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1.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 2024 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623024

RESUMEN

Background: The relationship between early life factors and childhood pulmonary function and structure in preterm infants remains unclear. Purpose: This study investigated the impact of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and perinatal factors on childhood pulmonary function and structure. Methods: This longitudinal cohort study included preterm participants aged ≥5 years born between 2005 and 2015. The children were grouped by BPD severity according to National Institutes of Health criteria. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed using spirometry. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained and scored for hyperaeration or parenchymal lesions. PFT results and chest CT scores were analyzed with perinatal factors. Results: A total 150 children (66 females) aged 7.7 years (6.4-9.9 years) were categorized into non/mild BPD (n=68), moderate BPD (n=39), and severe BPD (n=43) groups. The median z score for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced midexpiratory flow (FEF25%-75%) were significantly lower in the severe versus non/mild BPD group (-1.24 vs. -0.18, -0.22 vs. 0.41, -1.80 vs. -1.12, and -1.88 vs. -1.00, respectively; all P<0.05). The median z scores of FEV1, FEV1/ FVC, and FEF25%-75% among asymptomatic patients were also significantly lower in the severe versus non/mild BPD group (-0.82 vs. 0.09, -1.68 vs. -0.87, -1.59 vs. -0.61, respectively; all P<0.05). The severe BPD group had a higher median (range) CT score than the non/mild BPD group (6 [0-12] vs. 1 [0-10], P<0.001). Prenatal oligohydramnios was strongly associated with both low pulmonary function (FEV1/FVC

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38642325

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In children suspected of asthma, diagnosis is confirmed via variable expiratory airflow limitation. However, there is no single gold standard test for diagnosing asthma. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the pulmonary function characteristics in children suspected of asthma without bronchodilator response (BDR) and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). METHODS: We utilized two separate real-world retrospective observational cohorts of children who underwent both spirometry and bronchial provocation testing for asthma. Spirometry parameters were collected and compared between definite asthma, probable asthma, and non-asthma groups. The original cohort comprised 1199 children who visited the Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) between January 2017 and December 2019. The external cohort included 105 children who visited the Gangnam Severance Hospital between January 2019 and December 2019. RESULTS: Probable asthma accounted for 16.8% and 32.4% of the original and external cohorts, respectively. This group showed a significantly higher FeNO level and prevalence of allergic sensitization. Baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of FVC (FEF25-75), and FEF75 showed stepwise decrements from non-asthma, probable asthma, to definite asthma patients (P < 0.001). The probable asthma group showed significantly higher odds of abnormal FEV1/FVC (OR, 2.24 [95%CI, 1.43-3.52])and FEF25-75 (2.05 [1.13-3.73]) than the non-asthma group and lower odds of abnormal FEV1(0.05 [0.01-0.19]),FEV1 /FVC (0.27 [0.18-0.41]), FEF25-75 (0.17 [0.11-0.28]), and FEF75 (0.14 [0.08-0.24]) compared to the definite asthma group. The external cohort was consistent with the original cohort. CONCLUSION: We show evidence of airway dysfunction in children for whom a high clinical suspicion of asthma exists without evidence of BDR and BHR. Repeated pulmonary function tests that closely monitor for subtle lung function impairments and active utilization of additional tests, such as allergic screening and FeNO, should be considered to close the gap in diagnosing asthma.

4.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 16(2): 179-190, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528385

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Despite the risk of anaphylaxis, oral food challenges (OFCs) are performed clinically for various indications, particularly to confirm tolerance development. This study aimed to assess OFCs by relevant indications and build an outcome prediction model to help determine when to perform OFCs in children who are likely to have developed immune tolerance. METHODS: In total, 432 pediatric OFCs were retrospectively analyzed according to indications. Clinical characteristics, serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) E, blood eosinophils, and specific IgE and IgG4 levels for food allergens were noted and compared. Machine learning was utilized to select the most important variables in determining the passage of the OFCs, and prediction models were constructed using the selected variables. RESULTS: OFCs were most commonly performed to confirm tolerance development (number, %; 267, 61.8%). The most common food allergens tested were egg (191, 44.2%) and milk (135, 31.3%). Children who passed the egg challenges for confirming tolerance acquisition had significantly lower egg white-specific IgE level (P = 0.008). Similarly, those who passed milk challenges had significantly lower cow's milk-specific IgE (P = 0.002) and casein-specific IgE levels (P = 0.005). We developed a nomogram to predict the outcome of OFCs to determine the tolerance acquisition with the selected variables; lower food-specific IgE, higher total IgE, and younger age indicated a higher probability of passage. The area under the curve (95% confidence interval) was 0.623 (0.503-0.743) for egg and 0.734 (0.628-0.840) for milk. CONCLUSIONS: Serum total IgE and food-specific IgE combined with age showed trends toward passing OFCs for confirming tolerance development. The constructed model may be used by clinicians as a practical guide for minimizing the risks of OFCs and a timely reintroduction for children with food allergies.

