide health screening data, we identified 9 775 066 adults aged 20-79 who underwent health examination in 2009. Participants were categorised into four mutually exclusive groups: (1) MASLD; (2) MASLD with increased alcohol intake (MetALD); (3) MASLD with other combined aetiology (the three collectively referred to as MASLD/related steatotic liver disease (SLD)); and (4) no MASLD/related SLD. SLD was determined by fatty liver index ≥30. The primary outcome was CVD event, defined as a composite of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, heart failure or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: The prevalence of MASLD, MetALD and MASLD with other combined aetiology was 27.5%, 4.4% and 1.5%, respectively. A total of 8 808 494 participants without prior CVD were followed up for a median of 12.3 years, during which 272 863 CVD events occurred. The cumulative incidence and multivariable-adjusted risk of CVD were higher in participants with MASLD/related SLD than in those without (HR 1.38 (95% CI 1.37 to 1.39)). Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) of CVD events was 1.39 (1.38 to 1.40) for MASLD, 1.28 (1.26 to 1.30) for MetALD and 1.30 (1.26 to 1.34) for MASLD with other combined aetiology compared to the absence of any of these conditions. CVD risk was also higher in participants with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than in those without the respective condition. CONCLUSION: Over one-third of Korean adults have MASLD/related SLD and bear a high CVD risk.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Enfermedades Metabólicas , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Adulto , Humanos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Metabólicas/epidemiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 34(1): 167-176, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38000990

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Unlike iron, evidence of the association between dietary copper and zinc intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk is limited. This study aimed to examine the prospective associations of dietary intake of iron (total, plant-based, and animal-based), copper, and zinc with T2D risk among adults aged ≥40 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: For 16,666 participants, dietary intakes (baseline, cumulative average, and most recent) of iron, copper, and zinc were calculated from repeated food frequency questionnaires; a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator was conducted. In men, positive associations between T2D and baseline dietary intake of Cu and Zn, cumulative average dietary intake of Fe (total and animal-based), Cu and Zn, and most recent dietary intake of Fe (total, plant-based, and animal-based), Cu, and Zn [most recent diet: for total Fe, IRR(95%CI) = 1.93 (1.41-2.64); for plant-based Fe, 1.56 (1.15-2.11); for animal-based Fe, 1.44 (1.09-1.90); for Cu, 3.17 (2.33-4.30); for Zn, 2.18 (1.64-2.89)] were observed, where as in women, there were positive associations of only cumulative average dietary Zn intake and most recent dietary intake of plant-based Fe, Cu, and Zn [most recent diet: for plant-based Fe, 1.30 (1.01-1.68); for Cu, 1.62 (1.27-2.08); for Zn, 2.07 (1.61-2.66)]. CONCLUSION: Dietary intakes of iron (total, plant-based, and animal-based), copper, and zinc may be positively associated with T2D risk. These positive associations are predominantly observed in most recent diet and appear to be stronger compared to baseline and cumulative average diet.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Masculino , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Cobre/efectos adversos , Zinc/efectos adversos , Hierro/efectos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Dieta/efectos adversos
13.
Clin Hypertens ; 29(1): 30, 2023 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37908019

RESUMEN

Although reports vary, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension and apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) has been reported to be 10.3% and 14.7%, respectively. As there is a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus, factors that are associated with resistant hypertension, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is expected to rise as well. Frequently, patients with aTRH have pseudoresistant hypertension [aTRH due to white-coat uncontrolled hypertension (WUCH), drug underdosing, poor adherence, and inaccurate office blood pressure (BP) measurements]. As the prevalence of WUCH is high among patients with aTRH, the use of out-of-office BP measurements, both ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM), is essential to exclude WUCH. Non-adherence is especially problematic, and methods to assess adherence remain limited and often not clinically feasible. Therefore, the use of HBPM and higher utilization of single-pill fixed-dose combination treatments should be emphasized to improve drug adherence. In addition, primary aldosteronism and symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea are quite common in patients with hypertension and more so in patients with resistant hypertension. Screening for these diseases is essential, as the treatment of these secondary causes may help control BP in patients who are otherwise difficult to treat. Finally, a proper drug regimen combined with lifestyle modifications is essential to control BP in these patients.