5.
Lung ; 202(2): 127-137, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502305

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that causes acute lower respiratory tract infectious diseases, particularly in young children and older individuals. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in various cell types, including epithelial cells, and is associated with inflammatory responses and various cancers. However, the precise role of ALCAM in RSV-induced airway inflammation remains unclear, and our study aimed to explore this gap in the literature. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type, ALCAM knockout mice and airway epithelial cells were infected with RSV and the expression of ALCAM and inflammatory cytokines were measured. We also conducted further experiments using Anti-ALCAM antibody and recombinant ALCAM in airway epithelial cells. RESULTS: The expression levels of ALCAM and inflammatory cytokines increased in both RSV-infected mice and airway epithelial cells. Interestingly, IL-33 expression was significantly reduced in ALCAM-knockdown cells compared to control cells following RSV infection. Anti-ALCAM antibody treatment also reduced IL-33 expression following RSV infection. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK was diminished in ALCAM-knockdown cells compared to control cells following RSV infection. Notably, in the control cells, inhibition of these pathways significantly decreased the expression of IL-33. In vivo study also confirmed a reduction in inflammation induced by RSV infection in ALCAM deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that ALCAM contributes to RSV-induced airway inflammation at least partly by influencing IL-33 expression through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. These results suggest that targeting ALCAM could be a potential therapeutic strategy for alleviating IL-33-associated lung diseases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Humanos , Niño , Animales , Ratones , Preescolar , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/metabolismo , Interleucina-33/genética , Interleucina-33/metabolismo , Molécula de Adhesión Celular del Leucocito Activado/metabolismo , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/metabolismo , Pulmón/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C
6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(6)2024 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535004

RESUMEN

Background: To use the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as reliable biomarkers, validation of MRI equipment performance and clinical acquisition protocols should be performed prior to application in patients. This study aims to validate various MRI equipment and clinical brain protocols for diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using commercial phantom, and confirm the validated protocols in patients' images. Methods: The performance of four different scanners and clinical brain protocols were validated using a Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA) diffusion phantom and cloud-based analysis tool. We evaluated the performance metrics regarding accuracy and repeatability of ADC measurement using QIBA profile. The validated clinical brain protocols were applied to 17 patients, and image quality and repeatability of ADC were assessed. Results: The MRI equipment performance of all four MRI scanners demonstrated high accuracy in ADC measurement (ADC bias, -2.3% to -0.4%), excellent linear correlation to the reference ADC value (slope, 0.9 to 1.0; R2, 0.999-1.000), and high short-term repeatability [within-subject-coefficient-of-variation (wCV), 0% to 0.3%]. The clinical protocols were also validated by fulfilling QIBA claims with high accuracy (ADC bias, -3.1% to -0.7%) and robust repeatability (wCV, 0% to 0.1%). Brain DWI acquired using the validated clinical protocols showed ideal image quality (mean score ≥ 2.9) and good repeatability (wCV, 1.8-2.2). Conclusions: The whole process of standardization of DWI demonstrated the robustness of ADC with high accuracy and repeatability across diverse MRI equipment and clinical protocols in accordance with the QIBA claims.

7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5089, 2024 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429308

RESUMEN

Postoperative pancreatic fistula is a life-threatening complication with an unmet need for accurate prediction. This study was aimed to develop preoperative artificial intelligence-based prediction models. Patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy were enrolled and stratified into model development and validation sets by surgery between 2016 and 2017 or in 2018, respectively. Machine learning models based on clinical and body composition data, and deep learning models based on computed tomographic data, were developed, combined by ensemble voting, and final models were selected comparison with earlier model. Among the 1333 participants (training, n = 881; test, n = 452), postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 421 (47.8%) and 134 (31.8%) and clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula occurred in 59 (6.7%) and 27 (6.0%) participants in the training and test datasets, respectively. In the test dataset, the area under the receiver operating curve [AUC (95% confidence interval)] of the selected preoperative model for predicting all and clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula was 0.75 (0.71-0.80) and 0.68 (0.58-0.78). The ensemble model showed better predictive performance than the individual ML and DL models.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Fístula Pancreática , Humanos , Fístula Pancreática/diagnóstico , Fístula Pancreática/etiología , Pancreaticoduodenectomía/efectos adversos , Inteligencia Artificial , Factores de Riesgo , Curva ROC , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología
8.
Cancer Imaging ; 24(1): 28, 2024 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395973

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Surgically resected grade 1-2 (G1-2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) exhibit diverse clinical outcomes, highlighting the need for reliable prognostic biomarkers. Our study aimed to develop and validate CT-based radiomics model for predicting postsurgical outcome in patients with G1-2 PanNETs, and to compare its performance with the current clinical staging system. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included patients who underwent dynamic CT and subsequent curative resection for G1-2 PanNETs. A radiomics-based model (R-score) for predicting recurrence-free survival (RFS) was developed from a development set (441 patients from one institution) using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator-Cox regression analysis. A clinical model (C-model) consisting of age and tumor stage according to the 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system was built, and an integrative model combining the C-model and the R-score (CR-model) was developed using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Using an external test set (159 patients from another institution), the models' performance for predicting RFS and overall survival (OS) was evaluated using Harrell's C-index. The incremental value of adding the R-score to the C-model was evaluated using net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). RESULTS: The median follow-up periods were 68.3 and 59.7 months in the development and test sets, respectively. In the development set, 58 patients (13.2%) experienced recurrence and 35 (7.9%) died. In the test set, tumors recurred in 14 patients (8.8%) and 12 (7.5%) died. In the test set, the R-score had a C-index of 0.716 for RFS and 0.674 for OS. Compared with the C-model, the CR-model showed higher C-index (RFS, 0.734 vs. 0.662, p = 0.012; OS, 0.781 vs. 0.675, p = 0.043). CR-model also showed improved classification (NRI, 0.330, p < 0.001) and discrimination (IDI, 0.071, p < 0.001) for prediction of 3-year RFS. CONCLUSIONS: Our CR-model outperformed the current clinical staging system in prediction of the prognosis for G1-2 PanNETs and added incremental value for predicting postoperative recurrence. The CR-model enables precise identification of high-risk patients, guiding personalized treatment planning to improve outcomes in surgically resected grade 1-2 PanNETs.


Asunto(s)
Tumores Neuroendocrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Pronóstico , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/diagnóstico por imagen , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/cirugía , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , 60570 , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirugía , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e51640, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319694

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 has necessitated the rapid and accurate detection of COVID-19 to manage patients effectively and implement public health measures. Artificial intelligence (AI) models analyzing cough sounds have emerged as promising tools for large-scale screening and early identification of potential cases. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of using cough sounds as a diagnostic tool for COVID-19, considering the unique acoustic features that differentiate positive and negative cases. We investigated whether an AI model trained on cough sound recordings from specific periods, especially the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, were applicable to the ongoing situation with persistent variants. METHODS: We used cough sound recordings from 3 data sets (Cambridge, Coswara, and Virufy) representing different stages of the pandemic and variants. Our AI model was trained using the Cambridge data set with subsequent evaluation against all data sets. The performance was analyzed based on the area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) across different data measurement periods and COVID-19 variants. RESULTS: The AI model demonstrated a high AUC when tested with the Cambridge data set, indicative of its initial effectiveness. However, the performance varied significantly with other data sets, particularly in detecting later variants such as Delta and Omicron, with a marked decline in AUC observed for the latter. These results highlight the challenges in maintaining the efficacy of AI models against the backdrop of an evolving virus. CONCLUSIONS: While AI models analyzing cough sounds offer a promising noninvasive and rapid screening method for COVID-19, their effectiveness is challenged by the emergence of new virus variants. Ongoing research and adaptations in AI methodologies are crucial to address these limitations. The adaptability of AI models to evolve with the virus underscores their potential as a foundational technology for not only the current pandemic but also future outbreaks, contributing to a more agile and resilient global health infrastructure.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Inteligencia Artificial , Prueba de COVID-19 , Pandemias , Tos/diagnóstico
10.
Biomedicines ; 12(2)2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397986