14.
Am J Cardiol ; 207: 418-425, 2023 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37797547

RESUMEN

Prophylactic distal perfusion cannulation (PDPC) is protectively associated with limb ischemia in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) receiving femoral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). However, evidence supporting its benefits beyond limb ischemia reduction is scarce. We aimed to investigate whether PDPC, compared with no-PDPC, is associated with a lower risk of mortality in patients receiving VA-ECMO. From a multicenter registry, we identified 479 patients who underwent VA-ECMO support for refractory CS. The association of PDPC with 30-day mortality was assessed using multiple methods, including instrumental variable analysis, overlap weighting, and propensity score matching. Of the 479 patients, 154 (32.2%) received PDPC. The 30-day mortality rate was 33.1% in the PDPC group and 53.2% in the no-PDPC group. The instrumental variable analysis showed a protective association of PDPC with 30-day mortality (absolute risk difference -16.7%, 95% confidence interval -31.3% to -2.1%; relative risk 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 0.96). The findings were consistent in the overlap-weighted analysis (hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.98) and in the propensity score-matched analysis (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 1.00). There were no significant differences in safety outcomes, including stroke, ECMO site bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, and sepsis, between PDPC and no-PDPC. In conclusion, PDPC was associated with a lower risk of mortality at 30 days in patients with CS receiving VA-ECMO. The efficacy and safety of PDPC merit evaluation in future randomized studies. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02985008.


Asunto(s)
Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea , Enfermedades Vasculares Periféricas , Humanos , Cateterismo , Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Isquemia/etiología , Isquemia/prevención & control , Perfusión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogénico/etiología
16.
Compr Psychiatry ; 127: 152432, 2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37856975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study estimated the association between pre-pandemic social network properties and symptoms of posttraumatic stress during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in South Korea. METHODS: We conducted four online mental health surveys during COVID-19 (from March 14, 2020, to December 11, 2021) among individuals enrolled in a community-based cohort study (previously recruited from 2013 to 2018). Among 4060 people interviewed at the pre-pandemic baseline, 2652 individuals (men = 951, women = 1701) who responded to at least one of the four surveys conducted were included. At baseline, each individual's social network, including size and average closeness, was measured in an egocentric way. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) was measured at each survey point. A generalized linear model and a generalized linear mixed model were used after stratified by sex. RESULTS: Among men, network size was negatively associated with total PCL-5 score (b = -0.42, SE = 0.16, p = 0.002). The magnitude of the association increased over time and was maximal by the 4th survey (b = -0.65, SE = 0.31, p = 0.037). Among women, average closeness was negatively associated with the total PCL-5 score (b = -1.16, SE = 0.37, p = 0.002). In analyses disaggregated by symptom clusters, social networks were associated explicitly with symptoms of intrusion and mood but not with avoidance and arousal symptoms. CONCLUSION: In this cohort of adults followed for more than a year during the outbreak of COVID-19 in South Korea, social networks established before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic had a protective association against developing symptoms of PTSD during the first two years of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Red Social
17.
J Lipid Atheroscler ; 12(3): 237-251, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800108

RESUMEN

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and status of dyslipidemia management among South Korean adults, as performed by the Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis under the name Dyslipidemia Fact Sheet 2022. Methods: We analyzed the lipid profiles, age-standardized and crude prevalence, management status of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia, and health behaviors among Korean adults aged ≥20 years, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data between 2007 and 2020. Results: In South Korea, the crude prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or use of a lipid-lowering drug) in 2020 was 24%, and the age-standardized prevalence of hypercholesterolemia more than doubled from 2007 to 2020. The crude treatment rate was 55.2%, and the control rate was 47.7%. The crude prevalence of dyslipidemia (more than one out of three conditions [low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ≥160 or the use of a lipid-lowering drug, triglycerides ≥200, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (men and women) <40 mg/dL]) was 40.2% between 2016 and 2020. However, it increased to 48.2% when the definition of hypo-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterolemia in women changed from <40 to <50 mg/dL. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia has steadily increased in South Korea, the treatment rate remains low. Therefore, continuous efforts are needed to manage dyslipidemia through cooperation between the national healthcare system, patients, and healthcare providers.