RESUMEN

Chemical exchange saturation transfer with glutamate (GluCEST) imaging is a novel technique for the non-invasive detection and quantification of cerebral Glu levels in neuromolecular processes. Here we used GluCEST imaging and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to assess in vivo changes in Glu signals within the hippocampus in a rat model of depression induced by a forced swim test. The forced swimming test (FST) group exhibited markedly reduced GluCEST-weighted levels and Glu concentrations when examined using 1H MRS in the hippocampal region compared to the control group (GluCEST-weighted levels: 3.67 ± 0.81% vs. 5.02 ± 0.44%, p < 0.001; and Glu concentrations: 6.560 ± 0.292 µmol/g vs. 7.133 ± 0.397 µmol/g, p = 0.001). Our results indicate that GluCEST imaging is a distinctive approach to detecting and monitoring Glu levels in a rat model of depression. Furthermore, the application of GluCEST imaging may provide a deeper insight into the neurochemical involvement of glutamate in various psychiatric disorders.

11.
Epidemiol Health ; 46: e2024001, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38186245

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The escalating burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical public health issue worldwide. CVD, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, is the leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in Korea. We aimed to develop algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database and validate these algorithms through medical record review. METHODS: We first established a concept and definition of "hospitalization episode," taking into account the unique features of health claims-based NHIS database. We then developed first and recurrent event identification algorithms, separately for AMI and stroke, to determine whether each hospitalization episode represents a true incident case of AMI or stroke. Finally, we assessed our algorithms' accuracy by calculating their positive predictive values (PPVs) based on medical records of algorithm- identified events. RESULTS: We developed identification algorithms for both AMI and stroke. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records for 3,140 algorithm-identified events (1,399 AMI and 1,741 stroke events) across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall PPVs for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events. The algorithms demonstrated high accuracy, with PPVs of approximately 90% for first events and 80% for recurrent events. These findings indicate that our algorithms hold promise as an instrumental tool for the consistent and reliable production of national CVD statistics in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Programas Nacionales de Salud , República de Corea/epidemiología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38242217

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotypes in childhood are unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine AR phenotypes and investigate their natural course and clinical and transcriptomic characteristics. METHODS: Latent class trajectory analysis was used for phenotyping AR in 1050 children from birth through 12 years using a birth cohort study. Blood transcriptome analyses were performed to define the underlying mechanisms of each phenotype. RESULTS: Five AR phenotypes were identified: early onset (n = 88, 8.4%), intermediate transient (n = 110, 10.5%), late onset (n = 209, 19.9%), very late onset (n=187, 17.8%), and never/infrequent (n = 456, 43.4%). Children with early-onset AR were associated with higher AR severity and sensitizations to foods at age 1 year and inhalants at age 3 years and asthma symptoms, but not with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Children with late-onset AR phenotype associated with sensitizations to various foods at age 1 year but not from age 3 years, and to inhalants from age 7 years and with asthma with BHR. Children with very late-onset AR phenotype associated with sensitizations to foods throughout preschool age and to inhalants at ages 7 and 9 years and with asthma with BHR. Transcriptome analysis showed that early-onset AR was associated with viral/bacterial infection-related defense response, whereas late-onset AR was associated with T cell-related immune response. CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset AR phenotype was associated with sensitization to foods and inhalants at an early age and asthma symptoms, but not with BHR, whereas very late- and late-onset AR phenotypes were positively associated with sensitization to inhalants and asthma with BHR. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that early- and late-onset AR phenotypes had distinct underlying mechanisms related to AR as well.

13.
Allergol Int ; 73(1): 3-12, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752021

RESUMEN

The ongoing COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) study is a prospective birth cohort investigating the origin and natural courses of childhood allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, food allergy, allergic rhinitis and asthma, with long-term prognosis. Initiated under the premise that allergic diseases result from a complex interplay of immune development alterations, environmental exposures, and host susceptibility, the COCOA study explores these dynamic interactions during prenatal and postnatal periods, framed within the hygiene and microbial hypotheses alongside the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. The scope of the COCOA study extends to genetic predispositions, indoor and outdoor environmental variables affecting mothers and their offsprings such as outdoor and indoor air pollution, psychological factors, diets, and the microbiomes of skin, gut, and airway. We have embarked on in-depth investigations of diverse risk factors and the pathophysiological underpinnings of allergic diseases. By employing multi-omics approaches-proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics-we gain deeper insights into the distinct pathophysiological processes across various endotypes of childhood allergic diseases, incorporating the exposome using extensive resources within the COCOA study. Integration with large-scale datasets, such as national health insurance records, enhances robustness and mitigates potential limitations inherent to birth cohort studies. As part of global networks focused on childhood allergic diseases, the COCOA study fosters collaborative research across multiple cohorts. The findings from the COCOA study are instrumental in informing precision medicine strategies for childhood allergic diseases, underpinning the establishment of disease trajectories.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Dermatitis Atópica , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos , Rinitis Alérgica , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/complicaciones
14.
Neuroendocrinology ; 114(2): 111-119, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37703849

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Lymph node metastasis of nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) potentially leads to poor survival. Given the contradictory results in the literature regarding factors associated with lymph node metastasis of nonfunctioning pNENs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the preoperative predictors of lymph node metastasis. METHODS: Original studies reporting factors associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with nonfunctioning pNENs were identified in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, and data from eligible studies were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates of odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. Tumor size (>2 cm or >2.5 cm; OR, 5.80 [95% CI, 4.07-8.25]) and pancreatic head location (OR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.05-2.94]) were significant preoperative predictors of lymph node metastasis. Old age (OR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.68-1.68]) and male sex (OR, 1.12 [95% CI, 0.74-1.70]) were not significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: A large tumor size and pancreatic head location can be useful for planning optimal treatment in patients with nonfunctioning pNENs.


Asunto(s)
Tumores Neuroendocrinos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Humanos , Masculino , Metástasis Linfática/patología , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patología , Tumores Neuroendocrinos/patología , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos
15.
Am Heart J ; 269: 167-178, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38123045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The risks of leaflet thrombosis and the associated cerebral thromboembolism are unknown according to different anticoagulation dosing after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The aim was to evaluate the incidence of leaflet thrombosis and cerebral thromboembolism between low-dose (30 mg) or standard-dose (60 mg) edoxaban and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after TAVR. METHODS: In this prespecified subgroup analysis of the ADAPT-TAVR trial, the primary endpoint was the incidence of leaflet thrombosis on 4-dimensional computed tomography at 6-months. Key secondary endpoints were new cerebral lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging and neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction. RESULTS: Of 229 patients enrolled in this study, 118 patients were DAPT group and 111 were edoxaban group (43 [39.1%] 60 mg vs 68 [61.3%] 30 mg). There was a significantly lower incidence of leaflet thrombosis in the standard-dose edoxaban group than in the DAPT group (2.4% vs 18.3%; odds ratio [OR] 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.55; P = .03). However, no significant difference was observed between low-dose edoxaban and DAPT (15.0% vs 18.3%; OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.32-1.81; P = .58). Irrespective of different antithrombotic regiments, the percentages of patients with new cerebral lesions on brain MRI and worsening neurological or neurocognitive function were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: In patients without an indication for anticoagulation after TAVR, the incidence of leaflet thrombosis was significantly lower with standard-dose edoxaban but not with low-dose edoxaban, as compared with DAPT. However, this differential effect of edoxaban on leaflet thrombosis was not associated with a reduction of new cerebral thromboembolism and neurological dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica , Piridinas , Tiazoles , Tromboembolia , Trombosis , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter , Humanos , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/efectos adversos , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/métodos , Inhibidores de Agregación Plaquetaria , Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tromboembolia/epidemiología , Tromboembolia/etiología , Tromboembolia/prevención & control , Trombosis/epidemiología , Trombosis/etiología , Trombosis/prevención & control , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/complicaciones
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 465: 133289, 2024 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157817