18.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023085, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37723840

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We examined trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in Korean adolescents, and their association with socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide study involving students aged 12-19 conducted between 2009 and 2021. SEP was assessed based on economic status, parental education attainment, and urbanization. Physical activity was categorized into vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, and muscle training, and sedentary time was also measured. We conducted the log-binomial regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and prevalence differences. RESULTS: Our analysis included a total of 593,896 students. We observed an increasing trend in physical activity, but a worsening trend in sedentary behavior. A positive association was found between an adolescent's physical activity and SEP indicators, except for urbanization. Adolescents with higher economic status engaged in more vigorous physical activity (high: PR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.28; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04). Similar associations were observed for father's education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; upper secondary: PR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.07) and mother's education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.20; upper secondary: PR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08). Adolescents with higher economic status also showed a higher compliance rate with the guideline restricting sedentary time to 2 hours per day (high: PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.30; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with higher SEP exhibited more physical activity and less sedentary time than those with lower SEP.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Sedentaria , Humanos , Adolescente , Factores Socioeconómicos , Escolaridad , República de Corea/epidemiología
19.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(10): 1598-1605, 2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37573850

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of people with HIV/AIDS has consistently increased in Korea since the first case of HIV/AIDS infection was reported in 1985. The depressive symptoms of patients with HIV/AIDS may lead to medication non-adherence. This study sought to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between depression and antiretroviral treatment adherence in the Korean HIV/AIDS population. METHODS: We included participants of the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study between 2009 and 2017. All information was collected at the enrollment and every annual visit, including sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, HIV/AIDS infection-related factors, depression score, and frequency of skipped medication. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 601 participants registered between 2009 and 2017. Longitudinal data were evaluated by panel regression analysis in 515 patients who registered from 2009 to 2013. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analysis, the HIV/AIDS patients with depressive symptoms were more likely to be non-adherent (adjusted OR = 0.52, 95 % CI 0.34, 0.79, p = 0.002). Medication adherence was significantly associated with a health-related lifestyle; the adjusted odds ratio of the non-smoking and non-drinking group was 1.75 (95 % CI 1.05, 2.90, p = 0.031). The longitudinal panel regression model revealed a significant negative impact of depression on medication adherence (adjusted OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.30, 0.84, p = 0.009). Non-smoking and non-drinking participants were 2.31 times more likely to adhere to antiretroviral treatment (95 % CI 1.29, 4.15, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Our finding of depression and lifestyle modifications being significant contributors underscore the importance of proactive interventions to optimize the treatment outcomes of PLWH.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/complicaciones , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , República de Corea/epidemiología
20.
Clin Hypertens ; 29(1): 25, 2023 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37653547

RESUMEN

Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) has been shown to have a significant predictive value for cardiovascular disease. In some cases, it has a superior predictive value for future cardiovascular outcomes than daytime BP. As efficacy of BP medications wanes during nighttime and early morning, control of nocturnal hypertension and morning hypertension can be difficult. As such, chronotherapy, the dosing of BP medication in the evening, has been an ongoing topic of interest in the field of hypertension. Some studies have shown that chronotherapy is effective in reducing nocturnal BP, improving non dipping and rising patterns to dipping patterns, and improving cardiovascular prognosis. However, criticism and concerns have been raised regarding the design of these studies, such as the Hygia study, and the implausible clinical benefits in cardiovascular outcomes considering the degree of BP lowering from bedtime dosing. Studies have shown that there is no consistent evidence to suggest that routine administration of antihypertensive medications at bedtime can improve nocturnal BP and early morning BP control. However, in some cases of uncontrolled nocturnal hypertension and morning hypertension, such as in those with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea, bedtime dosing has shown efficacy in reducing evening and early morning BP. The recently published the Treatment in Morning versus Evening (TIME) study failed to demonstrate benefit of bedtime dosing in reducing cardiovascular outcomes in patients with hypertension. With issues of the Hygia study and negative results from the TIME study, it is unclear at this time whether routine bedtime dosing is beneficial for reducing cardiovascular outcomes.

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