RESUMEN

The increasing prevalence of nanoplastics in our environment due to the widespread use of plastics poses potential health risks that are not yet fully understood. This study examines the physiological and neurotoxic effects of these minuscule nanoplastic particles on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as well as on human cells. Here, we find that 25 nm polystyrene nanoplastic particles can inhibit animal growth and movement at very low concentrations, with varying effects on their surface groups. Furthermore, these nanoplastic particles not only accumulate in the digestive tract but also penetrate further into extraintestinal tissues. Such nanoplastics significantly compromise the integrity of the intestinal barrier, leading to "leaky gut" conditions and cause mitochondrial fragmentation in muscles, which possibly explains the observed movement impairments. A striking discovery was that these nanoplastics exacerbate symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease (PD), including dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, locomotor dysfunction, and accumulation of α-Synuclein aggregates. Importantly, our study demonstrates that the detrimental effects of nanoplastics on the aggregation of α-Synuclein extend to both C. elegans and human cell models of PD. In conclusion, our research highlights the potential health hazards linked to the physicochemical properties of nanoplastics, underlining the urgency of understanding their interactions with biological systems. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATION: The escalating prevalence of nanoplastics in the environment due to widespread plastic usage raises potential health risks. Studies conducted on C. elegans indicate that even low concentrations of 25 nm polystyrene nanoplastics can impair growth and movement. These particles accumulate in the digestive system, compromising the intestinal barrier, causing "leaky gut", as well as inducing Parkinson's-like symptoms. Importantly, in both C. elegans and human cell models of Parkinson's disease, such nanoplastics penetrate tissues or cells and increase α-Synuclein aggregates. This underscores the urgent need to understand the interactions of nanoplastics with biological systems and highlights potential environmental and health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Parkinson , Animales , Humanos , Caenorhabditis elegans , alfa-Sinucleína , Microplásticos , Poliestirenos
17.
Yonsei Med J ; 65(1): 48-54, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154480

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic potential of whole-exome sequencing (WES) and elucidate the clinical and genetic characteristics of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients clinically suspected of having PCD were enrolled at a tertiary medical center. WES was performed in all patients, and seven patients received biopsy of cilia and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Overall, PCD was diagnosed in 10 (21.3%) patients: eight by WES (8/47, 17%), four by TEM. Among patients diagnosed as PCD based on TEM results, two patients showed consistent results with WES and TEM of PCD (2/4, 50%). In addition, five patients, who were not included in the final PCD diagnosis group, had variants of unknown significance in PCD-related genes (5/47, 10.6%). The most frequent pathogenic (P)/likely pathogenic (LP) variants were detected in DNAH11 (n=4, 21.1%), DRC1 (n=4, 21.1%), and DNAH5 (n=4, 21.1%). Among the detected 17 P/LP variants in PCD-related genes in this study, 8 (47.1%) were identified as novel variants. Regarding the genotype-phenotype correlation in this study, the authors experienced severe PCD cases caused by the LP/P variants in MCIDAS, DRC1, and CCDC39. CONCLUSION: Through this study, we were able to confirm the value of WES as one of the diagnostic tools for PCD, which increases with TEM, rather than single gene tests. These results will prove useful to hospitals with limited access to PCD diagnostic testing but with relatively efficient in-house or outsourced access to genetic testing at a pre-symptomatic or early disease stage.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Motilidad Ciliar , Pruebas Genéticas , Humanos , Mutación , Secuenciación del Exoma , Trastornos de la Motilidad Ciliar/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Motilidad Ciliar/genética
18.
Nutr Res Pract ; 17(6): 1170-1184, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38053818

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Skipping breakfast is prevalent in young adult women. This study examined the psychosocial factors and eating behaviors according to the breakfast frequency among female university students. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The subjects were female university students in Seoul, South Korea. A survey was done, and the data from 291 students were analyzed. The subjects were categorized into a high breakfast group (HBG) and low breakfast group (LBG). Analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression were mainly used in data analysis. RESULTS: The subjects had breakfast 3.6 days/week on average. The HBG (47.4%) and the LBG (52.6%) differed significantly in breakfast status, including place, people eating together, breakfast menu, and breakfast preparers (P < 0.001). The HBG agreed more strongly with the advantages of breakfast than the LBG (P < 0.001). The disadvantages/barriers of breakfast were stronger in the LBG (P < 0.001). The HBG felt more confidence in having breakfast (P < 0.001) and confidence in general eating behaviors (P < 0.05). The two groups also differed in the subjective norms from parents/professionals (P < 0.001) and siblings/friends (P < 0.01). The HBG showed desirable eating behaviors more frequently (P < 0.001) and undesirable eating behaviors less frequently (P < 0.001). Multiple regression showed that the following were significantly related to the breakfast frequency, explaining 57.3% of the variance: self-efficacy regarding having breakfast (P < 0.001), perceived barriers of breakfast (no appetite/habit/indigestion, P < 0.001), desirable and undesirable eating behaviors (P < 0.01), subjective norms from parents/professionals (P < 0.05), and perceived barriers due to lack of time/preparation difficulties (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial factors and eating behaviors were significantly related to the breakfast frequency. Nutrition education might include strategies to increase self-efficacy for breakfast, modify the beliefs, particularly the disadvantages/barriers of breakfast, adopt desirable eating behaviors, and elicit support from significant others.

19.
J Korean Soc Radiol ; 84(6): 1244-1256, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107684

RESUMEN

In prostate cancer, the bone is the most common site of metastasis, and it is essential to evaluate metastatic bone lesions to assess the tumor burden and treatment response. Castration-resistant prostate cancer refers to the state wherein the cancer continues to progress despite a significant reduction of the sex hormone level and is associated with frequent distant metastasis. The Prostate Cancer Working Group 3 (PCWG3) released guidelines that aimed to standardize the assessment of treatment effects in castration-resistant prostate cancer using bone scintigraphy. However, these guidelines can be challenging to comprehend and implement in practical settings. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of a specific image acquisition method and treatment response assessment for bone scintigraphy-based evaluation of bone lesions in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, in accordance with the PCWG3 guidelines.

20.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 16(24): 2967-2981, 2023 Dec 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Subclinical aortic valve complex (valvular and perivalvular) thrombus is not rare after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The risk factors and clinical implications of these findings remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the frequency, predictors, and clinical outcome of aortic valve complex thrombus after TAVR. METHODS: In the ADAPT-TAVR (Anticoagulation Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for Prevention of Leaflet Thrombosis and Cerebral Embolization After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement) trial comparing edoxaban vs dual antiplatelet therapy in TAVR patients without an indication for chronic anticoagulation, the frequency of valvular (subclinical leaflet thrombus) and perivalvular (supravalvular, subvalvular, and sinus of Valsalva) thrombus was evaluated by 4-dimensional computed tomography at 6 months. The association of these phenomena with new cerebral thromboembolism on brain magnetic resonance imaging, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction, and clinical outcomes was assessed. RESULTS: Among 211 patients with 6-month computed tomography evaluations, 91 patients (43.1%) had thrombus at any aortic valve complex, 30 (14.2%) patients had leaflet thrombus, and 78 (37.0%) patients had perivalvular thrombus. A small maximum diameter of the stent at the valve level and low body surface area were independent predictors of aortic valve complex and perivalvular thrombus, and decreased renal function was an independent predictor of leaflet thrombus. No significant differences were observed in new cerebral lesions, neurologic or neurocognitive functions, or clinical outcomes among patients with or without valvular or perivalvular thrombus. CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical aortic valve complex (valvular and perivalvular) thrombus was common in patients who had undergone successful TAVR. However, these imaging phenomena were not associated with new cerebral thromboembolism, neurologic or neurocognitive dysfunction, or adverse clinical outcomes. (Anticoagulation Versus Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for Prevention of Leaflet Thrombosis and Cerebral Embolization After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement [ADAPT-TAVR]; NCT03284827).


Asunto(s)
Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica , Prótesis Valvulares Cardíacas , Tromboembolia , Trombosis , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter , Humanos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Válvula Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagen , Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Válvula Aórtica/patología , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagen , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/cirugía , Tomografía Computarizada Cuatridimensional/efectos adversos , Prótesis Valvulares Cardíacas/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de Agregación Plaquetaria , Factores de Riesgo , Tromboembolia/etiología , Trombosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Trombosis/etiología , Trombosis/prevención & control , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/efectos adversos , Reemplazo de la Válvula Aórtica Transcatéter/métodos , Resultado del Tratamiento
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